Interview Discussion- Day 13

Interview Discussion- Day 13


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Important Guidelines

  • In real interview one will never get much time to express, so try to visualize and then write succinctly.  Do not consider it an essay
  • Raise counter questions when reviewing others. This will broaden the dimensions as the same will happen in interview.
  • Counter questions will help in better expression as well as expose to various aspects one may have missed while writing. It will lead to better understanding of the issue.

The issue for discussion today is the following:

What in your opinion are the three biggest challenges for 21st century India? What is the basis of your selection? Substantiate your opinion.

Are there no endeavours by the government to overcome them? Given a chance to tackle these challenges, what would be your strategy? Give a reasoned and logical response.

  • El Nino

    In my opinion the three major challenge of India in 21st century are – Inclusive development; Corruption and Research and development. In my view these are major challenges as they affect entire socio-economic environment of our country.

    In India top 1% income group holds over 50% of wealth. Education, health and standard of living in rural areas is abysmal. In cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata there are huge slum dwellings. India ranks low in Perception of Corruption Index, huge black money generation, failure of flagship schemes like MGNREGA, and general discontentment in masses. R&D is India is low in all sectors. We still don’t have a vaccine for dengue, investment in IPR is low. However we are doing well in space and defense research.

    Government has taken multiple steps in all the mentioned issues. However, due to complexities in administration level of social development and corruption there have been implementation bottlenecks.

    Strategy to solve these problems would be to come up with the holistic approach. For instance, renewable energy (specially solar energy) must be encouraged to usher rural development, impetus to R&D, innovation and entrepreneurship. Similarly, use of technology like JAM trinity, digital payment and online services for education and health will help in promoting more research, curb corruption and also bring in inclusive development. We must give more thrust to concept like gender budgeting, social and environment impact assessment, land reforms, Forests Rights Act; filling vacancies in courts, higher institutions, paramilitary, lokpal and lokayukta; increasing budgetary allocation for R&D, quality of higher education….
    (Totally flunked this one 🙁 )

    • Sudhanshu Shekhar

      I Don’t think if you should say “failure” of MNREGS. In many places it has come up as a life support and empowered people. If it had failed, why would the government continue with it?
      filling vacancy in parmilitary serves which issue, inclusive development, corruption or R & D?

  • madan kumar k j

    on of the problem india is facing today is skill……huge population but less skill….automation may make them further unskilled,,,,,
    2nd food security ,.,,,,india has huge land for cultivation ,,,,,but monsoon dependent ,,,,,,hence agri r and d
    3rd corruption
    4th judicial reforms ….speedy reforms
    5th npa
    6th terrorism
    7th unrest in NE

    • Sudhanshu Shekhar

      Madan ji, I don’t think if you should be so proactive. Stick to three. This may backfire in the interview.

      • madan kumar k j

        K……Ty bhai


    dear baba; please tell me when the mains results will come if u know …..

    • V Kumar

      Bhai no one knows this and you also know this …whoever telling dates they are lying .. just wait and wait..

  • Bababhakt

    A state system has three main features rights of citizen, duties of citizens and system to monitor them. Thus there are three problems, one associated to each which are three most alarming problem of India today.
    Straight to mention the first problem is prevalence of PREJUDICES. Second is WEAKENING OF FABRIC OF INTEGRITY TO NATION. Third but not last ofcourse is SLOW AND UNJUST JUSTICE DELIVERY MECHANISM.

    The problems mentioned above are most basic. So the solution associated with them will also be at the basic levels.


    A nation is the sense of collective consciousness among a group of people. All feel like a member of family. But when one of them starts depriving other of his or her basic rights the cracks starts to show up. The problem aggravates with resource crunch. The sense of belongingness to one family weakens and fight for usurping power (social economic and political) starts.

    We are country of diverse caste sex religion region language. These can be challenge or opportunity as every problem has three two facets. Thus its the attitude that matter. And in that attitude formation role of PREJUDICES is most important. PREJUDICES are what makes us intolerant, it’s what makes us closed to new ideas, it’s what makes us to only in past, it’s the cause of xenophobia, it’s the cause of untouchability, it’s the cause of increasing crime against women, it’s the cause of low social capital with government and the corporate.

    This PREJUDICES creeps inefficiency. It leads to further resource crunch. It nullifies the hard initiatives.

    Today reservation is an issue because it’s based on prejudice that all persons of same caste had been deprived. Thus it’s not targeting the needy leading to significant inclusion errors.

    The solution to PREJUDICES is inculcating in education system the value of tolerance, discussions, deliberation, debates and dialogues. Practicing transparency, accountability, answerability in public system will reduce PREJUDICES and help in build social capital.


