1. What are ‘trolls’? Are they a threat to internal security? Examine.
In the cyber space, Troll is someone who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments, by posting offensive, controversial comments with intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or disrupting normal discussions.
In present world when internet play a significant role in crafting people opinion and hence decisions in day to day activities, trolling can be a serious threat to internal security of the country.
Why they are threat to internal security:
The current explosion in the number of handheld devices with internet connectivity like mobiles and tablets has potential to cause chain reaction on the internet which can spill over to real life, like:
Radicalization of youth: through the propaganda by anti-social elements. 48 Indians arrested in the past 2 years for Islamic State (IS) links and 25 have travelled to Syria to join IS
Post-truth influence: Claimed to be the cause behind recent Brexit and US poll results by distorting the true facts
Psychological warfare: on women by creating obscene sexual comments
Vilification: hate campaigns on political lines
Communal violence: threat to peace and harmony. E.g.: Love-jihad and Muzaffarnagar riots on communal lines
Ground for Cyber Crime: financial frauds by duping gullible netizens
Cyber bulling: of children can lead to depression and frustration.
Malign image: of individuals by negative campaigns, making up morphed images associating the individuals with some undesirable incident or group.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Valar Dohaeris
‘Trolls’ are a form of online bullies. The technology and social media give them the power to hide behind a screen can carry on personal propaganda- online bullying, spreading disruptive lies, false information etc. recently they have been in limelight for all wrong reasons and spreading ease of access to internet make them a highly destructive power that must be put out before it becomes a global menace.
Trolls can act as a threat to INTERNAL SECURITY by-
• Spreading rumours causing unrest- riot like situations can be easily insinuated
• Vilifying the incidents- brawls or fights given a racial, caste based colour- further aggravating problems
• Undermining law and rights of people- from behind the screen abusing and threatening
• Harmful for children for their easily impressionable minds
• Eroding faith in justice system and its delivery- laws lack strength to identify, filter and punish such Trolls
• Helping disruptive gangs, terrorist groups etc by furthering their agenda of dividing people using incorrect info.
Today Netizens need awareness regarding such phenomenon to avoid falling into such traps and not get affected by such bullies. Need is for age based access-depth of internet and proper regulation and use of laws to punish such people using cyber-security, website compliance by deactivating accounts and a vigilant citizenry to discourage such people in our society.
2. What are the essential features of a secure cyber ecosystem? Also discuss the threats to the cyber ecosystem of India? Why should one be concerned for cyber security? Elaborate.
Secure cyber ecosystem refers to an interconnected system of cyber devices with inbuilt security capabilities such that they can together defend and prevent cyber-attacks and recover to a trusted state.
Features of a Secure Cyber Ecosystem:
1) Confidentiality:The secrecy of data should be ensured.
2) Integrity: Data should not be modified or altered by unauthorized hackers
3) Availability: Data should be available only to authenticated persons
4) Privacy: Privacy of sensitive data such as Personally Identifiable Information, biometric data etc. should be ensured.
Threats to cyber ecosystem of India:
1. Hacking – illegal intrusion in to computer system and illegal gain of user access.
2. Cyber stalking – use of email, mms, etc. to stalk other person and continuous harassment and threat.
3. Denial of service: blocking user service, blocking the bandwidth,
4. Diffusion of malware such as virus, Trojans, spyware, hoax etc. in to the system.
5. Data security network sabotage and permanent damage to the system
6. Data diddling and data theft for stealing classified or unlawful or personal information.
7. Cyber warfare: which includes cyber espionage, website defamation and data theft of defense secrets and to cause financial losses.
Why one should be concerned for cyber security:
i) Digital age & Internet of Things – So failure in one device can affect others
ii) Era of internet governance (NeGP) and ITeS (eLearning, e-wallets)
iii) Dependence of critical infrastructure on ICT
iv) Increasing incidence of cyber-attacks
v) Threat to international peace from electronic terrorism and cyber war.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Monica Mohan
Cyber ecosystem is the cyberspace universe where different entities interact and work in collaboration with each other in real-time,dynamic manner. The participants such as individuals, public and private enterprises work through devices and portals interact in a information-loaded environment which is prone to be looted by hostile groups as cyber attacks. In such an environment, it is important to create an assured cyber ecosystem.
FEATURES OF SECURE CYBER ECOSYSTEM:
Threat Information-sharing:To detect and defend cyberattacks, it is essential to incorporate a real-time threat sharing system. Eg: When an organization confronts a cyberattack, it must open its infrastructure for research and sharing.
2. Machine Learning: AI techniques used to detect and share cyberthreats. Eg: When a new pattern of workflow is followed, devices should alert user for authentication.
3. Interoperability: To strengthen collaboration and speed up learning of threats. Eg: Network devices learning about a threat when one gets affected.
4. Expert systems: To identify risks and enable authentication for critical information. Eg: Identifying phishing in Online transactions.
THREATS TO INDIA:
Banking systems:With Digital India and drive for less-cash society, banking infrastructure becoming vulnerable is to be strengthened. Eg: Credit card security breach.
