1. Many western nations consider it as their moral right to intervene in the internal matters of other nations on the pretext of humanitarian crisis or lack of democracy. How far such interventions are ethical? Analyse.
The foreign intervention into domestic affairs of a country has been done on many pretexts like promoting democracy, protecting the minority communities and for liberating people from an oppressing dictator.
The intervention can be ethical if done for promoting the civil rights, democracy or for protecting the human rights of the people,
But more often than not the intervention has different underlying reasons:
Strategic interests of the foreign country: USA’s intervention in Afghanistan was not to protect people but to safeguard its interest against the Russian onslaught.
Economic motives: the intervening country often supplies arms and ammunitions to both the sides, maximizing its profits, the longer the war extends the greater the economic benefits, hence it does in its own economic interest rather than to promote Human rights.
Western countries in the garb of democracy want to promote capitalism in the region/country, which is done by acquiring the mining rights in that country and also using it as a market for their products.
The standard of living and the human capital of the local country is hit badly as the markets, schools, hospitals are destroyed and the people are killed and maimed badly, this sets the country back by decades.
The traditions and culture of the host country are replaced by the foreign culture, which creates a feeling of alienation in the people.
2. Why is it imperative to have a rule bound corporate governance set up even in private companies? Examine. Where do Indian companies stand in this regard? Discuss.
Corporate governance broadly refers to the mechanisms, relations, and processes by which a corporation is controlled and is directed. It involves balancing the many interests of the stakeholders of a corporation.
As per Cadbury Committee “Corporate Governance is a system by which companies are directed and controlled to ensure future growth and survival of the business”. Corporate governance consists of rules that direct the roles and actions of key people rather than processes. Unlike simple policies and procedures, such as a dress code or expense reimbursement procedure, corporate governance rules focus on creating better management and fewer ethical or legal problems.
Examples of corporate governance include setting rules for using business funds for personal use; serving on a board of directors; hiring family members; conflicts of interest; notifying owners, investors and partners of key meetings and decisions; and disbursing profits.
Benefits of rule bound corporate governance:
1. Improved Reputation: A corporate governance program can boost your company’s reputation. If you publicize your corporate governance policies and detail how they work, more stakeholders will be willing to work with the company.
2. Fewer Fines, Penalties, Law suits: Corporate governance includes instituting policies that require the company to take specific steps to stay compliant with local, state and federal rules, regulations and laws. E.g. companies may require external audit of the accounts to show that their finances are used appropriately.
3. Decreased Conflicts and Fraud: Corporate governance limits the potential for bad behavior of employees by instituting rules to reduce potential fraud and conflict of interest. For example, the company might draft a conflict of interest statement that top executives must sign, requiring them to disclose and avoid potential conflicts, such as awarding contracts to family members or contracts in which an executive has an ownership interest.
The Companies Act, 2013 has brought many changes in the corporate governance structure, by making it mandatory to have independent directors, women directors, codifying the role of Directors and mandatory appointment of audit committee, CSR committee etc.
Indian has seen many cases where reputed companies have been found guilty of fraud, e.g. the Satyam scam, the Sahara scam etc. which have proved that the promotors and directors prioritized personal ambitions over that of the company.
The power tussle between the promotors and the independent directors, is another major issue.
Lack of clarity on the company policies, even by the highly positions officials.
Ambiguity in the role of CEOs, Directors, failure to appoint statutory women Directors etc. have shown that India has still a long way to go in accepting and implementing the rule based corporate governance
3. Government officials are often accused for their laid back approach and non- professionism. Where does the problem lie in your opinion? Examine.
Several reasons can be attributed to laid back approach and non – professionalism:
Government workers don’t get an incentive to work hard, like in private sector. Their promotions and allowances are linked with their seniority rather than efficiency.
Job security in government sector gives an impression that once you join it is very difficult for anyone to fire you.
Lack of transparency and accountability.
For the same amount of work salaries are much lesser as compared to the private sector.
Government is just a service provider and a citizen is a client which deserves to get the service. But the in India, it is considered that government is the master and a citizen has to beg to get his work done. However, this scenario has been changing in recent years, especially after RTI act was passed.
Procedural hurdles – Everything has to be done by the book, even if it is logically wrong. So even when the officials want to act quickly, they get stuck by the procedures.
Loopholes in selection process and nepotism results in selection of inefficient people.
Lack of training in work ethics. Officials lack in basic qualities like empathy, integrity, forbearance etc.
Despite these problems in many states the work culture is changing. Political leadership and senior officers need to take the lead so that others can follow. Strict office procedures should be made and followed. An officers doing good work should get proper recognition.
