SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [20th Oct] – UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]

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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [20th Oct] – UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]


1. Despite having the largest livestock population in the world, the livestock economy in India has performed well below its potential. Do you agree? Are we missing out something substantial by not achieving our true potential? Elucidate



Your introduction should give some facts about the livestock population in India.

Compare it with other countries and their respective share than decide whether India is performing well below its potential or not.

Facts Livestock resources:

Livestock plays an important role in Indian economy. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.

India is

  • First in the total buffalo population in the world.
  • Second in the population of cattle and goats
  • Third in the population of sheep (72 millions)
  • Fifth in in the population of ducks and chicken
  • Tenth in camel population in the world.


Mention in brief about the reasons because of which we are not been able to achieve the true potential.

  1. Lack of Grazing Grounds: –

As the population is increasing land holdings are reducing and people are sowing only food crops instead of grass.

  1. Imperfect Market: –

The market of milk, ghee is not well organized.

  1. Lack of Livestock Farms: –

We have no well established livestock farms in our region. There is also no arrangement for cattle show in various parts of the country which may encourage the farms.

  1. No Proper Care of Cattle’s :-

Our farmer is unable to keep the cattle’s in sheds. The animals are facing the extreme cold and hot weather conditions. So these are caught by the various diseases.

  1. Lack of Veterinary Hospitals :-

In India, the facility of hospital is not sufficient for the animals due to this large number of cattle’s die, without treatment.

  1. Low Per Capita Out Put :-

In South Asia per capita out put is very low as compared to the advanced countries, for example milk giving per capita out put is only 92.9 liter, which is very low.

  1. Lack of Milk Plants: –

In India milk plants are also not sufficient. There are very few plants in all the country. So they are not sufficient to process the milk and variety of milk product.

  1. Inferior Quality of Cattle: –

In India the quality of cows, buffalo are generally inferior and costly. People are not interested to do this business on large scale.

  1. Low Prices of Milk and Milk Products: –

The prices of milk, ghee and cream are very low in villages. The sellers of milk and ghee are not attracted to increase the milk giving animals. The middle man purchases the product on low rate and sell at high rate.

  1. High Prices of Animals Feed :-

The price of animals feed is increasing day by day but the rate of output is low. So the owner of cow and buffalo suffers a loss when he compares the price of feed and the prices of the milk.

Impact of not achieving our true potential.

Contribution of livestock to people

The livestock provides food and non-food items to the people.

  1. Food:The livestock provides food items such as Milk, Meat and Eggs for human consumption. India is number one milk producer in the world. It is producing about 137.7 m. tones of milk in a year. Similarly it is producing about 74.75 billions of eggs, 8.89 million tonnes of meat in a year. The value of milk group and meat group at current prices was Rs 4,06,035 crores in 2013-14.
  2. Fibre and skins:The livestock also contributes to the production of wool, hair, hides, and pelts. Leather is the most important product which has a very high export potential. India is producing about 47.9 million Kg of wool per annum.
  3. Draft: Bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. Despite lot of advancements in the use of mechanical power in Indian agricultural operations, the Indian farmer especially in rural areas still depend upon bullocks for various agricultural operations. The bullocks are saving a lot on fuel which is a necessary input for using mechanical power like tractors, combine harvesters etc. Pack animals like camels, horses, donkeys, ponies, mules etc are being extensively used to transport goods in different parts of the country in addition to bullocks. In situations like hilly terrains mules and ponies serve as the only alternative to transport goods. Similarly, the army has to depend upon these animals to transport various items in high areas of high altitude.
  4. Dung and other animal waste materials: Dung and other animal wastes serve as very good farm yard manure and the value of it is worth several crores of rupees. In addition it is also used as fuel (bio gas, dung cakes), and for construction as poor man’s cement (dung).
  5. Storage: Livestock are considered as “moving banks” because of their potentiality to dispose off during emergencies. They serve as capital and in cases of landless agricultural labourers many time it is the only capital resource they possess. Livestock serve as an asset and in case of emergencies they serve as guarantee for availing loans from the local sources such as money lenders in the villages.
  6. Weed control:Livestock are also used as Biological control of brush, plants and weeds.
  7. Cultural:Livestock offer security to the owners and also add to their self esteem especially when they are owning prized animals such as pedigreed bulls, dogs and high yielding cows/ buffaloes etc.
  8. Sports / recreation:People also use the animals like cocks, rams, bulls etc for competition and sports. Despite ban on these animal competitions the cock fights, ram fights and bull fights (jalli kattu) are quite common during festive seasons.
  9. Companion animals:Dogs are known for their faithfulness and are being used as companions since time immemorial. When the nuclear families are increasing in number and the old parents are forced to lead solitary life the dogs, cats are providing the needed company to the latter thus making them lead a comfortable life