2. Defence: Defence plans and programs of defence infrastructure are vulnerable to data breach. Eg: Scorpene submarine data breach.
3. Individual data: e-mails and increasing volumes of cloud data gives motivation to hackers. Eg: Yahoo! e-mail security compromise
4. Government data: With digitisation and cyber interaction of diplomatic entities, confidential data is under threat. Eg: Kaspersky lab’s report on cyberespionage group.
5. Public data: Schemes like JAM, Aadhar and fingerprint enable transactions which have vital data are prone to privacy threat.
CONCERN FOR CYBER SECURITY:
With increasing ICT penetration and drastic volume of vital information on cyberspace, Hackers who steal private and public data, Cyber terrorists who attack cyber infrastructure and encrytion for information sharing are increasing. India’s efforts to control cyber attacks through institutions like CERT-In, Indio-US Cyber security forum, policies like National Cyber Security Policy 2013 will protect cyber infrastructure and safeguard critical information.
3. What is money laundering? What are the various ways to launder money? Why is it a threat to internal security?
The question has three parts – Definition, different ways and how it is a threat to internal security.
Point to be noted is that, in the question ‘different ways’ of laundering money have been asked, and not the different steps to launder money.
‘Money Laundering’ is the tern given to the process of conversion of Black money (money obtained illegally) into ostensibly legitimate assets. Money laundering generally involves three steps: the first involves introducing cash into the financial system by some means (“placement”); the second involves carrying out complex financial transactions to camouflage the illegal source of the cash (“layering”); and finally, acquiring wealth generated from the transactions of the illicit funds (“integration”).
Various ways to Launder Money:
This has been given very comprehensively in wiki, so taking directly from there.
Structuring: Often known as smurfing, this is a method of placement whereby cash is broken into smaller deposits of money, used to defeat suspicion of money laundering and to avoid anti-money laundering reporting requirements. A sub-component of this is to use smaller amounts of cash to purchase bearer instruments, such as money orders, and then ultimately deposit those, again in small amounts.
Bulk cash smuggling: This involves physically smuggling cash to another jurisdiction and depositing it in a financial institution, such as an offshore bank, with greater bank secrecy or less rigorous money laundering enforcement.
Cash-intensive businesses: In this method, a business typically expected to receive a large proportion of its revenue as cash uses its accounts to deposit criminally derived cash. Such enterprises often operate openly and in doing so generate cash revenue from incidental legitimate business in addition to the illicit cash – in such cases the business will usually claim all cash received as legitimate earnings. Service businesses are best suited to this method, as such businesses have little or no variable costs and/or a large ratio between revenue and variable costs, which makes it difficult to detect discrepancies between revenues and costs. Examples are parking buildings, strip clubs, tanning beds, car washes, and casinos.
Trade-based laundering: This involves under or overvaluing invoices to disguise the movement of money.
Shell companies and trusts: Trusts and shell companies disguise the true owner of money. Trusts and corporate vehicles, depending on the jurisdiction, need not disclose their true, beneficial, owner. Sometimes referred to by the slang term rathole though that term usually refers to a person acting as the fictitious owner rather a business entity.[
Round-tripping: Here, money is deposited in a controlled foreign corporation offshore, preferably in a tax haven where minimal records are kept, and then shipped back as a foreign direct investment, exempt from taxation. A variant on this is to transfer money to a law firm or similar organization as funds on account of fees, then to cancel the retainer and, when the money is remitted, represent the sums received from the lawyers as a legacy under a will or proceeds of litigation.
Bank capture: In this case, money launderers or criminals buy a controlling interest in a bank, preferably in a jurisdiction with weak money laundering controls, and then move money through the bank without scrutiny.
Casinos: In this method, an individual walks into a casino and buys chips with illicit cash. The individual will then play for a relatively short time. When the person cashes in the chips, they will expect to take payment in a check, or at least get a receipt so they can claim the proceeds as gambling winnings.
Other gambling: Money is spent on gambling, preferably on higher odds. One way to minimize risk with this method is to bet on every possible outcome of some event where there are many possible outcomes and no outcome(s) have short odds – the bettor will lose only the vigorish and will have (a) “winning” bet(s) that can be shown as the source of money should this be requested. The “losing” bets will remain hidden.
Real estate: Someone purchases real estate with illegal proceeds and then sells the property. To outsiders, the proceeds from the sale look like legitimate income. Alternatively, the price of the property is manipulated: the seller agrees to a contract that underrepresents the value of the property, and receives criminal proceeds to make up the difference.
Black salaries: A company may have unregistered employees without a written contract and pay them cash salaries. Dirty money might be used to pay them.
Tax amnesties: For example, those that legalize unreported assets in tax havens and cash.
4. The shameful incident that occurred on new year’s eve in Bengaluru exposes the fault lines in our society. Deterrence by effective implementation of laws is the pressing need. Comment.
Again, many have repeated the same mistake of diverting from the demands of the question. Many answers have been driven by emotion or getting carried away and drifted from actual demand.
