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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [12th May] – UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]

  • May 16, 2016
  • 3
IASbaba's Hot Questions, IASbaba's Think Learn Perform 2016, IASbaba's TLP - 2016, Think Learn Perform (TLP)- 2016, UPSC Mains Answer Writing - 2016, UPSC Mains Questions 2016
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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [12th May] – UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]

 


1. Ethics question: No success is permanent, no failure is fatal. Comment.

  • Intro:

Write a short introduction.

  • Body:

The above statement explains about the attitude one should have towards ‘the process’ and the results.

There are numerous examples in history as well as philosophy which emphasize on the importance of ‘putting in efforts’

  • Success is not permanent has two dimensions:
  1. a) That a person /organization have to look for bigger challenges and opportunities, earlier success must motivate him to put in extra effort to achieve something even higher.

E.g.: After the success of Chandrayan mission ISRO planned mission to Mars, the boundaries have to be pushed to know what we can achieve.

  1. b) Success should not become heady and make a person arrogant, he must maintain humility, empathy for those who could not achieve it, intellectual arrogance will lead to intellectual moral bankruptcy, and the person will lose respect, and adoration of others

E.g.: in Cricket, current World cup winners must not humiliate and belittle those who have lost, as after four years, they will need to put even more efforts to retain the title.

  • No failure is fatal

No failure is fatal means that a person must not become sad and dejected if his wishes, desires and hard work did not materialize. Instead he should take it as a challenge, introspect and overcome the challenges. Failure could be because of many reasons such as overestimation of self, underestimation of the goals, not putting the efforts needed, or for any other reason.

The person has to understand that falling is not failure, but not standing up after falling is the real failure. The person has to have courage, conviction, patience, temperance in order to overcome the hurdles.

It is said that success comes from wisdom and wisdom from lot of bad decisions, so the failure must be seen as a stepping stone for success.

E.g.: had Amitabh Bacchan got sad for his rejection from AIR, and quit, he wouldn’t have been the superstar he is today, similarly had Microsoft give in to the initial failures it would not have been the  technological giant of today. Had Indian scientists lost their moral after initial GSLV failures, India would have never reached Mars.

One must stay humble in success and stay strong in failure, as both will change with time

  • Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion

Best answer: EL NINO

Success and failure are just local peak and troughs in the wave of our life. Success brings motivation using which we have to continue doing the hard work, with dedication and humility to continue to enjoy the position we have gained. Failure provides us opportunity to introspect and learn what not to do. We get experience when we fail that helps us make better decisions later. Failure builds in us values like patience, persistence, humility tolerance and forbearance. Failure, if taken positively, does a favor in the sense that it increases our effort and efficiency.

We failed to achieve the immediate target of Swadeshi movement but we learned to carry out mass movement when ultimately helped us gain independence.

ISRO failed in the launch of Chandrayan-I but lessons learnt helped in streak of success since then in the launch of MOM, making of GSLV etc.

U.S won the WWII. But the success was not final and since then it had to indulge in many more wars including the present one in Middle East.

The greatest success in the history of our nation was the Independence. But we are still not successful against poverty, caste discrimination, inequality etc.

Hence success is not permanent and failure is not fatal. Right attitude with inculcation of good values like intellectual humility, planning, courage, perseverance, dedication etc will helps us maintain the successful position and overcome our failures.


2. What steps should be taken to improve the performance of Indian athletes in the Olympics? Does sports administration in India require reforms? Examine.

Introduction:

If we discard the 11 hockey medals including 8 gold medals, India have an Olympic tally of 13(a lone Gold!) nine of which came in last two editions only. It clearly shows our nominal position on global sports map despite being the second most populous and an emerging economy.

Performance improvement:

  1. Provide world class infrastructure for training and coaching. The investment can be done by government or through PPP mode.
  2. District and state level achievements of players should be highlighted by media to attract sponsorship to promote and train these talents. A huge talent pool exits in tribal and backward regions of the country. But the lack of resources mars their performance and relegation to higher levels.
  3. Improve sports infrastructure in schools and colleges. Facilities for badminton, squash, running track, kabaddi, wrestling, shooting etc.
  4. Financial support to sport persons through various schemes, esp. to individual sports like wrestling, badminton, shooting etc.
  5. Less political interference in the administration of sport bodies.
  6. Promoting awareness about all sports through campaigns, media, sport events.
  7. Latest technology with respect to sport equipments should be made available.
  8. Provision of good job to sport persons post retirement.
  9. Providing exposure to international standards to improve the performance.
  10. Suitable leadership in sports bodies to prevent prejudices against SC/ST/Women/handicap.
  11. Good nutritious diet is required for maintenance of physic and stable health conditions during play time. Promoting activities such as yoga and meditation will bring in peace of mind.

