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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [31st Jan] – Day 12

  • February 1, 2017
  • 3
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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [31st Jan] – Day 12

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1. The late 1970s and the 1980s were a period of political crisis. Do you agree? Discuss.

Introduction:

The decades of 1970 and 1980 re considered as the dark period in the political history of modern India.

Body:

  1. Imposition of emergency on the grounds of internal disturbance brought about huge political crisis.
  2. Several constitutional amendments passed during Mrs. Gandhi’s regime shook the base of constitution.
  3. Janata government led by Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. Tribunals were established to investigate Emergency-era abuses, and Indira and Sanjay Gandhi were arrested after a report from the Shah Commission.
  4. The infighting in the Janata government led to its dissolution and the coming of Charan Singh government with congress support from outside.
  5. Even before the confidence motion was tabled in the Parliament the congress withdrew its support, so the Charan Singh government remained in power without facing the parliament for several months.
  6. Various insurgencies erupted. In state of Punjab demand of Khalistan and launch of operation Blue star created havoc in the nation. In 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots erupted in Delhi and parts of Punjab causing the deaths of thousands.
  7. North East India was paralyzed owing to the ULFA’s clash with Government forces.
  8. Indira Gandhi the then prime minister was assassinated in 1984 again this led to lot of political instability till finally Rajiv Gandhi was chosen as her successor.
  9. The Janata Government Dismissed the Non-Congress governments in the states and imposed the Presidents Rule extending the instability to the states, the congress again did the same thing with non-congress governments.

Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion.

 

Best Answer: Bhoomi Sharma

India faced many ups and downs in late 1970s and 1980s The political crisis faced during this time can be seen by following points:

1970s:

1)India intervened in Bangladesh Liberation War.

2)Relations with the United States grew strained and India signed a 20-year treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union breaking explicitly for the first time from non-alignment.

3)Imposition of emergency on the grounds of internal disturbance brought about huge political crisis.

4)Several constitutional amendments passed during Mrs.Gandhi’s regime shook the base of constitution.

5) Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. Tribunals were established to investigate Emergency-era abuses, and Indira and Sanjay Gandhi were arrested after a report from the Shah Commission.

1980s:
1)Vrious insurgencies erupted. In state of Punjab demand of Khalistan and launch of operation Blue star created havoc in the nation.In 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots erupted in Delhi and parts of Punjab causing the deaths of thousands.

2)North East India was paralysed owing to the ULFA’s clash with Government forces.

3)India in 1987 brokered an agreement between the Government of Sri Lanka and agreed to deploy troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict led by the LTTE. But the situation turned violent.

4) Bofors scandal broke which revealed that senior government officials had taken bribes over defence contracts by a Swedish guns producer.

5)Janta dal came into power and statrted coalition era. after few months Bjp withdrew which led to the demise of the power. Then janta dal also got divided and got support from congress and formed janta dal socialist but congress also drew back. This showed the political instability.

Hence it can be said that the late 1970s and 1980s face political crisis in different forms.


2. The triumph over Pakistan in 1971 was a watershed moment in post -independence India. Elucidate.

Introduction:

The war of 1971 was not just a war between two countries but was a watershed moment in the histories of three countries.

Body:

  1. Liberation of Bangladesh not proved the military might of India but also projected it as the protector of Human rights and civil liberties against an exploitative state.
  2. 1971 war was the biggest military victories in the modern era. Realizing this Pakistan changed its whole war strategy and followed a new kind of “bleed it through thousand cuts” formula with the aid of terrorism.
  3. Cutting off Pakistan’s access to Indian Ocean and South Asia with the loss of Bangladesh has been a huge strategic gain for India.
  4. To secure itself against a possible US-China intervention in case of war, a 20 year Indo-Soviet treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation was signed. Shimla Declaration is a landmark in which both sides decided to resolve Kashmir issue bilaterally.
  5. India was able to fend off the external pressure from USA as to the independent conducting of its diplomatic policy and friendship with Russia.
  6. India didn’t ask help from neither Russia nor USA as upholding the NAM principles.
  7. Indian nuclear tests of 1974 to boost its defenses led to its entry in the “Nuclear club”.

Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion.

 

Best Answer: Rex

  1. In the Sixties, India had to suffer through famines, a very humiliating military defeat by China, a faltering economy and the death of arguably, modern India’s founding father Nehru.
  2. The triumph over Pak in 1971 proved to be a watershed moment in post-Independence India:
  3. Our armed forces’ swift, comprehensive victory over the Pak forces proved that we had been right to bolster our defenses after 1962. This was confirmation that we were moving in the right direction and this would lead to the eventual development of our forces’ in to one of the World’s best militaries.
  4. India aligned with the USSR, and resisted threats of the Western nations = demonstrated a resurgence in our foreign policy and independent decision making.
  • Indira Gandhi’s popularity and power knew no bounds – enabled her to take decisions like Pokhran I.
  1. Pakistan, having lost half its territory, would redouble its efforts to support separatist movements in India.
  2. The newly created Bangladesh, would remain an ally (for most of the times) — and India rose as the dominant regional power.
  3. With our meagre resources, we won a war, and dealt with a massive refugee crisis in the face of relentless international opposition. So, I believe that the greatest benefit to come out of this was the great boost to our confidence.

