1. What caused the French Revolution? Also discuss the effects of this revolution on Europe.
Causes of French Revolution:
The French Monarchs had unlimited power and they claimed to rule by divine right.
The State was coterminous with the king, who could change laws anytime, people could be imprisoned for no reason at all.
The society was divided into three estates the lowest of which carried the burden of other two.
The clergy and the nobility enjoyed all the luxuries but did not take part in any productive activity, they were exempted from taxes, and taxes were levied only on the third state.
The society was a closed one where lower estates did not have any avenue for vertical mobility.
The economic condition of France became poor due to the foreign wars of Louis XIV, the seven year’s War of Louis XV and other expensive wars. During the reign period of Louis XVI, the royal treasury became empty as extravagant expenses of his queen Marie Antoinette.
The Finance Minister of France Callone adopted the policy of borrowing in order to meet the expenditure of the royal court. But due to this policy, the national debt of France increased from 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 Franks only in three years.
Then Callone proposed to impose taxes on all the classes. But he was dismissed by the king. In this situation, the king at last summoned the States General. The economic instability formed one of the most important causes of the French Revolution.
Effects of French revolution on Europe:
Universality of rights was stressed, which made people more aware and assertive of their rights. Slavery was abolished in France.
French emigration- the political unrest in France led people to leave from France and to settle in neighboring countries esp. in Great Britain, Germany, Austria and Prussia.
Nationalism- the revolution resulted in great stimulus to the modern nationalism and ideas of equality, liberty and fraternity.
Feudalism was abolished in France, in its place new social order was established which stressed on egalitarian society.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Simran
After testing the French enlightenment thoughts on American soil, French people initiated the revolution in 1789 against the monarchy.
Various factors can be enumerated as:
Political: Bourbon dynasty believes in “Divine Right Theory” and political system favour interest of nobles over the benefits of commoner by blocking various welfare reforms.
Social: French society was based on the inequality where there is common believe that nobility protect, clergy praise and “COMMONER PAY”.
Economic: over exceeding of national debt during Louis xvi was curtailed by “turgot and nicker” but soon with their removal economic condition deteriorated and king had to call “state general after 175 years.
Philosopher: Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau prepared and created awareness among the people about revolution and intellectual gave motto “liberty, equality and fraternity”.
French revolution has great impact on Europe:
It initiated the process of revolution against monarchy which ended feudalism and serfdom from Europe and establish a society based on principle of equality.
Growth of nationalism was witnessed across the boundaries.
Anti-revolutionary wars were witnessed soon after the success of French revolution.
Ended the slavery and started the process of capitalism in Europe.
French revolution is watershed event in the history of world which ignited the spark towards the equal society where liberty equality and fraternity prevails over slavery, inequality and hatred.
2. Why did Industrial Revolution first occur in England? How did it affect the lives of people in Europe? Examine.
Introduction: (Briefly describe the industrial revolution)
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe became industrial and urban.
The IR happened in England because:
Agriculture revolution – Coming up of new tools like invention of seed drill by Jethro tull, crop rotation better than medieval period. Livestock breeding method improvement.
Economic reasons– Large labour force, natural resources like coal, iron, cotton etc. large land holdings because of Enclosure movement led to capital becoming free to invest.
Political reasons: England had stable government, none of the war were fought on British soil. Due to stability, peace and prosperity at home, the British were able to acquire a number of colonies overseas. Colonies in America and Asia established new import and export markets.
Technology innovation – steam engine to transport, cotton gin to speed the chore & flying shuttle & jenny wheel such innovation increases the amount of product with cheap cost.
Others factors like well develop banking system, high investment, oversea trades & climate of progress, also positive attitude of leaders to pass law to protect business interest.
Effects on the life of people:
1) ECONOMIC – The people were exploited for want of huge profits by giving low wages and 16 hours of work/day. With the invention of more modern machines, man-made famine and unemployment rose.
2) POLITICAL – End of laissez faire as said by Keynes led to intervention of state by legislating ‘factories act’ to set minimum wages and working hours especially for children and women
3) GEOGRAPHICAL – Urban centres became the locus of production and economic activity, people who migrated to polluted towns and lived in unhygienic slums lost lives due to diseases
3) SOCIAL – Middle classes emerged who specialized in certain occupations, who were the driving for further economic expansion, they asserted their rights by forming trade unions and demanded universal suffrage.
4) IDEOLOGICAL – Socialism for just distribution of wealth and criticism of private capitalism rose.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: 71RR
The first Industrial Revolution (IR) began in the 18th century Europe, with large-scale use of machines in the production of goods.
England was where it all started. Reasons:
– Political stability – England was ruled by a stable autocratic regime,
– Abundance of natural (coal, iron-ore) and human resources; raw materials (textiles) were further imported from its colonies,
– Available market for the finished products, both within England, and in its colonies,
– Widespread banking system which eased the credit line and promoted entrepreneurship,
– Technological advancement, like steam engine, spinning jenny, et al.
