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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [6th April] – Day 58

  • IASbaba
  • April 16, 2017
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IASbaba's Think Learn and Perform 2017, UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [6th April] – Day 58

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1.Burning wastes and garbage is a lethal source of pollution. Why? What are its adverse effects? Which part of the country is most affected by this problem? Are there any guidelines or regulations to control it? Discuss.

One of the processes of waste disposal is incineration i.e burning of solid waste in the presence of oxygen. Once the waste material is burned, its net volume is reduced to less than one third as ash, and it becomes easy to dispose it in a dumping site.  But burning of solid waste has got many adverse environmental effects like:

  • The fly ash gets suspended in air increasing the amount of PM 2.5 and PM 10.
  • Many heavy metal impurities are present in the waste. Burning them releases heavy metal oxides which are carcinogenic or can cause heavy metal poising too.
  • Burning of plastic materials also releases dioxins.
  • Smoke and ash in case of temperature inversion can cause smog and photochemical smog which is highly poisonous.
  • It decreases the life expectancy and cause many physiological and psychological disorders in children.
  • Adversely affect the growth of plants and vegetation.

(Note: Many more points can be added to this list.)

Most of highly prone areas are the metro cities in which the smoke gets trapped and affect a large population. Recent example was the smog of Delhi. Other important cities which are affected by this problem are Bangalore, Mumbai, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Hyderabad etc.

Burning waste is an offence under waste management legislation and the Air Pollution Act 1987. The Waste Management (Prohibition of Waste Disposal by Burning) Regulations 2009 strengthen the law against waste disposal by uncontrolled burning, which is also known as backyard burning.

Under Regulation 5, there is a limited exemption for the burning of uncontaminated waste generated by agricultural practices. Under the Waste Management (Prohibition of Waste Disposal by Burning) (Amendment) Regulations 2015, this exemption will cease on 1 January 2018.

Recently NGT has imposed a complete ban on burning of waste in open including garbage, leaves, plastic and crop residues. Violators will be fined up to Rs 5000.

Best Answer: GATSBY

https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/c814ab29b842756d7a7e73fe0beab1f29a32c4aa029cd37d0455adba326383c5.jpg

https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/e42aa62fc6956aa057bc2b2f82d19614cb45a11e3f25b5e754593015bed88bfa.jpg


2. What are the principles of EIA? Also discuss the significance of EIA.

Guiding principles of EIA good practice
Principles Practical application
Source: Sadler, 1996; IAIA and IEMA, 1999.
Purposive EIA should meet its aims of informing decision making and ensuring an appropriate level of environmental protection and human health.
Focused EIA should concentrate on significant environmental effects, taking into account the issues that matter.
Adaptive EIA should be adjusted to the realities, issues and circumstances of the proposals under review.
Participative EIA should provide appropriate opportunities to inform and involve the interested and affected publics, and their inputs and concerns should be addressed explicitly.
Transparent EIA should be a clear, easily understood and open process, with early notification procedure, access to documentation, and a public record of decisions taken and reasons for them.
Rigorous EIA should apply the ‘best practicable’ methodologies to address the impacts and issues being investigated.
Practical EIA should identify measures for impact mitigation that work and can be implemented.
Credible EIA should be carried out with professionalism, rigor, fairness, objectivity, impartiality and balance.
Efficient EIA should impose the minimum cost burden on proponents consistent with meeting process requirements and objectives.

 

Creation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system is vital to conform socio-economic development projects to environmental safety and thereby ensure sustainable economic development. In view of the fact that development is an ever-growing process, its impact on the environment is also ever increasing, leading to rapid deterioration in environmental conditions. As such environmental assessment provides a rational approach to sustainable development. It also enables us in carrying out environmental cost-benefit analysis of projects at an initial stage. It is thus a precursor to detailed analysis of environmental impacts, which are taken up only if a need for the same is established. Comprehensive EIA is usually conducted after the rapid EIA and sometime after accruing a formal approval. It helps the planning and management to take long-term measures for effective management as well as environment conservation.

Best Answer : NO best Answer


3. Elaborate upon the concept of Social Impact Assessment (SIA). Why SIA is important?

Introduction:

Social impact assessment refers to the process of monitoring and analysing the outcomes, both desired and undesired of any initiative (Govt o Pvt; policy, programme, scheme, rules,etc).

SIA and its importance was highlighted during the 2014 land acquisition bill controversy, when the diluted SIA provisions in the proposed bill led to massive protests.

Body:

The important features of this definition are that:

  1. The goal of impact assessment is to bring about a more ecologically, socio-culturally and economically sustainable and equitable environment. Impact assessment, therefore, promotes community development and empowerment, builds capacity, and develops social capital (social networks and trust).
  2. The focus of concern of SIA is a proactive stance to development and better development outcomes, not just the identification or amelioration of negative or unintended outcomes. Assisting communities and other stakeholders to identify development goals, and ensuring that positive outcomes are maximised, can be more important than minimising harm from negative impacts.
  3. The methodology of SIA can be applied to a wide range of planned interventions, and can be undertaken on behalf of a wide range of actors, and not just within a regulatory framework.
  4. SIA contributes to the process of adaptive management of policies, programs, plans and projects, and therefore needs to inform the design and operation of the planned intervention.
  5. SIA builds on local knowledge and utilises participatory processes to analyse the concerns of interested and affected parties. It involves stakeholders in the assessment of social impacts, the analysis of alternatives, and monitoring of the planned intervention.
  6. The good practice of SIA accepts that social, economic and biophysical impacts are inherently and inextricably interconnected. Change in any of these domains will lead to changes in the other domains. SIA must, therefore, develop an understanding of the impact pathways that are created when change in one domain triggers impacts across other domains, as well as the iterative or flow-on consequences within each domain. In other words, there must be consideration of the second and higher order impacts and of cumulative impacts.
  7. In order for the discipline of SIA to learn and grow, there must be analysis of the impacts that occurred as a result of past activities. SIA must be reflexive and evaluative of its theoretical bases and of its practice.
  8. While SIA is typically applied to planned interventions, the techniques of SIA can also be used to consider the social impacts that derive from other types of events, such as disasters, demographic change and epidemics.