3. The politics of reservation reached its zenith with the recommendations of the Mandal Commission. What were the long term repurcussions of the recommendations? Examine.

Broadly three aspects are to be touched in this question. An intro with the basic recommendation of the Mandal Commission, how it affected the caste based politics in India and long term repercussions of it.

The Mandal Commission was established in India in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to “identify the socially or educationally backward.” It was headed by Indian parliamentarian B.P. Mandal to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination, and used eleven social, economic, and educational indicators to determine backwardness.

The Commission suggested the following steps:

  1. The reservation of 27 per cent jobs be made for those who do not qualify on the basis of merit.
  2. The reservation of 27 per cent be made for promotions at all levels.
  3. The reserved quota, if unfilled, should be carried forward for a period of three years and de-reserved thereafter.
  4. Age relaxation for the backward classes should be the same as it is in the case of the SCs and the STs
  5. A roster system should be prepared for the backward classes on the pattern of the one done for the SCs and the STs.
  6. The principle of reservation should be made applicable to all the public sector undertakings, banks, private undertakings receiving grants from the central and state governments, universities and colleges.
  7. The government should make the necessary legal provisions for implementing these recommendations. The Commission recommended the implementation of an intensive and time-bound programme for adult education, particu­larly for the backward classes, and the setting up of residential schools for the backward class students.

The principle of reser­vation of 27 per cent was suggested for seats in educational institutions as well as in jobs. Suggestions for the economic upliftment of the backward classes were also made by the Commission with a view to bring about structural changes in Indian society.

Once 27% reservation was announced in 1990, there were broadly three types of after effects.

Firstly, It is said that in India people don’t cast their vote, they vote their caste. The political parties for their political gains made it a burning issue to get more votes. Political parties started behaving as the Messiahs of the lower castes and OBCs and tried to win their votes by talking about caste based issues.

The other type of Political parties which now claimed that proclaimed that now upper caste is threatened by the lower castes and they will not support the reservation.

The third type of effect is the socio – political effect where different regional castes, which were not included in the original list of OBCs, started agitations for their inclusion in the list so that they can also avail the benefits of reservation. Some of the most recent examples are – Jat agitation in Haryana and Rajasthan and Patel agitation in Gujarat.

NOTE: Reservation has got both positive and negative effects. While writing an answer on such an issue be more objective and take a balanced informed stand rather than an emotional.

PS: The above information that is given in this synopsis is for your information. Do not take it as a model answer.

 

Best answer : Kartik

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4. What security implications does illegal immigration have for India? Discuss. What are the prominent escape routes to India? How can this problem be resolved? Discuss.

Illegal immigration influx poses a grave threat both to the identity of the people and to our national security.

Security implications posed by Illegal Immigrants:

  • Illegal immigration has threatened to change the demography of states in India and several other states in the world, so much so that there is a pervasive fear in these societies that the states’ ethnic composition will change in favour of the migrant.
  • Frequent ethnic clashes involving natives and settlers (who are illegal migrants). Example – Conflicts in Assam.
  • Linkages found between illegal immigrants and underground gangs, terrorist organisations and insurgent groups are also of serious security concern.
  • The continuation of the immigration influx would not only destabilize our country’s socio-cultural and political parameters but also enable external actors like Pakistan and China to influence events in the Northeast.
  • External actors were able to influence political developments not only in the peripheral states of the Northeast but also created vital destabilizing linkages within India’s strategic heartland.
  • Allows terrorism to grow thus weakens the internal security. Illegal immigrants are also involved in gun running, fake currency rackets and drug running.

Prominent escape routes to India

Through land

India and Bangladesh border: The sealing of India’s border with Bangladesh has always been a problem. It is particularly notorious for its porosity. A large part of this border is riverine and rivers keep changing their course. In the rainy season the flood water often uproots border pillars.

Nepal and Bhutan Border: Since India is having open borders with Nepal and Bhutan; this is used as the easiest route to enter India.

India-Pakistan border: diverse and harsh geographic boundary makes it difficult for security forces to monitor and easy for immigrants to slip in. (Ex – Thar desert in Rajasthan, the valleys and passes in Kashmir)

Through Seas

Long Coastline: There were some instances of immigrants from Pakistan and Sri Lanka entering into India through sea routes.

To resolve these problems:

Use of high technological solutions – To secure sensitive areas, the government now wants to make “full use of technological solutions”. This will be achieved by “networking of equipments like high resolution cameras, radars, unattended ground sensors, optical fibres, infra-red sensors, aerostats, hand-held thermal imagers, etc. and integration of these with command and control architecture.” The use of high-tech gadgets to keep watch over riverine areas or those areas which are difficult to seal could prove to be useful.