– Accumulation of capital among the industrialists, who invested in trade instead of extravagant expenses,
Reasons for IR not starting in other countries:
– France was suffering from political instability,
– Germany and Italy were politically divided,
– Russia lacked capital and technology,
– Geographical barriers in Austria-Hungary, Spain, et al. impeded connectivity,
IR brought significant changes in the lives of the people.
– Positive changes:
– improved the standards of living; promoted healthcare, education, et al. services,
– large-scale employment empowered people economically,
– improved connectivity and communication,
– Negative changes:
– pathetic living and working conditions of worker class initially; improved with social and labour reforms,
– promoted inequality; consolidation of wealth among the capitalists.
The Industrial Revolution led to many social, political and economic reforms, which form the basis of modern societies.
3. There were various strands of colonization. Identify them along with their characteristic features. What type of colony was India? Discuss.
Colonialism is termed as building and maintaining colonies in one territory by people from another territory. Usually it was done for economic gains. i.e. to exploit the resources of the colonies.
Depending upon the objectives of the colonialists, colonialism can be classified into different types. Broadly they are:
Settler colonialism: These colonies were established by the movement of large numbers of citizens from a mother country or metropole to the new colony. The indigenous tribes or the aboriginal people were often moved forcibly to other regions or exterminated. Eg. Hungary, Thailand, Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand etc.
Dependencies: These were the colonies where the colonizers did not arrive as part of a mass emigration, but rather as administrators over existing sizable native populations. Examples in this category include the British Raj, Egypt, the Dutch East Indies, and the Japanese colonial empire. In some cases large-scale colonial settlement was attempted in substantially pre-populated areas and the result was either an ethnically mixed population (such as the mestizos of the Americas)
Plantation Colonies: These were the places which were climatically suitable for plantation crops. The white colonizers imported black slaves who rapidly began to outnumber their owners, leading to minority rule, similar to a dependency. Eg. Barbados, Jamaica etc.
Trading Posts: the primary purpose of the colony was to engage in trade rather than as a staging post for further colonization of the hinterland. Eg. Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore etc.
In India, the colonizers came as trading vessels first. They colonized the coastal areas like Pondicherry, Goa, Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. Later with the increase in greed and power, their involvement in internal politics increased. Amongst the different colonizers, British finally succeeded in colonizing India and it became a dependency i.e. the colony governed by British Administration with majority of local Indian population.
Best Answer 1: Vivek
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. Throughout the modern history of the world, various strands of colonialism established the dominance of European powers on American, Asian and African countries. A close examination of various faces of colonialism are discussed below:
Economic Companies: This is the early phase of colonialism where European nations allowed private companies to trade with and rule different colonial establishments. These companies were ran by businessmen with the motive of exploitation. Eg. British East India Company, French East India Company, British East Africa Company etc.
Settler Rule: European settlers forced direct rule on their colonies. Significant number of immigrants from Europe lived in these colonies. Similar to early immigrants to United States and Canada, immigrants make colonies their permanent home. Usually established unkind rule towards indigenous people. Eg. Southern Africa: South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique etc
Direct Rule: Carried with a foreign controlled centralized administration. Supported with ideologies of dominant caste and white man’s burden to civilize people’s of Asia and Africa. Used policy of divide and rule to weaken indigenous power networks and institutions. Eg. India – 1858-1947.
Indirect Rule: Cooperative model of direct rule. Economic persuasion and compulsion policies followed. Eg. British in Nigeria.
Neo-Colonialism: It is a modern day concept of economic and cultural assimilation of countries with policies glottalization and liberalization. There is no direct rule or foreign interference, but the countries became dependent due to economic, cultural and strategic relationship.
Colonialism in India: India was the most valuable colony for Europeans because of it’s vivid rich resources, human capital and huge potential market. Europeans came to India as traders under the banner of Government sponsored or private companies. British East India company, Dutch East India company etc are prominent examples. Later, British East India company triumphed in getting commercial and administrative control over major parts of the country. India witnessed Economic company colonialism in its early phase. After the Indian revolt of Independence of 1857, the company rule was squashed and India was brought under direst rule of Crown which existed till 1947.
Best Answer 2: Arjun
Colonialization is the process of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of an area. there are various strands of colonization.
Based on type of control.
Colony: a country or a region governed internally by a foreign power. Eg/; Somaliland was a French colony
Protectorate: A country or territory with its own internal govt but under the control of an outside power. Eg: british protectorate over river Niger delta.
Sphere of influence: an area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privilages. Eg: Liberia was under the sphere of influence of USA.
Economic imperialism: independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other govts. Eg: the dole fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii.
