1. The recent controversy surrounding temple entry of women in many states of India paints a regressive picture of the Indian society. In the clash of tradition and fundamental rights, later must prevail. However, the change has to be brought bottom up and not imposed by the State. Do you agree? Critically examine.
The struggles by groups of Hindu and Muslim women to lift bans on entry into some places of worship have been in the public limelight over the past year. (Give examples)
The above controversies surely paint a regressive picture of the Indian society, as –
The bans involve notions and norms which directly clash with ideas of modernity and are also incompatible with rights enshrined in the Constitution. (Cite appropriate Articles)
Raises question whether spirituality is the exclusive domain of men and are women incapable of attaining the spiritual self.
When Vedas, Upanishads and scriptures hardly discriminated between men and women – “Can we deprive a mother now”
Religion is wholistic – Sanathana Dharma – and includes one and all without discrimination of sex, caste and gender – forbiding entry to girls and women because of the “impurity” that is attached to menstruation – raises the question whether they are not part of the human race.
The crux is what takes precedence and whether the State/courts have jurisdiction over customs ostensibly sanctioned by religion but which took shape in the distant past when the predominant view was that women did not enjoy equal rights. In this clash of tradition and fundamental rights, definitely later must prevail.
Customs of pre-constitutional days should be in consonance with the constitution and hence implementation of fundamental rights should be prioritised over traditional rights.
Any contract, including implicit in the domain of religion is moral when it adheres to the principle of mutual benefit, consent and fairness. Traditions are such contracts. When these contracts are not fair and violate fundamental rights, there should be no moral obligation to honour them since in no circumstances can fundamental rights be violated.
Religion, tradition and customs are all social construct. Definitely, they should be respected but not if these are irrational and discriminatory.
Changes need to be bottom up and not imposed by State because:
Society will have to ultimately adhere to the law, unacceptability among a section may result to alienation of that group.
May lead to social unrest & evolve into disrupt in communal harmony.
Religion based politics may gain ground.
Fringe elements & sleeper cells may get activated which can become troublesome in longer run.
Every individual needs society, no one is an institution in itself, if society is not ready for changes then few particular individuals will be despised by others.
In the past we have seen many such traditions were changed /abolished by mass awareness, mass-movements and strong legislations (Sati, Widow Remarriage, temple entry for lower castes & so forth). It is necessary to change the patriarchal mindset of society to remove the conscious and unconscious prejudices towards women which is possible only when civil society, NGOs, local bodies, educational institutes and especially the priest and worshipping devotees themselves must take the baton of change. State can show the way, permanent solution will come from society within.
Religious customs, like society, must be dynamic and evolve to be inclusive and equal for all. There cannot be a situation where women are worshipped as goddesses on one hand and denied right to pray inside a temple on the other hand.
Best answer: OLIVER QUEEN
India is an evolving society formed from the confluence of myriad tradition and cultures. recent controversies of barring of women into the temples have caused a furore, and justly so. the tradition to prohibit the entry of women is being practised at many holy sites with Sabarimala temple of Kerala and Shani temple in Maharashtra coming into limelight.
Blatant violation of the FRs under article 14, 15(equality, gender-based discrimination) and 17(prohibiting an individual from temples, pond etc on grounds of untouchability) and 21( right to dignified life and personal liberty) is being infringed upon by the regressive mindset of the temple authorities dwelling on obnoxious beliefs of the people under the garb of tradition and culture. when traditions or culture breach humanism, rationale and scientific temper, it is the responsibility of the society itself to peel off such hypocritical idealogues. as in the past viz. abolition of sati, prohibition of child marriage, criminalization of female infanticides and promotion widow remarriage were accepted by the society when reason took over orthodoxy of scriptures and priests.
Prima facie, the State should play a pro-active role in rectifying such violations of FRs. the argument of freedom to profess, propagate and practice religion (article 25, 26) cannot act as an umbrella to proliferate such skewed outlook as banning such activities will not prevent any of the above said rights in art.25, 26. the state-enacted legislations have deterred such forces in the past to form an equitable platform for women participation.
A more poignant approach to denude the society of this chronic discrimination has to be initiated from the grass root level. not only should woman rights activists or NGOs but also regional population should come forward and demand this change. sensitisation should start from the school to the office. educating students about the normal female body physiology, awareness campaigns and broader discussions on hushed topics.
Gandhi had said that the Shastras can be ignored if they hide the truth as the truth itself cannot be confined to the covers of a book.
2. Dissent and protests are signs of a mature and vibrant democracy. However, in no circumstance, the passions evoked by a protesting mob should be allowed to adopt unconstitutional and violent means that threatens peace and order in the society. Analyse the statement in light of the violence being witnessed amidst demand for reservation in a leading Indian state.
Intro: Democracy is rule of the people, by the people and for the people, as such different groups of people have different ends and use different means to achieve those ends. The constitution of India provides certain freedoms to the citizens to raise their concerns and grievances against the state, many a social and economic reforms have been made because of such protests and dissent Example: lokpal act, chipko-movement, dalit movements etc
Body: The recent agaitations which have turn violent like the Jats in haryana, kapus in telangana and gujjars of Rajasthan ,have brought to the fore the issue of balancing rights to dissent with maintaining peace and stability, it causes many problems such as,
Constitutional: The government finds it difficult about where to draw the line between two constitutional rights i.e., the rights of protesters under art 19 and rights of general public under art 21, when such protest turn violent it violates art 19-right to free movement of other citizens ,and right to life and personal liberty of those who die and are raped during such protests, and also violates their constitutional right to property
Political: Political parties try to gain brownie points in such situations by insinuating people of all castes and classes towards violence to consolidate their positions and secure vote banks
Economical: Loss to the exchequer because of damaging of public property and loss of private property, this affects most the lower income group who are daily wage earners
It creates social tensions and conflict situations between various groups
If accepted these demands will encourage other castes and groups to take to violent modes of actions bypassing the negotiations stage,
Fair demands of marginalized groups will be seen as political gimmick which will hamper their socioeconomic development
What steps need to be taken?