Diplomatic Effort – India has to make diplomatic effort to get Bangladesh to cooperate as illegal migration cannot be solved in an effective manner unless sending country cooperates. Sharing of digital database of its citizens will make it easier.

Coercive Diplomacy– The action of security forces should clearly convey to the illegal migrants that they would face greater danger if they try to cross the border.

Better Border Management– Fencing, construction of border roads and proper management of border will make a difference

Unique Identification Number (UID) scheme – Compilation of data is likely to reduce the comfort level of fresh illegal migrants.

Bar from Voting rights– Illegal immigrants who are already in could be allowed to work but should not be allowed to vote and this will diminish their ability to influence government decisions by being a political force.

Make immigration and refugee laws at par with European nations. India does not have a law for refugees and it is time to enact one.

Along with the above steps India should also aim to stabilize and develop its neighbours economically as that would be the most feasible permanent solution.

 

Best answer: ashis kar

Illegal Immigration in India can take place and does takes place from its unstable and economically backward neighbors namely Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh. Immigration is high from these countries due to several reasons- extremism, religious atrocities, unemployment, and poverty.

How do immigrants migrate illegally into India:

Through land: The diverse and harsh geographic boundary India makes it difficult for security forces to monitor and easy for immigrants to sip in. Thar desert in Rajasthan, the valleys and passes in Kashmir, though porous borders of Nepal and forest of west Bengal.

Through Seas: Though it is difficult to get inside India via sea route thanks to our vigil navy but some immigration from Pakistan does happen via this route.

Implications of illegal immigration:

–>Put more pressure on the already scare resources avail at hand considering India has to –support 7 % of world population 2.3 % of world resource.

–>Makes difficult for govt to identify true benefiaries for schemes and benefits. It also harms the statistical analysis.

–>Affects security of country and makes more prone to terrorist attacks.

What can be done to resolve the problems:

–>Firstly, try to stop the immigration from all sources by getting in talks with neighboring nations.

–>The implementation of aadhar and other modes of registrations should be pursued more aggressively as that will identify immigrants

–>Make immigration and refugee laws at par with European nations. India does not have a law for refugees and it time it enacts one.

Along with the above steps India should also aim to stabilize and develop its neighbours economically as that would be the most feasible permanent solution.


5. What is ‘Skill India’ mission? What are its components and objectives? Explain.

Skill India Mission is a revised version of programmes launched earlier under the skill development policy. The National mission will converge, coordinate, implement and monitor skilling activities across India. It will also be a vehicle to achieve the objectives of the National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015, which will provide policy direction and guidance to all stakeholders in the skill development and entrepreneurship ecosystem.

Objectives of ‘Skill India’

The main goal is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth and to develop more of those sectors which have already been put under skill development for the last so many years and also to identify new sectors for skill development. The new programme aims at providing training and skill development to 500 million youth of our country by 2020, covering each and every village. Various schemes are also proposed to achieve this objective.

Components of Skill India Mission:

  1. National Skill Development Mission: The Mission has been developed to create convergence across sectors and States in terms of skill training activities.
  2. National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015: To provide an umbrella framework to all skilling activities being carried out within the country, to align them to common standards and link the skilling with demand centres.
  3. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY): This scheme will mobilize and enable the youth so that they undergo outcome based skill training and be eligible to be employed well and earn their livelihood better.
  4. Skill Loan scheme: To support youth who wish to go through skill training programmes in the Country. Any Indian National who has secured admission in a course under the skill India scheme can avail loan for the purpose.

End your answer with an apt conclusion.

Best answer: Oolong ” D Philosopher” Slayer

Skill India is a campaign launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 15 July 2015 with an aim to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022. Ministry of Skill development and entrepreneurship is the nodal ministry for its implementation.

COMPONENTS:

It includes various initiatives of the government like:

  1. National Skill Development Mission : The Mission has been developed to create convergence across sectors and States in terms of skill training activities.
  2. National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 : To provide an umbrella framework to all skilling activities being carried out within the country, to align them to common standards and link the skilling with demand centres.
  3. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY): This scheme will mobilize and enable the youth so that they undergo outcome based skill training and be eligible to be employed well and earn their livelihood better.
  4. Skill Loan scheme: To support youth who wish to go through skill training programmes in the Country. Any Indian National who has secured admission in a course under the skill India scheme can avail loan for the purpose.

OBJECTIVES:

-The main goal is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth.

– To develop more of those sectors which have already been put under skill development for the last so many years.

– To identify new sectors for skill development.

– The new programme aims at providing training and skill development to 500 million youth of our country by 2020, covering each and every village.

Skill India mission is expected to be a mass campaign involving the youth to encourage them to take up skilling and vocational training to improve their employability. The industry is undergoing acute skill shortage and most of the people trained are being absorbed by the industry. This is a right step towards arming the youth with skills needed by the markets.

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