Role of livestock in farmers’ economy

The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways.

  1. Income: Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals. Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk. Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc. The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners.
  2. Employment: A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods. But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year. The land less and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
  3. Food: The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners.
  4. Social security: The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society. The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not. Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country. Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions. Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons; Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
  5. Draft: The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs.
  6. Dung:In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).

Conclusion: –


Livestock sector hardly receives 15% of the total public expenditure on agriculture and 4-5% of institutional credit. So there is a need to increase the investment and better targeting to improve the productivity.

Best Answer1: – Meiji

India is home for the largest livestock population in the world. Livestock sector contributes to 4% of the national GDP and 26% of the agricultural GDP. India is home for nearly 30% of the bovine population and the share of meat production is as low as 8%. Whereas, US with a cattle population share of 10%, produces 20% of the world’s beef. This shows that livestock economy in India has performed well below its potential in comparison to its counterparts.

By not achieving our true potential India is missing out on many fronts –

  1. Health – while the international standards of protein and milk intake are 80gms and 280gms per day, per capita; Indian intake has been 56gms and 276gms respectively. This is main cause for malnutrition, stunting and wastage in children. It adversely affects our demographics.
  2. Education – health adversely affecting our young population reflects in their school dropout rate and no. days absent from school.
  3. Food Security – with climate change affecting our cropping patterns and productivity, the pulse production will be affected in the long term. Livestock act as supplementary protein sources.
  4. Economy – Without reaching the potential they have to; they are a liability more than an asset in the long run. If leveraged in a proper manner, it adds up to the economy in a big way
  5. Employment – with employment generation falling behind required numbers, livestock as an allied agricultural sector can generate adequate number of jobs for youth in number of production and food processing industries.

Livestock sector hardly receives 15% of the total public expenditure on agriculture and 4-5% of institutional credit. The Central Govt. has introduced new schemes encouraging farmers to take up cattle rearing as an allied activity – National Gokul Mission for development of indigenous cattle breeds is a step in the right direction. It is high time India invests in development of livestock sector which contributes significantly to the economy and the population.

Best Answer2: -Naadan Parinda


India holds first rank in buffalo population,second in cattle population.Fisheries sector contributes second highest share in agricultural GDP.We are largest milk producers.
USA has much lesser proportion of cattles yet is large exporter of meat than us.Europe,Australia,New Zealand have earned fame for their quality dairy products.Despite being a crucial part of rural economy,we have not been able to replicate “Amul model” in other parts of country.China leads in silk production and gap between us is quite large.These examples clearly show that we have not been able to reap benefits out of our livestocks.
It has led to multiple negative implications as-

>Lower nutritional level evident in our population.It leads to hamper cognitive skills as pointed by Economic Survey

>Rural economy has not been made robust as farmers’ income is not diversified.Low chances for women empowerment.This leads to increases vulnerability to climate and market volatility

>Employment-Had we been able to develop a superior healthcare and cattle management system,more people would have got jobs

>Trade benefits-Greater productivity of livestock would have shown positive effects in our country’s balance sheet and reduced the import burden

>Regional development-Regions like North-east India,Drought prone regions,hilly regions could have got a viable income option as they do not proper traditional farm options
However government has now come up with multiple initiatives likes National Genome center to get develop quality breeds,E-haat,Nakul Swasthya Patra,national gokul mission etc.Thus by proper implementation and adequate fund allocation,New Delhi has tried to tap potential of its livestock.