    The second problem has resulted in corruption, weak self centred and short visioned leadership, division in society, inefficiency and resource crunch.
    For example it is well said that reservation is right goal with wrong strategy. The article 15 of constitution prescribes for state to take affirmative actions. But identification of class had been done in EASY WAY. The use of caste only had been a manifestation of adopting a short cut to the goal to reducing inequality. This is clear manifestation of short vision and finally WEAKENING FABRIC of INTEGRITY.

    Though at the advent of independence it might be justified due to many other major problems but no intiative and will to rectify these is not. Today country is divided, youth disillusioned, sense of resentment have taken violent recourse.

    Thus INTEGRITY at all levels is must. The very sense of ownerness can strengthen the FABRIC of NATION. The ethical behaviours at all level will be the outcome.

    It is well said JUSTICE DELAYED IS JUSTICE DENIED. The above two problems even have limited solution. Those solutions need steel support of judicial legal system. The cost, time, complexity and discretions have become identity of our judicial system. Survey of NGOs like DAKSH clearly highlight the same.

    The solutions of above two are preventive but those cannot stand without foundation of punitive system. The law however stringent it might be cannot have effect in show judicial system.

    At last not the least the history is living example of country like Japan flourishing without resources, country like China standing tall with high population, country like America flourishing with democracy. All these features like lack of resource, high population etc can be overcome with one tool of collective determination. And for that the above three problems have to be nipped at the earliest.

  • V Kumar

    Sir/ Madam;

    Though challenges changes with time and space but still in 21 Century 3 most important challenges are:

    1) Climate change: Climate change has affected people every nook and corner of world. On one hand Iceland nation has survival issue, other hand drought and flood has become very frequent and common in other other areas. Cyclone and hurricane frequency and severity has increased. Poor and vulnerable area and poor section of society is most affected from this. Challenges are to curb the climate change and minimize its effect.

    2) Terrorism and Cyber crime: Increasing internet penetration and dependence of human over internet made it crucial infrastructure for target. State crucial services like Banking, capital market, government website, space application, data collection, etc all are operated through cyber space. Safety and security would be great concern as terrorist and other non state actor would target this crucial infrastructure.

    3) Poverty and Hunger: Poverty and hunger is cause of big concern for poor and under developing countries. Every person should have right to food and dignified life. However, in vicious cycle of hunger and poverty these thing could not be insured. This could also lead to crime, discontent, threat to peace, etc.

    There are many more challenges but i have taken criteria of large affect on population due to challenges.

    There are many attempts going on to tackle these challenges. But some of them are in global nature and required consensus and cooperation at global level. However, we can take adoptive measure in case of climate change. we need to increase our capacity building with identification of area specific hazards.

    In case of cyber security and terrorism, we need to build intelligence response and counteract measures. These efforts are going but pace need to increase. Increasing digital transaction the chances of crime will increase on websites.

    Finally, Hunger and poverty required administrative and efficient governance to deal. Corruption free government and involving all stakeholder in decision making is key to address grievances. Use of technologies and auditing will reduce leakages and schemes and program will reach to people there by people poverty and hunger problem will reduce.

  • Sudhanshu Shekhar

    Sir in my opinion the three biggest challenges that we have are
    1. Poverty
    2. Pollution
    3. Security
    Poverty is a big issue as is the Genesis of various other problems such as health issues, delinquency, vote bank politics and many other.
    Pollution is a big problem especially in cities such as delhi where breathing is equated at times with smoking 40 cigarettes a day.
    A hostile neighbour and frequent terror attacks make security a big challenge.
    The importance of these issues has been recognized by the government as well. National food security act, garib kalyan yojna , all are directed towards this.
    Governments renewable energy plan., INDC and Bharat VI standards are directed towards this.
    In the security dimension, increased defence spending setting up cyber security mechanism are a step in this direction.
    More can be done in this area. Quality education or outcome based education system will help the cause of the poor.
    Better usage of rooftop solar plant, incentivising tree plantation can help the environment.
    Better technology to outrun the miscreants, integration of intelligence network with ‘actionable inputs’ will improve the security mechanism.

  • sanjeev kumar

    As per my calculations, the three top most challenge which India faces in 21st century are;
    1. human behavioral nudging challenge — eg.reckless driving, sanitation, pollution, women’s safety, etc

    2. poverty alleviation
    3. containment of post- truth politics– manipulation of facts into relativism. Facts are being twisted to arouse emotional attachment and gather like minded sympathy.

    • Sudhanshu Shekhar

      Are you sure the third one is at par with the first two issues?

