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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [6th March] – Day36

  • IASbaba
  • April 16, 2017
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IASbaba's Think Learn and Perform 2017, UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [6th March] – Day 36

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1. Having multiple ministries creates problem of coordination and hinders good governance. Substantiate by taking suitable examples.

Introduction

Multiple ministries helped in a logical demarcation of duties and power. This led to enhanced accountability and flexibility into the system. Having the supreme executive power divided among the different portfolios, allowed greater specialization and inflow of rich expert advice into the governance.

Body:

At the time of independence, India had only 18 ministries. Over the years, the number of ministries has increased to figures over 50.In present situation Having multiple ministries has become more of a Problem creating rather than problem solving.

The emergence of multiple ministries has impeded good governance in following ways:

  1. Weak integration and coordination: Multiple ministries sometimes due to coalition has led to illogical division of work and lack of an integrated approach. They carve out exclusive turfs and tend to work in isolated silos.
    2. An extended hierarchy with too many levels leads to examination of issues at many levels frequently causing delays in decision making.
    3. Absence of team work due to rigid structures.
    4. Fragmentation of functions making delivery of services inefficient and time-consuming
    5. Undue emphasis on routine functions which leads to reduced focus on policy making.
    6. Tussles between various ministries for budgetary allocations becoming a recurring phenomenon.

These pave the way for growth of serious challenges in terms of coordination & collaboration between various ministries. For example:

  1. Development aspirations of mining industry, infrastructure sector hampers because of long time taken for environmental clearances.
  2. No convergence between Transport ministry & telecom where communication wires lays down after construction of roads.
  3. Smart cities mission require a well-coordinated approach for quick implementation between ULBs, SPVs, Ministry of Urban affairs, ministry of power etc. but getting delayed in lack of coordination
  4. Ministry of Tribal affairs & other ministries have saw divergent thoughts where tribal welfare is sidelined
  5. Lack of cooperation between railways & power where one stopped supply of power because of delay in payment.

What needs to be done to solve this problem?

Integration of Various ministries into one:
1.Ministry of power/Petroleum and Natural Gas/Renewable energy Along with Ministry of environment would led to less Bureaucratic puzzle, less corruption, less Red-Tapism and hence delay in project and environment clearances could be done away with effectively.
2. Similarly integration of Railways/Roads and shipping ministries so to get an integrated transport strategy rather than current mess (Sagar-Mala project can be role model in this regard).

Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion.

 

Best Answer: Ubermensch

At the time of independence, India had only 18 ministries. Over the years, the number of ministries has increased to figures over 50.

The emergence of multiple ministries has impeded good governance in following ways :
1. Weak integration and coordination : Multiple ministries sometimes due to coalition has led to illogical division of work and lack of an integrated approach. They carve out exclusive turfs and tend to work in isolated silos.
2. An extended hierarchy with too many levels leads to examination of issues at many levels frequently causing delays in decision making.
3. Absence of team work due to rigid structures.
4. Fragmentation of functions making delivery of services inefficient and time-consuming
5. Undue emphasis on routine functions which leads to reduced focus on policy making.

Example 1 : ‘Transport’ is an extremely important subject which requires an integrated approach.
a) Ministry of Civil Aviation for air navigation
b) M/o Railways is responsible for all aspects of rail transport
c) M/o Shipping for maritime shipping and navigation
d) M/o Road Transport and Highways and motor vehicles
e) FAME scheme for electric vehicle, an emerging technology for transport lies with Ministry of Heavy Industries.

Example 2: Energy is now being handled by four different departments — Ministry of Power, Coal, Non-conventional Energy Sources, Petroleum and Atomic Energy.
Such fragmented structures has led to weak policy decisions, discouraged team work, increased litigation by govt depts, increased turfs for budgetary allocations. This leads to lack of coordination and inability to adopt an integrated approach to national priorities and problems.
While on one hand, multiple ministries increase focus and specialisation, they lead to organisational imbalances on the other.
Hence there is a need to strike a balance need for functional specialization and the adoption of an integrated approach.


2. Does the executive have legislative powers? Do you think such powers have been misused by the executive? Discuss. Also discuss the constitutional provisions that put a check on the exercise of such powers by the executive.

Introduction:

Indian constitution is not based on an absolute separation of power like that of US. In fact, executives in our country are members of legislature and have legislative power.

Body:

Executive have been provided with Legislative power under article 123;promulgation of ordinance to deal with urgent issues in wake of extraordinary circumstances when legislation is not in session & it is issue of utmost public importance. Same procedure applies at the State level.
Executive also have legislative power known as Subordinate legislation or delegated legislation that allows department/ministries to form rules and regulation for legislation’s implementation.