2. Animal rearing can be an effective alternative to address agricultural distress in the drought hit areas of India. Do you find merit in this argument? What challenges and problems do you envisage in this direction? Analyse.

With variability of rainfall across India and dependence of Indian agriculture on the monsoon, almost 2/3 of the country is drought prone. In the areas where artificial irrigation is not developed, the condition becomes very distressful. Animal rearing can be an effective alternate to address this problem.

Advantages of Animal rearing:

  • It can provide an alternate and continuous source of income and good returns. Poultry farming (chicken and ducks etc.) can provide continuous income through eggs and meat. Emu is also promoted in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • Animals like goats, cows and Buffalos can provide milk and milk products. Also they act as a fixed deposit. They can be sold in the market and fetch good amount of money.
  • Fodder is drought resistant and can be grown in waste lands and fallow lands. Since many fodder species are also leguminous, they can help in recuperating the nitrogen in the soil.
  • It will help in reducing distress migration from rural areas.
  • Amul has set a brilliant example by bringing in prosperity in semi arid region of Gujarat through white revolution.

P.S. More advantages can be added to back the statement depending upon the word limit.

(Note: Many of you have mentioned fish rearing also as an example. Kindly apply some common sense as well while attempting a question. How can one practice aquaculture in drought areas.)


  • Poor health care facilities are available for animals.
  • Cattle is usually left to graze in open natural grasslands and proper nutritious feed is not available.
  • Indian breeds are not very productive. More emphasis should be given on cross breeding of animals to get better results.
  • Proper specific markets are not there for cattle like they are there for agricultural produce.
  • Poor financial facility provided by the government. Animal rearing requires initial investment. If that is not available, complete model will fail.
  • Lack of awareness about scientific methods of animal rearing and animal health.
  • Minuscule work is done in Research and development in this field.

(Many other challenges are there that can be cited. Also some examples can be given.)

Conclude on a positive note- you can cite the example of Gokul mission which is a brilliant step in this regard. Example of amul can also be cited in conclusion of not discussed before.


Best Answer 1: Bhoomi Sharma

One of the biggest challenge faced by farmers is the condition of drought. Since in India majority of farmers depend upon uncertain and erratic monsoon , they face a lot of distress during drought condition. Their income comes down to zero and they struggle in search of alternate employment. But due to lack of knowledge of any other option for employment they fail to meet the basic needs and hence ends up in suicide. Farmers suicides has become a common scenario due to this fact.

An alternate employment which sprang up in this regard is animal rearing . It could be beneficial as:

1) it will provide alternative food like milk, eggs ,meat etc

2)livestock produce a range of fibre/textiles.

3)it will enhance labor participation in the field of marketing as by selling animal products they can earn good amount of income

4) it will reduce migration

5) agriculture requires a large amount of water as compared to animal rearing hence it will be feasible to use this as an alternative in drought prone area.

1) there is a lack of animal health care services provided in rural areas

2)risk of spread of animal diseases reduce animal productivity, they also shield human health because of the risk of animal to human disease transmission.

3)majority of grazing pastures for animals are degraded during drought.

4)diversion of fodder for industrial use

5)lack of credit and infrastructure facility in this sector.

6)lack of awareness as farmers are untouched and unknown by this alternative employment
after witnessing severe drought conditions and farmers suicides in past couple of years, there is an urgent need to highlight this sector and its importance. 

3. What are ‘technology missions’? What is their importance in agriculture? Explain by taking suitable examples.



Your Introduction should define what are ‘technology missions’. (additional info for knowledge purpose)

  • Mission modegenerally implies that projects have clearly defined objectives, scopes, and implementation timelines and milestones, as well as measurable outcomes and service levels
  • The “Technology Mission” are the brain child of Mr. Rajiv Gandhi. The mission was started as an offshoot of the Seventh Plan in the fields of literacy, immunization, oilseeds, drinking water, dairy products and telecommunication. The objectives of the mission are: –
  • Make substantial improvement in the functional literacy of the population.
  • Immunize all infants against six diseases and women against tetanus.
  • Cut down imports of edible oil.
  • Improve the availability and quality of drinking water in rural areas.
  • Improve milk production and rural employment,
  • Extend and improve the telecommunication network especially in rural areas. Thus, the National Technology Missions focused on the key human needs. The advantage of working through the missions is that, they break up the process of change and delivery into manageable tasks in the form of a package programme with the aim of country.
  • The special objective of this mission level is also to improve the motivational of the people. The mission implementation takes place with the coordination of the center, the states, and the voluntary organization funded through the Planning Commission.