Government needs to draw the line between fair and unfair demands ,for this the socio-economic data must be properly collected and analyzed
Implementing the SC judgment in letter and spirit, where organizers of such events are made to pay fine for the damages, we need a law in this regard which will act as a deterrent
Government should enter into negotiations in the early stages ,and needs to accept the demands if legitimate and should take strong offensive stance if they are illegitimate and unfair
Police forces of states should have diversity so that no one caste dominates the force
Political parties must introspect themselves and take stands based on merits on case and not on the number of voters
Paramilitary and army must be engaged if needed and there should be any political interference in their functioning
Media should examine these cases objectively and dispassionately, and not based on vested interest or for the sake of popularity
State your opinion and
Substantiate your opinion
Best answer : Ranker2016
Democracy is an idealistic principle of equality , liberty and justice that evolves with time through debates and discussions. India being a Representative democracy envisages in it the principle of social democracy. Recent incidents of different communities protesting(gujarat and haryana) for there inclusion in certain category of reserved classes created unrest and social disorder in the society. Democracy unfolds itself through Dissents and protests but that should be in the sphere of constitutional ideals of peaceful existence.
Violent protests and rebellions affect democratic fabric and disregard the law of land:
@ while excercising the right to equality in context of demand for reservation one should not forget the fundamental duty to safeguard public property and abjure violence( destruction of Munak canal by protestors)
@ FR cannot be talked in isolation , they are entangled with FD and Natural duties so need to identify the fine balance .
@ Rights and demands should be in consonance with the constitutional ideals and its basic structure.(indian state do not allow isolationism)
@Protestors should come up with collective interest keeping aside there vested or personal interest.
@ Integrity and sovereignty of nation should not get affected.
Government should come up with certain guidelines for protests that incite violence and create disharmony:
@ Penalties should be imposed for destruction of public property.(as it is also a FD)
@ Protest should not result into abrupt failure of basic public services(like water supply and food supply).
@ Identification of Fringe elements with vested interest.(strong surveillance system)
Democracy is not merely a form of government instead a way of life and organization of society that cannot run without the collective efforts of all the stakeholders involved. So citizens, while keeping their claims should be aware about the rights that others are also carrying and obligations that are inseparable part of rights.
3. What started as a protracted struggle for the rights and interests of the marginalized landless people, the Naxal movement seems to have degenerated into an industry of extortion, kidnapping and violence. Do you agree? Substantiate. Also discuss the strategy to combat Naxalism in more than 165 districts of India infested by extreme left wing extremism
1 Brief history of Naxalism
2 Ideology of Naxalism
1 Give your stand
2 Compare the changes and dynamics of Naxalite strategy over the years eg suicide bombings, innocent killings, extortion, etc
3 Reasons for such change eg
a) Imbalanced growth, socioeconomic disparities, exploitation by pvt companies, state and security agencies etc
b) Nexus with political parties and corporates
c) International players showing interests
4 Give some recent examples
Strategies and Suggestions
Implementation of PESA and FRA in letter and spirit.
Bring more districts under schedule 5
Intelligence network in resonance with security and local police.
Increase developmental work to improve their socioeconomic conditions
Recommendations of Xaxa committee to be accepted and implemented
Bring ideological change with education
Try to bring all Naxalite groups to talks
Talk about success of some scheme like Roshni.
Naxals are citizens of India, and their concerns need to be addressed.
Best Answer: RKM
Naxalism which traces its origin to West Bengal in the early 1960s, gradually spread its wings towards the less developed areas of southern and eastern parts of the country. It started as a voice to landless Indian peasants and lower class tribals , who are cruelly exploited and dispossessed in their last homelands, but now it has turned into a industry of extortion, kidnapping and violence as seen by their modus operandii.
1.Ties with terrorists, separatists, mafia, human/animal traffickers, etc., so as to mobilise money and modern weapons. They take Funds from China and Pakistan in form of cash, fake currencies, cheap arms/ammunition so as to destablise India.
2.Planting improvised explosive devices into the bodies of soldiers or others who defy them.
3.Extortion of money from rich people like contractors is common.
4.Looting the weapons from police and para military forces.
5.Brainwashing poor villagers and then they recruit them .
Strategy needed- The main approach should be development simultaneously with counterinsurgency measures.
1.The strategy should be “Locate, isolate and eradicate” – Locate the insurgents, isolate them from the local population and their channel of communication and then finish them.
2.Effective training facilitates to the security forces(Guerilla training) and increase in their strength.
3.Cooperation of Regional political heads with the central govt action plan and work for the welfare of the people esp in the downtrodden areas by making them aware of their rights. coordination among the forces on the local level is also necessary.
4.Building infrastructure in naxal-affected areas thereby generating employment.
5.Support from neighbouring states to eliminate left wing extremists through joint operations.
6.Development should come simultaneously with counterinsurgency measures.
Naxalism which is one of the biggest internal security threat as it has killed more security personnel and civilians than by terrorists needs to move away from carrot and stick policy to a coherent approach of development and counter insurgency.