Reforms reasons:

  1. There is lack of transparency and accountability in selection of various athletes.
  2. Funds are not utilized properly as evident from poor infrastructure and training centers.
  3. Sports talent in rural areas remains unrecognized.
  4. Politicization of sports federations in the country affecting career of sportsperson.

Reforms needed:

  1. A categorical separation of management and sports activities.
  2. Increased investment through corporate sponsorship for funds.
  3. Barring politician from heading national or state sports bodies.
  4. Integration of sports academies with schools and colleges.
  5. Greater decentralization of Indian Olympic association (IOA).
  6. Autonomy of Institutions – Institute of Sports (NIS), Patiala, premier training institution, presently is headed by an IAS officer. It should rather be headed by an eminent person from sports background for better output from the. Is possible only if we make it an autonomous body.
  7. National Institute of Sports Sciences – to have better sports sciences in our country. It should have branches like sports biomechanics, sports biochemistry, sports psychology, sports physiology, sports medicine, sports nutrition and general sports training. With sports sciences institute and a good coaching institute, our reliance on foreign coaches will come to an end.
  8. Strong Anti-doping Steps- to reduce the instances of our athletes failing international doping tests by strengthening NADA and increasing the number of disciplinary panels to speed up investigations.
  9. Transparency and accountability – of Sports Authority of India, IOA etc.
  10. Sports federations should be treated as public bodies and within the jurisdiction of the RTI.
  11. Ombudsman or Lokayukta for sports.
  12. Stringent punishments against those who abuse or sexually harass sports women.
  13. Encouraging sportswomen as board members and women by understanding their social, psychological, financial and family issues.

Conclusion:

A strong sports policy coupled with conversion of amateur sports system into a revenue making model is a must for producing sports champions. India may well emulate the likes of Germany which spends per capita four dollars on sports.

Best answer: MDA

Olympics is worldwide associated with national pride. India, though a consistent participant, has been behind US, China. It is imperative that

STEPS BE TAKEN TO IMPROVE ATHLETE PERFORMANCE:
#Traditionally, India has not been a sports nation where many deserving candidates are discouraged right at the starting level. Performance can only be improved of those who are good at sports. Hence, first focus should be on identifying talent by increasing awareness of sports opportunities and then complemented with sponsorships, scholarships, coaching and hostel facilities, good training facilities at schools, employment, etc. Every Olympics, several new records are created. Assistance by way of good trainers, nutrionists, etc should be provided to improve athlete’s stamina, knowledge (latest techniques).Also, they need adequate rest from other events to avoid injury and fatigue.
Sports administration in India is marred with corruption, favoritism, apathy and bad management among sports’ governing bodies. Thus, REFORMS ARE NEEDED:
# ACCOUNTABILITY REFORMS: There are several sports administration stakeholders – MYAS,IOA , SAI, etc chaired by politicos/bureaucrats whose selection and fund management processes are questioned. Suspension on IOA has recently been lifted while commonwealth games, 2010 had been under corruption charges.
So, rights and duties, selection and retention norms, annual budget should be outlined clearly with public disclosure. Sportsperson should chair committees and be the face of various events to gain sports fraternity trust.
# ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS: Certain sports like cricket and football flourish at the cost of lesser known sports. Recent attempts at highlighting kabaddi and kho kho needs to be emulated through funding, public and media engagement.
Doping, drug Abuse has been in news due to deliberation or negligence. Athletes should be apprised of latest banned drugs. Discrimination based on Sex, Region, etc should be reformed with regional encouragement, better facilities for women athletes. Unauthorized Betting needs to be closely monitored and punished.
#DEVELOPMENTAL REFORMS:
Cultural impediments should be reformed by encouraging backward states, minorities . Infrastructure reform like sports universities, training schools with modern equipments, etc needed.
The Sports Authority of India is encouraging sports through various schemes like NSTC, STC, NCS, etc Way ahead lies in behavioral change, regular assessments, public engagement in little known sports.


3.Explain the potential and problems being faced by pharmaceuticals industry in India. What is the socio-economic significance of this industry? How IPR issues have posed a serious threat to this sector?