Importance of these missions:

  • Better yield.
  • Accessibility and affordability
  • Usage of technology
  • Investment in R&D.
  • Extension of agriculture services
  • Sustainability

Examples of Technology Mission in Agriculture and Horticulture: –

(you can put these examples under different headings mentioned above – Importance )

Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MIDH has been launched for the holistic development of horticulture in the country during XII Plan. The Scheme, which took off from 2014-15, integrates the ongoing schemes of National Horticulture Mission, Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States, National Bamboo Mission, National Horticulture Board, Coconut Development Board & Central Institute for Horticulture, Nagaland

Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States
HMNEH is a part of Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), being implemented for overall development of horticulture in NE and Himalayan states. The Mission covers all NE states including Sikkim and Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand. The Mission addresses the entire spectrum of horticulture from production to consumption through backward & forward linkages

National Horticulture Mission
A National Horticulture Mission was launched in 2005-06 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector through an area based regionally differentiated strategies. The Scheme has been subsumed as a part of Mission for Integration Development of Horticulture (MIDH) during 2014-15

National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology
The objective of the Mission is to make the extension system farmer-driven & farmer-accountable by way of new institutional arrangements for technology dissemination. It has four sub-missions: Sub Mission on Agricultural Extension (SMAE); Sub-Mission on Seed & Planting Material (SMSP); Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM); & Sub Mission on Plant Protection & Plant Quarantine (SMPP)

National Mission on Oilseeds & Oil Palm
NMOOP envisages increase in production of vegetable oils sourced from oilseeds, oil palm & tree borne oilseeds. The Mission is implemented through 3 Mini Missions (Oilseeds, Oil Palm & TBOs) with specific targets. The strategy includes increasing Seed Replacement Ratio with focus on varietal replacement; increasing irrigation coverage; diversification of area from low yielding cereals; intercropping; use of fallow land; expansion of cultivation in watersheds & wastelands; increasing availability of quality planting materials; enhancing procurement of oilseeds and collection & processing of TBOs

National Saffron Mission
The National Saffron Mission Program aims to revive saffron production in Jammu and Kashmir. The Mission covers drip irrigation, research, mechanization, processing and marketing support to ease the crisis in saffron production

Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization
The Mission objectives include: (i) Increasing the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and ?to the regions where availability of farm power is low; (ii) Promoting ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership; (iii) Creating hubs for hi-tech & high value farm equipment; (iv) Creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration & capacity building activities; (v) Ensuring performance testing and certification at designated testing centers

Technology Mission on Citrus (for Vidarbha)
The Mission aims to deal with the following aspects for bringing quality citrus production in Vidarbha – Production of disease free planting material; human resource development; training of agriculture officers; training of citrus growers at their doorstep; demonstration of NRCC technology on citrus growers’ orchards & rejuvenation of declining orchards

Technology Mission on Coconut
The Mission was launched to converge & synergize all the efforts through integration of existing programs & address the problems and bridge the gaps through appropriate programs in mission mode to ensure adequate, appropriate, timely & concurrent action to make coconut farming competitive & to ensures reasonable returns

Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses & Maize
The  Mission was launched 1986 to increase the production of oilseeds to reduce import and achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils. Subsequently, pulses, oil palm & maize were also brought within the purview of the Mission. Schemes under TMOP are:


Conclusion: –

Your conclusion should say that technology mission has played an important role in agriculture field. Going by the present demands and needs, more such missions and their target completion is needed to revive the growth of agricultural economy and to improve the productivity as well.


Best answer1: -Vengeancee

Technology Missions can be simply referred to mission-mode projects which aim at rejuvenating agricultural sector & its sub-sectors via technological enhancements. Techniques adapted for such purposes are generally mechanistic, and support is provided by Government to procure such advancements by ways of subsidy, promotion, credit-linked subsidy, soft loans, etc. ex: Mission on citrus fruits, coconut, oilseeds.