Please read the question carefully. It provides a statement – ‘Deterrence by effective implementation of laws is need of hour to avoid such shameful incidents’. “COMMENT”
Pick out the main points on the subject:
Frequent shameful incidents are occuring à exposes fault lines in our society
Deterrence + Effective implementation of laws à need of the hour
These are the subject. Your job is to give your opinion, reinforcing your point of view using logic and reference to relevant evidence, including any wider reading you have done.
You can comment negatively or positively and conclude accordingly. However, to play safe, comment according to the mood of the question.
Provide that the cases of kidnapping and human trafficking are rising year by year and incidents of rape and crime against women on the streets and roads are becoming more brazen by the day – with shameful incident that occurred on new year’s eve in Bengaluru being the recent example.
Despite the abundance of laws (provide names of some laws), the social ills persist, all these incidents exposes the fault lines in our society, serious doubt casts on the impact or efficacy of such laws on society at large.
Now provide what are those fault lines –
How perpetrators of crime escaping the law or punishment.
Collective failure of the government and implementation of law in full letter and spirit.
Poor police and judiciary process — The police and the judiciary are usually slow to investigate and dispense justice, the deterrence is gradual despite the presence of stringent provisions in the law for dealing with such cases.
Criminals only appear to have become emboldened by the collective failure of the governments, police and judiciary in enforcing the rule of law and ensuring that those who do not respect women or the law are not allowed to roam free.
Now provide your opinion à i.e. to avoid the above fault lines, Deterrence + Effective implementation of laws is need of the hour
Support your views with some evidences and reports. Provide example of Justice J.S. Verma recommendations for harsher punishment, gradation of offences, ease of registration of complaints, creation of a support system for the victims and police reforms to enable them to deal more appropriately with cases of sexual offence; strict adherence to Vishaka Guidelines and among others – only then the impact of the changes on the ground will be felt.
You can also provide comparative analysis of foreign countries where deterrence by effective implementation of laws have helped to prevent such instances.
Government can make any amount of stringent law, but the situation will not change till the police remains what it is and the judiciary remains what it is. Therefore, solution lies in “speedy justice and ensuring that the culprits are punished.” Deterrence by effective implementation of laws is the pressing need.
Best answer: (No best answers)
5. General elections and assembly elections should be held at the same time in order to avoid the current situation wherein the focus of the ruling parties remains more on polls than governance. Critically comment.
Since question asks – ‘Critically comment’ – Provide evidence taken from a wide range of sources which both agree with and contradict an argument.
Come to a final conclusion, basing your decision on what you judge to be the most important factors and justify how you have made your choice.
India until 1967 had the practice of conducting simultaneous elections i.e. general and assembly elections. Once again the topic has come to forefront after Prime minister and President mooted the idea to avoid the current situation wherein the focus of the ruling parties remains more on polls than governance.
Pros of simultaneous elections:
Simultaneous polls would reduce
the massive expenditure that is currently incurred for the conduct of separate elections;
the policy paralysis that results from the imposition of the Model Code of Conduct during election time; and
impact on delivery of essential services and
burden on crucial manpower that is deployed during election time.
Cons of simultaneous elections:
Simultaneous elections will hamper the federal nature of Indian democracy. States might lose their independence and thus impact their growth
Simultaneous elections can create confusion among the voters as majority of Indians are illiterate, people tend to vote for political parties rather than individuals and many a times they will vote for the same party both in the centre and is the state.
implementation constraints and administrative constraints – constitutional amendments, capacity of EC to provide logistical support, deployment of huge number of security personnel also not feasible etc
Problems like hung election results, untimely dissolution question feasibility of such actions.
Provide suitable conclusion.
Best answer: Shobhit Jaiswal
Government has come up with the concept of organising General elections and assembly elections simultaneously to avoid the moral code of conduct paralyse the functioning of the government. This issue is highly debatable as it leads to an effective governance but its implementation is an up-hill task.
Benefits that will arise:
#Central government will be able to focus its attention on governance and effective administration rather than shifting its focus to polls. With the initiation of the moral code of government the government is unable to announce or implement any new policy, transfer or any other development work.
#Staggered elections are financially draining and costs a huge fortune to the government. Many saved from staggered elections can be utilised in strengthening public investment.
However on the other side there are many impediments to this concept as well.
#Simultaneous elections will hamper the federal nature of the country as people tend to vote for political parties rather than individuals and many a times they will vote for the same party both in the centre and is the state.
#Implementation of this concept is a nightmare as state government terms have to be modified to align with the central government term.
#Political parties are held accountable through frequent elections which losses its prupose through simultaneous elections.
Simultaneous elections are not utopian but they require delebration and confidence building measures among all the stakeholders before being implemented in India.
Before concluding into a need for change in elections, govt can follow various other ways to ensure governance is not affected like amending MCC etc. the immediate needs which warrants attention are pressing issues like opacity in political funding, exploitation of social groups as votebanks etc which can threaten the democratic fabric of India.