1. Devotion is a recurring theme in Indian classical dance forms. Discuss.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles, whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
The Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes eight – Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri and Mohiniyattam. These dances have been regional showing diversity of styles, costumes, languages and traditions but one thing that unites them all is it theme – devotion.
Indian classical dances are traditionally performed as an expressive drama-dance form of religious performance art, related to Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, pan-Hindu Epics and the Vedic literature, or a folksy entertainment that includes story-telling from Sanskrit or regional language plays. As a religious art, they are either performed inside the sanctum of a Hindu temple, or near it.
One line on each dance can be added to it. Refer to the best answer.
2.Vibrant colors and also the lack of it characterise Indian paintings. Do you agree? Substantiate by taking suitable examples.
Write a brief introduction.
Indian Painting consists of myriad types and subtypes of paintings, some of which are vibrant, whereas others are much more subdued in nature.
Vibrant Paintings –
In the medieval age, Rajput paintings consisted of bright colors such as red, peacock blue, green, etc.
Influenced by the same Mughal paintings and miniature paintings in the period of Akbar and Jahangir started moving from their usual Golden, Silver colors which reflected royalty to much vibrant colors.
Lepakshi painting are characterized by the earth tones and the nearly complete absence of blue, in fact primary colours in general forms of the figures and the details of their costumes are outlined in black and the colours applied in a flat manner.
In the modern age during nationalist period, Abanindranath Tagore’s Bharat Mata et al, is a good example of bright colors. Raja Ravi Verma’s Shakuntala also reveals usage of bright colors.
Subdued Paintings –
Mughal paintings were long associated with the royal colors of Golden and Silver with exceptions during the reign of Akbar and Jahangir. Such colors although associated with Royalty, they were much less vibrant than the Colors used in Rajput and Pahari Paintings such as Green, Peacock Blue, Red.
Modern paintings by Amrita Shergill, which showed great influence of European Styles and thus less vibrant colors were used.
No best answer.
3.Refinement, purity and devotion characterise the Carnatic style of music. Elaborate.
Write a brief introduction.
Major themes and difference of Carnatic music over Hindustani music.
Usage of Wind Based Instruments as against String based instruments for more refinement.
More emphasis on Vocals as against Music in Hindustani Classical
Devotional Music centred around theme of Gods etc. as against Entertainment in Hindustani Classicals which is evident by the Gharana Systems of North India
The Indigenous nature of the Carnatic Music is also a reason for the refinement as Indian Music predominantly is based on Devotional Nature and purity unlike the Persian Influences on Hindustani Music
Further various musical aspects were associated with the Classical Dances such as Kathakali whcih are centred around Devotion.
The concept of upapakkavadyam does not exist in Hindustani music.
The sarangi is a major accompaniment in Hindustani, while the violin reigns in Carnatic.
Main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music and most compositions are to be sung, involving gayaki style. In Hindustani music vocal- centric group is required. Many instruments are designed to accompany the singer.
The major vocal forms of Hindustani music are Dhrupad, khayal, Tarana, Thumri, Dadra and Gazals. While Carnatic music embraces several varieties of improvisation consist of Alpana, Niraval, kalpnaswaram and Ragam Thana pallavi.
4.What are the recommendations of the Prakash Singh Committee on police reforms? Examine.
Write a brief introduction.
Directive One Constitute a State Security Commission (SSC) to: (i) Ensure that the state government does not exercise unwarranted influence or pressure on the police (ii) Lay down broad policy guideline and (iii) Evaluate the performance of the state police
Directive Two Ensure that the DGP is appointed through merit based transparent process and secure a minimum tenure of two years
Directive Three Ensure that other police officers on operational duties (including Superintendents of Police in-charge of a district and Station House Officers in-charge of a police station) are also provided a minimum tenure of two years
Directive Four Separate the investigation and law and order functions of the police
Directive Five Set up a Police Establishment Board (PEB) to decide transfers, postings, promotions and other service related matters of police officers of and below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police and make recommendations on postings and transfers above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police
Directive Six Set up a Police Complaints Authority (PCA) at state level to inquire into public complaints against police officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police in cases of serious misconduct, including custodial death, grievous hurt, or rape in police custody and at district levels to inquire into public complaints against the police personnel below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police in cases of serious misconduct
Directive Seven Set up a National Security Commission (NSC) at the union level to prepare a panel for selection and placement of Chiefs of the Central Police Organisations (CPO) with a minimum tenure of two years.
Write a suitable conclusion.
Best answer: Faradar
The police reform started very earlier during british colonialism in India and after independence but the function g of this paramont parameter is still not finding its efficient working principles whether it may be control riots, law and order situation or criminal proceedings, in the meantime prakash singh a renowned police officer, with clean records considered as most honest dgp filed a pil in supreme court to suggest reform in police functionality which can be discussed as
Establishnent of police selection board
The selection should be based on transparent, accountable manner with minimum tenure of two years, also includes dgp, sp, dsp etc
Minimization of political interference
The police department must be placed outside the pale of political arena so that they will function as independent bodies with favour and hatred so that public trust would be gained as its services is pivoting around public, it should discharge duties as per the provisions laid in constitution
Establishnent of police complaint authority
There should be state level and district level police complaint authorities
The state level should investigate complaints drawn by public against police officers including sp
District level will investigate cases of or below dsp
Limited tenure to higher personell police officers of two years to decrease power centrilization and political influence
Under same officer haryana government also instituted police commissioner to investigate jat excesses in which 31lives list, it recommended action against some police officers who had not dealt with agitation effectively and gone prescribed jurisprudence but it recieved many critics from different political leaders
Overall the recommendations in both commisions is according to democratic principles and government in no hesitation should implement all recommendations to ensure that police excess and custodial insecurity should be elevated for large public and regaining the lost trust and image which police department is having today
5. Do you agree to the idea of conducting general and assembly elections simultaneously? Analyse the issue.
Write a short introduction.
The merits in such move are:
Reduces expenditure as conduct of elections is an expensive exercise.
Allows the govt and other political parties to focus on policy making and implementation, rather
than remain in campaigning mode.(Prevents policy paralysis)
The indian electorate has matured, and elections at these two levels are fought on and won on separate issues.
Allows for utilisation of CAPF for other important internal security deployments.
Reduces the compulsion to resort to populism,besides fostering greater harmony(elections are usually divisive), and also indirectly reducing money power in electoral politics(lesser no of elections means lesser deployment of illicit money).
Demerits of such a move:
The fact that electorate voting behaviour is influenced by separate factors in the two polls isnt borne out by evidence.(ISSUE OVERLAP)
Diminishes accountability of the elected candidate(Lesser elections=lesser need to be answerable) and prevents course corrections by anti incumbent candidates.
Need for interim elections if the any assembly is prematurely dissolved. If unresolved, may be misused as a tool to implement Presidents rule regularly at the state level.
Charges of extra expenditure are overstated as any extra expenditure is only for the EC(only 4500 cr for 2014 elections, union budget was 21 lac cr).
Similarly, policy paralysis too is an exaggerated allegation as the ruling party can consult EC, which after its satisfaction, can allow the Govt to proceed(Eg this year govt presented budget).