Technology Missions are important in agriculture because:
1) Better yield: are obtained preventing crisis of Food Security. Ex: Technological Mission in Coconut has led to increased output & India leading suppliers of world.
2) Accessible & Affordable: to large population due to Government initiative. Ex: Technological Mission in oilseeds have led to large scale oilseed production in diversified categories.
3) Promote R&D: by further investments, and impetus in developing related technologies.
4) Diversification of agricultural activities: is enabled when problem of disguised employment is addressed by them. Ex: migration of workers started at faster pace after 1980s when technology started to replace excess laborers & lessened poverty.

National livestock Mission, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, Climate Change Mission have technological component as their essential feature. Such missions have become further relevant after Government announcing its target of doubling farmer income by 2022.


Best answer2: -naadan Parinda

Technology mission have clearly defined goals,objectives and visions.They are targeted to work within a fixed time frame with adequate monitoring mechanisms in place to ensure effectiveness and efficiency.

In case of agriculture, they are associated with benefits like-

>Increased focus towards increasing productivity

>Involvement of available high tech methods

>efforts to minimise the effects of pests, promotion of R&D

>reducing the waste by ensuring efficient supply chain by proper forward and backward linkage in place

Citing these benefits, India came up with multiple technical missions in its 11th and 12th five year plans. Some prominent ones are-

>National mission on cotton– It focused on increased production and reducing the diseases associated with cotton balls. Has shown positive results in states like Madhya Pradesh
>National mission on Sugarcane, bamboo and jute respectively- It involved proper zoning of areas to brought under their cultivation so that they are properly managed. With regards to jute, government took multiple steps to revive jute industry against growing competitions
>Mission for integrated development of Horticulture-Promoted holistic development of sector with active involvement of PRIs, NGOs and SHGs. It has been a booster for north-east India especially
Hence with these mission mode approaches an integrated picture of developing agricultural economy comes forward, where sector specific problems are taken care off. Involvement of stakeholders at all levels and usage of technologies make it more efficient and provides us a path of much needed inclusive development 

4. Outsourcing food production to BRICS countries, and opening up the country to cheaper imports will destroy food self-sufficiency – and the livelihood of millions. Critically comment.


Mention a line about present agriculture sector of country and that this proposal came up in the recently concluded BRICS summit like India is already faced with uncertainties in its agricultural sector owing to numerous problems to add to its worry a proposal like this has come up which could affect its food security and livelihood of millions.

Body: write in points.

Talk about the effects if such a proposal comes into being:- around 70% of answer should be the negative part of it.

-Talk about how self-sufficiency will be affected like how it discourages Indian farmers from taking up future cultivation, over dependency on foreign firms in India and foreign products from abroad in case of conflict huge problems in food security and also foreign reserves, how vast track of land will be taken up for mass cultivation and in future become degraded due to excess use of fertilizers. How all the revolution in agri sector being initiated will take back step and cause adverse effects.

-Talk about how livelihood of millions will be in trouble like mention about percentage of small and marginal farmers and how they cannot compete and have to move out, talk about how they try to move out to other sectors but cannot find employment and might lead to poverty and even suicides. Small lands can be acquired and they becoming landless.

Mention about the positive points if that is implemented:- around 2 3 points is enough.

-Talk about competitive advantage in this case and how we can concentrate on those on which we can excel and become more competitive.

-Talk about the technologies it can bring into the sector and also sharing of knowledge which can help farmers at large just like how green revolution helped.

-Talk about co-operation between countries it can bring in and also co-operation between domestic farmers to take on foreign giants and lead to better, safe and sustainable produces.


End with mention of economic survey how it points on water export and your view on how to balance both outsourcing and safeguarding the interests of domestic farmers like outsourcing can be done on water intensive crops to those countries which have competitive advantage and already possess technologies and are water rich like brazil and china and how we can cultivate drought and less water intensive crops like pulses, oil seeds etc.