India’s population is growing rapidly, as is its economy – creating a large middle-class able to afford medicines. India’s epidemiological profile is also changing and the population is ageing, so demand is likely to increase for drugs for cardio-vascular problems, disorders of the central nervous system and other chronic diseases. The total pharmaceuticals market is expected to rise to a value of approximately US$50 billion by 2020.

Potential of Indian pharmaceuticals industry:

  • It will be one of the top 10 sales markets by 2020
  • It is likely to become a competitor of global pharma in some key areas, and a potential partner in others
  • Indian companies are among the world leaders in the production of generics and vaccines
  • It is capable of manufacturing a substantial share of the product to support the resulting generics opportunities

Problems: (should include any 3 points)

  • Lack of proper regulatory framework in India leads to poor quality of medicines in domestic markets
  • Severe competition from other countries and enormous outside pressure for IPR related issues(mainly by MNC lobby) disincentivising our industry.
  • Monopolistic tendencies and aggressive fight for patents by MNCs leave little scope for domestic manufacturers
  • Lack of financial aid and redtape in acquiring licenses
  • The restrictive drug pricing regime stifling innovation and investment in the sector
  • The unholy nexus between doctors and big pharmas close off small manufacturers from gaining entry into the market

Socio-economic significance:

  • Major forex earner and employment generator, important contributor to India’s GDP
  • Indian pharma has the potential to supply generic drugs at affordable costs which reduces health care costs (out-of-pocket expenditure) for India andthe world (esp. poor nations)
  • It also helps in building strong relations with other countries and in fulfilling the targets set by the WTO and SDGs of UN.

 

IPR issues: (should include any 3 points)

Intellectual property rights (IPR) in the pharma sphere have been a contentious issue globally, typically between the branded pharma companies and generic pharma companies.

  • Enactment of the Patent (Amendment) Act, 2005, has made patent laws in India compliant with the TRIPS. With the 2005 amendment being enacted, product patents and process patents have been permitted for a period of 20 years and special provisions have been introduced to prevent ever-greening of patents. Thus, manufactures can’t produce drugs by changing process.
  • TRIPS requires that an invention which is new, involves an inventive step, and is capable of industrial application, be entitled to patent protection. This poses threat of access to affordable medicines, and innovation for medicines desperately needed by developing countries.
  • With stricter IPR rules medicine would become costly that most of the Indian companies will not be able to provide. Market for us may also get restricted due to agreements like TPP and TTIP. In short we will lose the comparative advantage we presently enjoy.
  • Because of IPR challenges, India is hesitant to join many FTA initiatives including RCEP and thus hampering India’s image as obstructionist country to IPR protectionism, and lessening incoming investments in the sector.

 

Best answer: SVSR

India’s pharmaceutical industry has both famous and infamous trademarks in the international market. Alike other industries, it is also suffering with structural inefficiencies which needs to be rectified for giving impetus to our pharma sector.

Potential & socioeconomic significance: 

> With huge global market base, it is a major forex earner and employment generator.

> Indian generic drugs has the potential to reduce health care costs for India and the world, thus leaves room ofr the government to widen its spending on different areas of health care.

> Increases India’s influence the global sphere by supplying affordable drugs to poor nations like Somalia, and fulfills the targets set by the WTO and SDGs of UN.

> Gives boost to educational courses like Biotechnology, Pharmacy and other medical sciences with good industrial base which in turn promotes R&D.

Problems:
> Poor R&D promotion debars Indian pharma industry for sustaining growth rates.

> Enormous outside pressure for IPR related issues (mainly by MNC lobby) disincentivising our industry.

> Severe competition from other countries like China, and trade barriers kept by the countries like USA, EU etc., narrowed our markets.

> Inadequate capital investments, corruption and unethical practices (Ranbaxy issue), not adhering to pollution and environmental regulations etc., dithered it.

IPR related issues posed a serious threat to our industry, some of them are:

> Granting Compulsory Licences (LCs), although allowed by TRIPS agreement of WTO, western countries are blaming India for disrespecting patents transgressing India’s judicial use.

> Emergence of new agreements like TPP, TTIP, RCEP seriously affect our industry without rational dealing on public health.

> Emergence of Voluntary Licence (VL) in agreements place restrictions on reaching the global markets.

India needs to overhaul our governance structure to suit the needs of global markets and also enhance efficiency by increasing domestic market with schemes like Jan Aushadi Yojana.

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