4. The terror investigation apparatus in India is in fire need of an overhaul. Comment.
With terrorists widely using social media for their propaganda and new threats emerging, there is a dire need for an overhaul in the terror investigation apparatus in India.
Highlight on the need to strengthen anti-terror laws eg. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, by providing some of its limitations.
Government should consider legal protection for undercover operation, use of intelligence collected as evidence and entire gamut of issues relevant to combating terrorism while formulating policies.
Due to widespread use of social media by terrorists, new threats have been emerging in the country. To face these challenges, the present capabilities of specialised organisations like Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-IN), Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) need to be strengthened.
Government should also examine enactment of Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act to provide legal sanction for evidence obtained through Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and remove doubts about admissibility of such evidence.
Government should take various steps to improve the quality of investigation and revamp the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network Systems (CCTNS) project for complete computerization of the working of police and extend it to court, jail, prosecution and forensic laboratories.
To investigate crime against women, dedicated Investigative Units on Crime against Women (IUCAW) should be established.
India would have to wage a long drawn battle against terror. The attack in Mumbai, India’s financial capital and its symbol of economic growth, was a stark reminder of the grim reality that the spectre of terrorism will continue to haunt the nation. It was also a warning bell to India that the steps it has taken to counter the threat are not working. If India’s dream of being a dominant power in the 21st century is not to be shattered, it would have to improve its anti-terror laws and terror investigation apparatus.
5. Mongolia holds immense strategic importance for India. In the light of this statement, examine India’s Mongolia policy vis a vis China.
India and Mongolia have interacted through history over a period of 2600 years. Following the emergence of Mongolia as a modern nation state in the 20th century, the two countries have continued to build relations based on shared historical and cultural legacy.
Over the years India’s relationship with Mongolia has been widening to include strategic elements such as the import of uranium from Mongolia. Defence cooperation has grown and the militaries of the two countries conduct Exercise “Nomadic Elephant” regularly. Consultation between the National Security Councils of the two countries since 2006 covers aspects such as cyber security. Cooperation between India’s Border Security Force (BSF) and Mongolia’s General Authority of Border Protection (GABP) helps build inter-operability as well as enhance GABP’s capacity to manage its vast border with China.
Trade between the two countries have been constrained due to the lack of infrastructure in Mongolia. Uranium exploration is being keenly pursued, other resources include gold, copper and iron ore that are present in vast quantities in Mongolia. This mining boom in the country is the key reason behind the high growth rates being experienced in the country.
Other areas of cooperation include the nuclear and defence sectors. Recently, the two countries inked an agreement for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and arrangements were made for nuclear physicists from Mongolia to study in India. There also exist vast potential for the development of renewable energy especially wind and solar energy.
India should consider Mongolia as a green zone of economic development that absorbs hi-tech features and production skills in a modernization process. India should invest in agro-farming in the vast Mongolian steppes.
At the diplomatic level, India and Mongolia have the potential to work together in regional and sub-regional groupings. Strategically, Indian and Mongolian interests in China and Central Asia coincide. Mongolia has been consulting India on issues relating to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In this context, India and Mongolia must cooperate to fight against terrorism and fundamentalism.
Mongolia is located in close proximity to China’s volatile regions. Surely, internal developments in China will also have implications for both Mongolia and India.
Mongolia plays a key role in Asian energy transportation as it falls on the crossroads of major energy supply routes.
India also needs to factor Mongolia in its Russia policy as well, for safeguarding interests in the Asia-Pacific region. India’s benign presence in Mongolia is desirable for India’s future interest in Russia’s resource-rich trans-Siberia and Far East.
To preserve and promote the common heritage of Indo-Mongolian culture is important. This should serve as the basis for nurturing and pursuing future common interests.
Best answer 1: brainstorm01
Mangoliya is a country geographically sandwiched between Russia and china. Its a country with immense importance for india because of following reasons:
1.its for china what nepal is for India. Since china is regularly increasing its influence over Nepal its important for indi to do the same with Chinese neighbour.
2.In any situation of hostility from china’s side mangoliya can provide us with immense support.
3.it have large resources of minerals including uranium and can help us meet raw material needs.
4.It is one important trading partner of india and also has cultural relationship being Buddhist nation.
India’s foreign policy seems to be recognizind mangoliya ‘s strategic and economic importance. In his three day visit honourable pm visited mangoliya and promoted relationship. It seems India’s foreign policy has adopted right direction towards mangoliya. It still needs more initiatives in this regards thought.
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