Best answer: El Nino

India has recently faced difficulty in meets the domestic demand of certain food crops like pulses and oilseeds. But outsourcing its production and importing at cheap price will pose following problems –

  1. Unemployment – Agricultural sector with already high disguised unemployment will further face problem especially in absence of alternate employment opportunity in rural areas.
  2. Food security – Presently relatively lesser farmers are willing to grow pulses. With plan of outsourcing, they will be further discouraged. India’s self-sufficiency in agriculture will be destroyed.

iii. Poverty – In India farmers who don’t have sufficient water facility generally produce pulses and oilseed. With outsourcing they will be further pushed into poverty.

  1. Macro vulnerability Parameters – Current account deficit may widen. Inflation may also increase based on global uncertainty. This will harm both government and Indian public.
  2. Extension services – Efforts that have been made over the years for pulse production and Dryland farming may not earns its full value.

However such a step will have some benefit for the country as a whole:

  1. The image of benefit sharing at global level. This will give credential to Indian leadership and will bring unmeasurable benefit to the nation.
  2. If this step is complemented by job opportunity in rural areas by promoting MSME, stand up India, start up India etc then urbanization of rural areas can take place.

iii. Domestic agricultural sector will become more efficient due to competition from import.

As India traverses her journey towards developed nation increasing contribution of agricultural sector to the GDP must decrease. But the care has to be taken to provide alternate job opportunity. Only half the step may create more problems rather than solving the problem.

5. The rhetoric of global war on terror must transform into an actionable roadmap to uproot terrorism. However, this is possible only when the categorization in the form of good and bad terrorism would cease to exist and consensus is evolved on the very definition and characteristics of terrorism. Critically examine.


Global war on terror started mostly after the world trade centre attacks of 2001.when terrorism truly became an international concern


  • Many countries treat terrorist groups as their strategic assets which can be used against other countries, they consider them to be good terrorists as they help in furthering their national interest/agenda. Eg: Lakshar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-mohammed by Pakistan and Al-Qaida and ISIS by the USA.
  • And bad terrorists are those terrorist groups that are attacking these very countries e.g. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) which was involved in the attack on the army camp in Pakistan.
  • This leads to no agreement on the nature of the non-state actor which leads to lessening of focus on fight against terrorism. moreover, the countries, in their own self-interest, try to see beyond terrorism and analyze and rationalize reasons for terrorism
  • The terrorist organizations have also shell organizations involved in human rights, charities etc. which get eligible for funding from other countries. This does not let them being clearly marked as terrorist organizations.

Road towards consensus

  1. Clear definition of terrorism should be arrived at including state sponsored terrorism.
  2. Use of violence and attack on civilians for fulfilling political agenda and separatist movements should be considered as terrorism.
  3. To achieve all these objectives international community can start with tackling the problem on many fronts including political, logistical, financial and ideological.
  4. India’s proposal of Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) at the UN General Assembly, is a right step towards the direction in bringing terrorism under the international law and must be supported by the UN Security Council members.


Write a brief conclusion.


Best answer: IAV

While, all summit meetings, like that of recently concluded BRICS, denounce terrorism, it does not translate into actionable roadmap.
Reasons for the same are:
1) in the international arena or realpolitik, each country categorizes non-state actors as either good or bad to its own advantage
2) this leads to no agreement on the nature of the non-state actor which leads to lessening of focus on fight against terrorism
3) moreover, the countries, in their own self-interest, try to see beyond terrorism and analyze and rationalize reasons for terrorism
4) while agreement should have been on non-violence, the countries do not practice what they preach and themselves engage in violence and interference in sovereignty through various doctrines like “right to protect”.
5) moreover, like corporates have shell companies, these terrorist organizations have also shell organizations involved in human rights, charities etc. which get eligible for funding from other countries. This does not let them being clearly marked as terrorist organizations.

The world, therefore to start its war against violence and terrorism, should begin where India’s proposal in UN in form of Comprehensive Convention against International Terrorism(CCIT) started i.e. not to categorize terrorism as good or bad since violence is always bad. This would lead to defining terrorism in an objective manner, leaving no room for error.
While critics may say that this would take away voice of protest from people, right to intervene against atrocities being done by sovereign states, the International Court of Justice does provide non-state actors to highlight their wishes.
The answer to terrorism thus is CCIT.

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