1. Diseases like Dengue and Chikungunya claim many lives every year. The panic generated and the scale of response thereon give these diseases the essential characteristics of a disaster. Discuss. Also examine the areas that require immediate attention to address such medical disasters.
Your Introduction should discuss about the reasons of dengue and chikungunya outbreaks especially in country like India. Also mention the impact it had made on various parts of the country.
You should discuss the points which shows how these outbreaks turns into disaster: –
Extent and precedence: large no of affected area/ population.
Lack of medical facilities – make situation worse, lab facilities – limited ex. In some cases, only allowed when symptoms become prominent.
Areas that require immediate attention to address such medical disasters.
Infrastructure –health facilities, hospitals, test labs etc.
Administrative efforts- disaster management plans not been implemented, lack of efforts from local governments. No timely fumigation drive etc.
Penalties/ legal side: – lack of accountability and coordination among various agencies, no proper mechanism for inspection and penalizing those who defaults.
Sanitation/cleanliness: – breeding ground for carriers.
(you can add more points here)
Solutions and efforts by the government:
proactive surveillance system: There is a need to keep looking as to where the first cases emerge from and report them immediately. All clinics and hospitals, both government and private, should be able to inform the authorities immediately, when there are suspected cases of dengue or chikungunya.
Rapid response emergency vector control: With a focus on eradicating breeding places, prompt action should be taken to spray and fog suspected breeding grounds.
An awareness campaign to ensure that patients seek early hospitalization during an epidemic: When dengue and chikungunya cases start appearing, people need to be aware of what they should do at the first signs, such as seeking treatment from proper hospitals with facilities for blood tests.
Health personnel training: Health personnel should be given continuous training in the management and monitoring of dengue patients.
Involve communities in long-term control of mosquito-borne diseases in their areas: This bottom-up approach that should be in place throughout the year can help stop the spread of dengue. It would involve keeping homes and neigbourhoods free of garbage, stagnant water, and containers such as foam boxes, broken pots, disposable containers, coconut shells, old tyres, etc.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of the Health Ministry
Cleanliness drive: -Swachh bharat Abhiyan etc.
There is a need for a multi-pronged campaign to rid the country of dengue/Chikungunya or at least to reduce the deadly impact of these diseases that spike every year during and after monsoon. Also, it is important that their prevention and control happens throughout the year and not just when figures rise to epidemic proportions.
Best Answer1: -Meiji
India, a tropical country is vulnerable to vector borne diseases. Regular outbreaks of Dengue, Chikungunya and Malaria in different parts of the country cause panic and often lead to mass outbreaks. The scale of the outbreak sometimes gives it a character of a disaster, affecting thousands causing mass outrage.
Though India has been witnessing this scenario for years and institutions to fend the situation are in place, lack of coordinated efforts exacerbates the situation. Even the National Capital Delhi is not spared from this epidemic. The main cause behind these outbreaks is lack of sanitation.
Policy changes, nudges and initiatives like –
Integrating Swachch Bharat Abhiyan with other disease control programs.
Health a state subject and sanitation under Municipal control require a proper framework to work together in urban areas.
Creating mass awareness and control measures like fogging, mosquito eradication in vulnerable areas like slums, open drains, etc.
Dengue causes decrease in platelet count, reducing immune power. Food which mitigates this situation should be made available and known to public.
Early detection and making medicines available and a vigilant civic dept. in both urban and rural areas will bring the situation under control.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of the Health Ministry and other initiatives are in place to tackle the situation. A multipronged strategy to completely eradicate the diseases as seen in our neighbor Sri Lanka which eradicated Malaria recently is required.
Best Answer2: – Bhuwan gujre
With more than 12,250 cases of chikungunya across the country in 2016, the dengue cases doubling over the previous year & Gorakhpur (UP) emerging as the Japanese Encephalitis capital, one can easily say that the panic generated & the scale of response turn these outbreaks into no less than a disaster. The following points further substantiate this –
1) Chronic diseases and injuries are the leading causes of death and disability in India.
2) Risk factors for chronic diseases are highly prevalent among the Indian population.
3) Although a wide range of cost-effective prevention strategies are available, implementation is generally low, especially among people who are poor and those living in rural areas.
4) Most health care is provided by the private sector, which often causes high out-of-pocket health expenditure that leads to debt and impoverishment making people more vulnerable to diseases.
But then we also need to appreciate that –
1) The sudden spike in chikungunya has come nearly 10 years after a such big outbreak last time.
2) We have successfully eradicated polio. The success could be replicated in other cases too.
3) The budget for NATIONAL VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME has steadily increased over the years.
4) We have been pioneers in developing low-cost vaccines (Rotavac)
Steps to be Taken
1) there is still a need to establish a central agency which could effectively coordinate with all concerned organizations and which can continuously and proactively monitor for any possible health contingencies.
2) In order to encourage new drug research and success outcomes, the government needs to arrange for funding and collaborative opportunities, & offer tax incentives to undertake research activities.
3) The lack of the managerial capability of the healthcare systems to treat the patients in urgency due to lack of human resources, technical resources and physical infrastructure. There’s a need to delineate responsibilities & adopt an overarching framework like The Benefit Risk Action Team (BRAT) framework in US.