However, lately there have been instances of misuse of these provisions as following,

  1. Promulgation and Re-Promulgation of Ordinance under Article 123 and 213 on advice of cabinet By President and Governors respectively. This provision has been misused frequently shattering the dreams of our constitution makers.
  2. DC Wadhwa vs Bihar Case: Bihar Government have passed ordinance related to appointment of teachers repeatedly over the years.
  3. Enemy Property Bill: Central government have passed enemy property bill to acquire properties of citizens of enemy country.
  4. Power of speaker of certifying a bill as money bill bypassing the scrutiny of Rajya Sabhja. Recent passing of Aadhaar Bill (Benefits of Subsidies and direct Transfer) 2016.

Constitution, however, has placed many checks on exercise of these powers:

  1. Lapse of ordinance in parliament ifwithin six weeks of first sitting it is not laid before Parliament ;Parliament could either pass it as an act or let it lapse.
  2. Judicial Review of Supreme Court is power vested by constitution to review Acts of executive in accordance to constitution and its legality (Art 32).
  3. Cooper case, 1970 – SC held that President’s satisfaction can be questioned in a court on the ground of malafide.
  4. The institution of the CAG performs the audit of every Rupee spent out of the consolidated fund of India. It ensures economic accountability.
  5. Committee on subordinate legislation review all such rules and can nullify them by submitting report to speaker.

Conclusion:

Give a suitable conclusion

 

BEST ANSWER: Axi Tak

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 3. The nature and role of pressure groups have changed in the last decade. Do you agree? Substantiate.

Introduction:

Pressure group are the interest groups which work to secure certain interest by influencing the public policy. They are non-aligned with any political party and work as indirect yet powerful group to influence the decision.

In India Political parties and pressure groups together play a big role in the struggle of power. In India pressure group arose even during the colonial period. India is developing country having scarcity of resources and acute poverty promoting significant role of pressure group. The aim of these pressure group was to secure economic and political concessions for themselves. Providing crucial component of the structural equilibrium i.e. maintenance function.

The capacity of pressure groups is determined by leadership, organizational abilities, mass media, economic power base and mobilizations technique. Beside this they are using lobbying method, strike, bandh, demonstration, funding political parties, using party platform etc. Even pressure group role is indirect it facilitates many vital roles in administration.

(Here, since question asks for changed role and nature of pressure groups – one has to provide contemporary examples of pressure groups such as FICCI, ASSOCHAM, NASSCOM, Bachpan Bachao andolan etc, how their role is multifaceted, how they influence policies, role of media as pressure group etc.

Below given are the various role of pressure groups (however, one needs to provide examples of different pressure groups for each area and substantiate their views)

Role in legislature-Pressure groups tries to introduce their chosen person into legislature. They help political parties on the eve of election and prepares election manifesto.

Role in executive-Pressure group tries to fill high executive posts with men of their own choice i.e. selection of cabinet, distribution of portfolios and P.M selection due to prevalence of collation government. And henceforth influences policy implementation process.

Role in Bureaucracy- Bureaucrats are politically neutral and hence pressure group tries to oblige them by putting good remarks that protect their interests. Bureaucrats have long tenure and so they be in contact with them to oblige.

Role in judiciary-appointment of judges in political affairs and here pressure groups plays important role in that high judicial offices are occupied by them.

Conclusion:

Existence of pressure group are now indispensable and helpful element of democratic setup. Pressure group promotes national and particular interests, constitute a link of communication between citizen and the government. They provides necessary information and keeps the nation politically alive. Today democratic politics has to be politics through consultation, negotiation and some amount of bargaining. These cannot happen without pressure group. The society has became highly complex and individual cannot pursue their interest on their own, they need pressure group for this. Tom Driberge-“You have only two option with pressure group if you agreed with it then accept it and embrace it and if you are not agreed then ignore it”. Pressure groups are so vital that they are not confined to need of developed or developing nation or any form of government.

 

Best answer: Cool Monk

Pressure groups are such organizations which influence the policy making & executive actions of govt by putting pressure through lobbying, campaigning , propagandazing, strike, speeches, correspondence. Over the years they have contributed immensely for betterment of society such as:

  1. Business PG such as ASSOCHAM, FICCI have causes favorable economic environment creation in nation
  2. Kisan Sangh & others for lobbying their voice for agriculture reforms
  3. Marginalised section getting a voice in decision making process
  4. Diminishing Gap between citizen & govt thus strengthening the participative democracy

With the time PG have evolved and functioning & methodology has been changed such as:

  1. PG were mostly related to policy matters for vested interest of particular class but now they have shifted towards matters of general public importance such as Human rights violation , environmental challenges etc
  2. PG were inactive in initial years of independent india but now they are vocal about issues and impacting the govt decision making process
  3. These groups were relied on peaceful approaches but now few groups have changed their stance to violent approaches such as ABVP, JNUSU

4.PG were reliable & honest but with the vested interest of other nations & foreign funding , they are creating obstruction in governance

  1. PGs in initial years were concentrated in few particular areas & domains such as in metropolitan cities & in areas of economy, agriculture but now they have spread in far flung areas & cover the vast spectrum

PG have contributed immensely being a mouthpiece of downtrodden class. Concerns should be resolved through regular audit, monitoring etc so that they can cooperate with the govt for betterment of nation


4. The banking sector has witnessed a paradigm shift in terms of transaction platforms, reach and type. Discuss. How well this shift comes in sync with the objectives of Digital India and financial inclusion?