Conclusion:

Write a suitable conclusion.

 

Best answer: abhishekrwt597

Social impact assessment refers to the process of monitoring and analysing the outcomes, both desired and undersired of any initiative(Govt o Pvt; policy, programme, scheme, rules,etc).
SIA and its importance was highlighted during the 2014 land acquisition bill controversy, when the diluted SIA provisions in the proposed bill led to massive protests.

SIA is important because:

1)At a fundamental level, SIA examines outcomes and thus increases accountability and enriches local governance.

2)Govt policies and programmes are often not holistic(single department may formulate it), and formulate from the view point of the Govt, without adequate local participation. SIA helps to highlight the shortcomings of such policy.

3)Govt programmes often have NEGATIVE SPILLOVERS AND EXTERNALITIES (Eg Land acquisition may lead to resource displacement). these are also highlighted by SIA.

4) By highlighting program shortcomings and needed corrections, it IMPROVES POLICY MAKING.

5) In a diverse country like India, the impact of a policy is going to vary from community to community. To better understand and account for these impacts, SIA is needed.

6)Lastly, SIA ensures that any policy implementation benefits all stakeholders involved.Thus, it promotes INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT.

(can add how SIA can be a hindrance too, delay projects, ease of doing business and investor confidence and investments, often misspreading of information eg in INO)
CONCLUSION


4. What is Sendai Framework? What are the guidelines of this framework? Do you think India’s disaster management apparatus is compliant to these guidelines? Examine.

Introduction:

Sendai Framework is a 15 year (2015-2030) non-binding voluntary agreement which recognizes that states has the primary role to reduce disaster risk an also that responsibility of disaster should be shared with other stakeholders such as private sector , local government and other stakeholders.

Body:

The Seven Global Targets

(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.

(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.

(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.

(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.

(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.

(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.

(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

The Four Priorities for Action

Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk

Disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be used for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.

Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk

Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership.

Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience

Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment.

Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

The growth of disaster risk means there is a need to strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, and ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. The recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures.

Implementation guides for the Sendai Framework

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction charts the global course over the next 15 years. During the consultations and negotiations that led to its finalization, strong calls were made to develop practical guidance to support implementation, ensure engagement and ownership of action by all stakeholders, and strengthen accountability in disaster risk reduction.

Conclusion:

Write a suitable conclusion.

 

Best answer: Neha

Sendai Framework is a 15 year(2015-2030) non binding voluntary agreement which recognizes that states has the primary role to reduce disaster risk an also that responsibility of disaster should be shared with other stakeholders such as private sector , local govt.and other stakeholders.
Guidelines of the Sendai framework:
1.Understanding the Risk:
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster
3.Investing in Disaster risk reduction for resilience
4.Enhancing Disaster Preparedness through early warning , information dissemination and 3 R’s i.e Recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.
India is suffering from both man-made and natural disasters .India’s disaster apparatus needs to upgraded and investment is required in building resilient infrastructure and early detection system for better preparedness for disaster related risks.


5. Loan waivers to farmers is a welcome move but it ignores the causative factors behind agrarian distress. Do you agree? Analyse the issue.

Model Answer and best answer: Abhishekrwt597

The recent decision of the UP govt to waive off farmer loans to the extent of 36000 cr has brought much needed respite to the farming community.

However, any gains from such a move are at risk of being short lived and temporary as it doesnt tackle the root cause of agrarian distress:

1)Loan waiver is merely a financial solution to what is a socio economic problem.

2)Excess population dependency and reducing land size of farm holdings(due to inheritance caused divisions). Until comprehensive land reforms that promote initiatives like cooperative farming are undertaken, such distresses are likely to become periodic in nature.

3)Over dependence on agriculture is also due to absence of ALTERNATE LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES IN THE rural areas, beside little diversification within the agri sector itself. Schemes such as SGSY, ARYA, etc are needed to address this.

4)Absence of formal financial sector linkages: despite PMJDY, absence of a verifiable credit history means banks are still unwilling to lend to farmers. Subsistence borrowing, rather than to investment in land, means, that crop returns that help pay off loan don’t materialise.

5)Faulty Govt policies: Policies such as skewed MSP, open procurement policy, subsidised fertiliser, water and electricity has resulted in inefficient farm practices that increase govt dependence and reduce produtivity.

6)Lack of Agri-market reforms (E NAM and APMC reforms), forward and backward linkages(Biotech, cooperative farming,etc), poor infrastructure(food security but not economic access, lower price realisation due to poor storage ability), lack of comprehensive and prompt insurance cover(PMFBY), little localised advanced weather or soil information(Despite rain dependency, SHC as a solution),etc.

Conclusion: write a brief conclusion.

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