Based on administrative management
Indirect control: A case of limited self rule, inclusion of locals in government and institutions based on European style but may have local rules.the goal her is to develop future leaders. Eg Nigeria ,India, Burma
Direct control: Ruled by foreign officials where no self rule exists and institutions only based on European styles. The goal is assimilation. Eg : French Vietnam , german Tanganyika.
Thus in this context, there were various transitional stages in the process of colonialization of India by British. Battle of plassey made Bengal a sphere of influence by East India company(EIC) where it brought the exclusive trading rights,later battle of buxar made India(Bengal) a protectorate where by EIC acquired diwani rights and finally by the various annexations and subsequent British legislations passed to govern India, she was technically reduced to a ‘colony’ where ‘indirect control’ was exercised .
4. Do you think the recent Supreme Court order putting a ban over seeking votes on the basis of religion and cast is a progressive step? Critically examine.
Provide a brief introduction about how the recent SC order reiterates the primary aim of Section 123 (3) of the People’s Representation Act, which is to “curb communal and separatist tendencies in the country” and how the order helps to maintain secular ethos of the Constitution, by keeping elections a secular exercise.
Provide points why the apex court’s decision is a progressive step:
Primary legislative aim of Section 123(3) of the Representation of People Act The apex court’s order is reiteration of this aim.
(Note: Section 123 (3) of the People’s Representation Act of 1951 provides that no candidate or his agent can appeal for votes on the grounds of his religion, race, caste, community or language, religious symbols for prejudicing the election.)
You can explain how politics has come to be dominated by caste and religious equations, especially by some parties which have made these a part of their ideology to rise in Indian politics – how it has helped an incompetent person to win an election; how it has promoted inequality and led to communal or regional tensions undermining the integrity of India; how it has led to discriminations and deprivations suffered by the masses on the ground of religion, caste and language.
The state being secular in character should not identify itself with any one of the religions or religious denominations. This necessarily implies that religion should not play any role in the governance of the country which must at all times be secular in nature. Election should be a secular exercise just as the functions of the elected representatives should be secular in both outlook and practice.
Therefore considering the above points, the apex court’s order putting a ban over seeking votes on the basis of religion and cast is a progressive step.
Now, provide the cons too –
Explain how the idea that votes could be canvassed without referring to any of the five identities of the electors seems far too cut off from the complexities of India’s plural society.
This will take away the right to organize on the basis of legitimate concern having routes in religion, caste etc and gain electoral power.
Depressed classes of society, minority needs to be heard and their integration into policy formulation and implementation can take a step back.
It would restrict social mobilizations which have acted as an important instrument to bring marginalized groups into mainstream and also create problems for regional parties.
It is not possible for an individual to be isolated and not be affected by social contexts.
Provide suitable conclusion.
Best answer: sudarshan
The Supreme Court’s recent verdict reinterpreted the RPI Act of 1951 and banned appeal for votes during elections on the basis of caste, religion, community or language.
This judgement is a progressive step as:
1) Appeal for votes on these basis leads to mixing of religion with state power.
2) Elections fought on these issues which are emotive and irrational in nature instead of developmental issues is a distortion of democracy, whose foundation lies in rational thought and action.
3) Possibility of polarization leading to communal or regional tensions undermining the integrity of India and posing an internal security threat.
4) Leads to vote bank and identity politics.
5) As our political institutions such as the parliament are secular in nature as mandated by the constitution, it is a necessary pre-requisite that the process of electing its members should also be void of any bias.
However, there are certain lacunae in this judgment
1) This will take away the right to organize on the basis of legitimate concern having routes in religion, caste etc and gain electoral power.
2) It is a very broad and vague interpretation of RPI clauses without spelling out specifics such as – When does an appeal become a religious appeal? Does even a reference to religion/caste attract disqualification?
Overall, the SC’s judgment is in the right direction however we must note that the political leadership only reflects the moral conscience of the society. Until and unless the citizens of India raise above narrow borders of caste/religion the impact to SC’s verdict will be limited
5. To regain its lost legitimacy, the UNSC should change to reflect new world realities. Comment.
Provide in brief the role and primary responsibility of UNSC.
Explain the current position of UNSC and provide examples of its failures in fulfilling the above said role and responsibilities.
Now, explain the trends of changing global dynamics and new issues, threats and challenges of the twenty first century.
Explain why an ‘updated’ and not ‘outdated’ global institution can be effective in addressing the current challenges of conflict prevention and sustaining peace.
Provide suggestions and changes that the UNSC should adopt to reflect new world realities and solve current challenges.
Important points include:
Redefining the relationship between UNSC and UNGA.
Efforts towards reforming the Council and expanding it.
Veto reforms and expanding veto powers.
Following a bottom-up approach rather than the present top-down.