4) The management of Disease outbreaks is as per the colonial Epidemic diseases act 1897, which is grossly inadequate to deal with current challenges. We need to have a comprehensive law in tune with the times, which would recognize the central nodal agency & the enabling framework thereon.
5) Raising healthcare budget to cater to the huge demand.
With a hundred billion plus population, India can’t afford to neglect the healthcare needs of its citizens lest the greatest resource would turn into a liability. For this it is imperative to bolster the epidemic management of the country.
2. Droughts are man-made ecological disasters. Do you agree? Substantiate. Also discuss the strategies to mitigate droughts.
Provide a case study or example of drought prone areas in India where these droughts are resulted due to anthropogenic activities.
We have took case study of Maharashtra to substantiate that Droughts are man-made ecological disasters
Current drought conditions in Maharashtra, is a disaster of water management, accompanied by corruption, water-intensive cropping patterns and absence of a long-term view to manage water and drought.
Government’s plans of irrigation failed as its plans for upcoming projects were entangled in corruption, plagued with delays and cost overruns.
Building unviable large dams, wrong cropping patterns, water diversion for non-priority uses, neglect of local water systems and unaccountable water management by the State government, the Centre and the Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority.
The precarious state of water in the state can be blamed on the increasing area under sugarcane cultivation in Maharashtra, water-intensive activities like running of sugar and wine factories in drought-affected districts.
Real estate builders continue to exploit the land further by coming up with massive construction projects in drought affected areas. These luxurious projects often target the elite who prefer large swimming pools in their backyards. And to top it all, the Indian premier league, which is the country’s most popular Cricket tournament, is going to be held in Maharashtra this month.
Strategies (Choose any 4)
Mostly all the drought affected districts are the major producers of sugar, therefore needs a shift in cropping pattern, more focus to cultivation of other crops that require lesser amount of water.
Restoration of ecological balance – By Conserving, developing and harnessing land, water and other natural resources including rainfall
Integrated watershed management – under National Watershed Programme – and with focus on strategies like Agro-forestry, Agro-horticulture
Adoption of micro-irrigation methods and new technologies in agriculture for high yield and less water usage (Drip and Sprinkler irrigation systems)
Drought resistant crops with technological intervention (bio-technology)
Replicate water harvesting technique prevalent in other states – TN – compulsory roof top, Rajasthan’s traditional practice of storing water in Tanka
Empowering farmers with knowledge of water management techniques, drought resistant crops, conservation of ground water. Awareness and self regulation among people will help to conserve the limited water resources.
Best answer: El Nino
Drought is a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water. Whether it will turn into a disaster would depend on how well shortage of water is managed. Due to poor planning, management and conservation; diversion to industries; unsustainable agricultural practices, it is said that droughts in India are manmade ecological disaster. For Instance:
Maharashtra has 40% of country’s Dam but 82% of areas are rainfed. Irrigation infrastructure has not been built.
In water scarce Marathwada region, water guzzling sugarcane crop is cultivated. Water scarcity in Kaveri basin is also aggravated by Rice cultivation.
Basic water conservation through projects such as rainwater harvesting has been lacking.
However certain region genuinely receive less rainfall topography is also not conducive for ground water recharge.
Droughts can be managed and mitigated using following measures:
Climate smart agriculture – Dry land farming; growing pulses, millets; Agroforestry, intercropping ; SRI (System of Rice Intensification) technique etc
Ground water recharge – In Kadwanchi, people constructed bunds and trenches and planted trees to slow down the flow of running water, increase seepage and recharge groundwater. Within two years, the wells in surrounding areas started recharging and the soil gained moisture.
Water conservation – constructing Lakes and ponds; water shed management, Micro irrigation technique etc
Policy measures – MSP liked to local geographical condition; time bound completion of irrigation projects; Outsourcing of water intensive crops to other countries; metering of water supply, better extension services etc
Interlinking rivers – like Narmada and Tapi , Ganga and Bhagirathi etc
Investment in behavioral change
3. What are cyclone shelters? How do they provide protection at the time of cyclones? Discuss.
Cyclone Shelters, as the name suggests are structures constructed to protect people from the impact of cyclones.
These are concrete two storey structures which are generally constructed above the flood line. Also they are made over a plinth to protect them from sea surges. In case of a cyclone, people from nearby areas are evacuated and shifted to these shelters.
Two points are kept in mind while deciding a location for Cyclone shelters. One,that a person should not have to travel more than 2.25 km to get a safe shelter and that he should not have to cross a natural barrier.
These shelters are able to withstand a wind velocity of over 300km/hr. Also first-aid and various rescue equipment is supplied to these shelters. These equipment may include power saw, siren, free kitchen utensils, flexi water tank, solar lights, stretcher, life buoys, lift jackets, generator etc.
Cyclone shelters played an important role in protecting people during Phailin cyclone in Odisha. Many of these multipurpose shelters are being developed in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
4. What is the Sendai Framework? What are the Seven Global Targets associated with this framework? Discuss.
Intro should be the definition of Sendai framework. The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
Since it’s a direct and factual question just mention the seven global targets.