  • Preamble

    Madam/ sir , In my view out of several challenges before India are 1)lack of skilfull human resources accompanied by increasing population 2) problem of urban and service management to adequately respond 3) instability in socio-economic development
    The basis for this are that only 5 percent people have any type of skill while we need more job with increasing demographic dividend. Rapid urbanization with unplanned manner has led to development of slums .
    Inequality is increased with 1 percent people have 50 percent wealth..
    Government has taken step like skill India mission, AMRUT , but need to take on inequality.
    If I given chance I would like to work on rural prosperity because there lies base of all this areas.

  • vishi

    SIR, I think SECURITY, INCLUSIVE DEVELPMENT, CORRUPTION are the main challenges for INDIA in the 21st century as we have seen increase in terrorist acts since a decade.Regarding DEVELOPMENT we are most inequal in terms of distribution of resources as evident from OXFAM report.Also INDIA ranking among most corrupted countries is tainting its image n it is acting as a impediment for the growth process as it stalls invetsments n delays developments process.

    • PS





      • Sudhanshu Shekhar

        Good one PS. I think your choice of issues is very relevant to the question.

  • Axi Tak

    Three biggest problems in my opinion are:
    1. Women Safety
    2. Education System
    3. Employment

    Women safety is the biggest rising concern in our country and problems are rising at an uncontrollable point.
    Education system is deteriorating as a 5th standard child is not able to understand 2nd standard textbook. Mathematics skills are worse than ever before.
    Unemployment in today’s youth is leading to wastage of potential human resources of our country.

    Government is making stringent rules and laws for women safety but its not about how strict laws are. It is if they are being implemented or not?
    New institutions and Universities are being opened but what about the basic level education and the standard of teaching and learned faculty.
    In this new budget there is no mention of employment and opportunities for those who lost their jobs due to demonetization.

    How I would deal with them?
    1. All the laws for women safety should be implemented and actual measures should be taken rather than just making more and more laws. Its high time we should start implementing them.
    2. There should be an exam which every teacher has to pass before joining as a faculty related to their field of subject. Rather than having exam approach the learning and regular feedback approach should be used in education system.
    3. I wouldn’t just simply say more opportunities but how? By investing in new projects where actually the qualified human resources can be used. Making training programs which after an internship not just make false promises but actually employ the trained individual. The qualified youth should be used properly by investing in the projects where they actually feel worth and their skills could be used judiciously.

  • sbt57

    Sir, can I get a minute to answer this question? (Hoping that I would get it)

    Sir, I think three biggest challenge for India would be :

    1. Tackling climate change- We are heavily dependent on monsoon for agriculture.Moreover, around 85% of our area is disaster prone,if I am correct.Hence, higher frequency of extreme events will create precarious situation,not only climatic but social,economic and even political. Since climate change is a ‘glocal’ issue,it will require collaboration at every level.

    2.Reaping demographic divident and avoiding demographic disaster- Given poor quality education and low employment opportunities, this will be a major challenge.Since, social sector development take time while there is urgent need,this makes this challenge even more problematic.

    3.Becoming a knowledge economy superpower-Though we are good in IT sector, we are not a technological leader.Since U.S. is generations ahead of us in technology (with China fast catching up), we have to work very hard. This is because each technology uses a previous technology to achieve a higher level. So we always lagging behind advanced economies.

    There are many Government initiatives focusing on each area. But there is scope to do better.

    Sir, I will focus on empowering people and institutions.I always believed that we Indians are smart people.If our creativity and energy is channelised in the right direction, we can do wonders. So , there has to be greater focus on R&D, tapping grassroot innovation and creating scalable models of innovative products. This will not only solve pressing problems but also provide employment.

  • VKS

    the biggest three challenge would be–
    1) providing job to its demography- india’s population is going to increase in favour of young people thus demand of job will increase… moreover new challenge like fourth revolution, other emerging countries like vietnam etc, and as education will increase therfore demand for gainful job will increase…
    2) second challenge would be maintaing internal security- from various radicalist group especially arc of instability in west asia is increasing.
    3) The third challenge can emerge on how india secures its interest vis-a-vis china without getting pull under USA design for pivot to asia.

    sir, government have taken steps like skill india, make in india, mudra bank etc for job creation.. on internal security challenge government is taking steps like border fencing on indo-pak border, integrated system of various security agencies for efficient security net… on indo-china potential situation government is testing all its option with USA, china, japan etc..

    to create job focussed should be on self employment and culture of entrepreneurship needs to strengthened, new areas for job creation lies in small town which will create bridge between urban and rural areas, decentralised supporting infrastructure to create enable environment for job creation.

    for internal security, social equity and economic equity should be targeted. Inside look for strong intelligence net, modernising police service and better border management and cyberspace. outside look should be vigilant on islamic state phenomenon and its spreading tentacles too.

    in indo-china struggle a rational and practical approach of equal and better relation with china and us should be adopted…

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