(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.
End with how this has helped in Indian disaster relief works and our new disaster management plan 2015-2020 were formed by taking help of Sendai framework.
The Sendai Framework (2015-2030) is a 15 year voluntary and non-binding agreement for disaster reduction. IT highlights the role of a state to reduce the risk of disaster. This frame work also recognizes that responsibility of disaster risk reduction should be shared among local government, private sector etc. This international treaty was approved by UN members in third UN world conference and is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015).
Seven Global Targets include:
1) global disaster mortality by 2030.
2) number of affected people by 2030.
3) disaster economic loss to GDP by 2030.
4) disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services by 2030.
Enhancement or increment in:
5)number of countries equipped with disaster reduction strategies by 2020
6)international cooperation to developing countries
7)availability of and accessibility to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information.
India also made its first ever National Disaster management Plan .The plan is based on the four priority themes of the Sendai Framework. This framework will help in achieving zero loss during an unfortunate situation.
5. Legislative inaction on reform issues such as triple talaq leads to law making by the judiciary. Critically comment.
Your introduction should talk about the recent controversy related to triple talaq and also mention why the reform should be led by the legislature.
In the body part of the answer, you should mention about the instances where the judiciary has attempted to make a law or overreach its mandate. Also mention the reasons why legislature have been failed in initiating these reforms.
As the question demands a critical comment, you should also mention why few cases are not a part of overreach or activism but a result of constitutional obligation.
Mention in brief about judicial overreach and activism.
(details given for understanding purpose)
There are some very important cases which come in the talk whenever we discuss about judicial activism in India.
Bhopal gas tragedy and the Jessica Lal Murder case
Judicial overreach on the other hand may be defined as, alleged judicial encroachment into the domain of the executive and legislature.
“a judge may be one who would like to sing the song of liberty and glorify the same abandoning passivity, but his solemn pledge has to remain embedded to Constitution and the laws,” a judgment by the Bench of Justices Dipak Misra and S.K. Singh. The judgment provides a sharp mix of caution and rebuke to judges who cross the fine line between judicial functions and judicial activism.
As per the 2004 judgment of the Patna High Court in Jan Chaukidar v Union of India — upheld by the Supreme Court — all those in lawful police or judicial custody, other than those held in preventive detention, will forfeit their right to stand for election. The judges relied on the Representation of the People Act (RPA), which says that one of the qualifications for membership of Parliament or State legislature is that the contestant must be an elector. Since Section 62(5) of the Act prevents those in lawful custody from voting, the reasoning goes, those in such custody are not qualified for membership of legislative bodies
Demand for judicial adjudication of dispute resolution on the proposed Goods and Services Tax Bill are few examples of judicial overreach
The constitutionally mandated job of providing for social welfare and reform is to be performed by the executive organ of the state through its legislative counterpart. The third organ of the state, the judiciary, is not primarily responsible for it. Ordinarily, judges have to interpret and not make the law, but are often driven to that job by endless inaction on the part of the other two organs of the state. Former chief justice of India RC Lahoti once referred to the three organs of the state as “pillars of democracy serving the society” and added that “an obligation is cast on one pillar to be ready to additionally bear the burden if another pillar becomes weak or for some reason or the other is unable to bear the weight.” In the matter of social welfare and reform — especially in the case of minorities — the judiciary often finds it imperative to bear such additional burden. It amounts not to excessive judicial activism or overreach but to discharging a constitutional obligation.
Your conclusion should say that if one pillars doesn’t perform then other has to step in. So the need of the hour is not to criticize but legislature should make sure that it should perform its role in better way and doesn’t leave a space where other organ has to step in.
The recent ‘triple talaq’ debate and government’s response after the judicial exhortation has brought forward the reluctance of the legislature in social reform matters and consequential ‘judicial legislations’ on the same.
The reluctance is often due to:
– Diverging political point of views.
– Lack of social and political consensus.
– Fear of losing particular ‘vote-bank’
– Aversion to possible social backlash.
The judiciary, at times, have come in and filled this void, free from any electoral compulsions:
– Rejection of reckless manner of ‘talaq’ in Shah Bano Case.
– Upholding the right to get financial support during the Iddat period in Daniela Latifi Case.
– Exclusion of undeserving Creamy Layer from availing reservation in NM Thomas Case.
This not only provides a continuum and fills the political vacuum, but can also trigger action in the legislature which can build up on the existing plank provided already. For e.g. Supreme Court’s decision of Right to Education as a part of fundamental right promised by Article 21 in Mohini Jain Case(1989) which finally culminated in the corresponding legislation in 2002.
But there are a few concerns too as this can:
– Lead to judicial overreach into legislative sphere.
– Create tensions between judiciary and policymakers.
– Severely questions the democratic legitimacy and lacks accountability as courts are not elected institutions.
The judiciary is to fill the spaces where legislature misses, and hence, legislature must take charge and must not hesitate from stepping into messy waters and attempt to generate consensus-based decisions, lest the Democracy transforms into an undesirable Kritarchy.