Technology, digitisation, social media and mobility are changing our personal lives in a big way and this naturally implies that services such as banks need to respond to this change and reinvent the way they do business.

The last few years have witnessed a transition of banking from a predominantly transactional business to a customer-centric one. This era in which we live today is predominated by the word “Digitization”. This word which has evolved in recent times has undoubtedly become the crux of “Banking Sector” in our country. Banks in our country are no longer made of just bricks & mortar delivery channels. They have surely revolutionized into the concept of anytime, anywhere. New mantra for banks says Digitalize or die.

There are two demands:

  1. To discuss the paradigm shift that the banking sector witnessed in terms of transaction platforms, reach and type. (Provide examples of newly launched digitalized services and transaction platforms – National Payments Corporation of India and its USSD initiative, BHIM App, Aadhar Based Transactions, POS Machines, QR code)

Refer : http://www.ey.com/in/en/industries/financial-services/banking—capital-markets/ey-banking-on-technology-india-banking-industry

  1. Whether this paradigm shift is in sync with the objectives of Digital India and financial inclusion.

To answer this one should be aware of recent technological and digital advancements brought by banking sector especially in the areas of transaction platforms, reach and type.

Also one is required to be aware of objectives of Digital India and financial inclusion.

Explain how the transformation brought by banking sector is in sync with the vision of financial inclusion and Digital India:

  • Making digital infrastructure as a utility to every citizen.
  • Making Governance and public services on demand.
  • Making citizens digitally empowered.
  • To improve ease of doing business through transformed digital services.
  • Financial transactions are to be made cashless and electronic.
  • Universalization of digital literacy.
  • Making digital resource and services available in Indian languages.
  • Making governance citizen participative through collaborative digital platform.

 

Best answer 1: furykk

Banking sector transaction infrastructure has seen a paradigm shift in recent times due to strong push from the government. The changes can be noted as follows-

1) Platform

– Previous on the counter transactions have shifted to digital mode

– Apps like Paytm, MObikwik, BHIM have introduced new platform

– Aadhar Based Transactions, POS Machines, QR code are new platforms developed through technology

2) Reach-

– Multi fold increase in reach to Mobile banking and Business Corespondent Models

– More than 20 cr Jan Dhan Accounts and 90 cr Aadhar Registrations have led to financial inclusion

– Opening of Post Office Payment Bank, Regional Rural Banks and Cooperative Banks have increased penetration

3) Type-

-300% increase in digital transactions post demonetization

– High value transaction above 3 lakh have been banned through cash and strict controls of PAN card for all high value transactions

– MDR for online payments have been reduced to make it competitive wrt cash

The shift is in sync with the expanding Digital India and financial inclusion objectives because-

1) Institutional support through Payment Banks, BC, App infrastructure is pushing people towards easy to use digital transactions

2) Socio economic Objectives of financial inclusion is being achieved through empowerment & better PDS through Aadhar based DBT

3) Statutory backing through Aadhar Act and Guidelines for new banks and safety concerns inline with Digital India

4) Technology adoption has increased

5) Political objectives of social empowerment and promoting voice of people is being promoted.

Therefore the changes in banking transaction infrastructure are positive and towards the right direction

 

Best answer 2: Axi Tak

https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/3c5ee3e18137d85d9311418f599693079148dae517842ecd53124e2283d757e7.jpg

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5. India is one of the largest mobile consumers of the world. Can you suggest some ways to tap this potential for achieving measurable outcomes? Give an elaborate explanation.

We all know communication plays a vital role. Hence, in introduction, highlight the importance of effective communication and how introduction of smart phones have transformed the information and service delivery system.

Elaborately explain how the largest mobile consumers can be tapped to achieve measurable outcomes in different fields –

One is required to cover 4-5 different areas :

Social – which include education, hospital, welfare schemes etc.

Economical – Financial inclusion, cashless economy, digital transactions., agriculture sector.

Governance – Reaching out different section of people, bridge Urban-Rural divide.

Environment, Security etc.

Also provide some recent examples and programmes for all areas.

(Refer best answer)

 

Best answer: ashis kar

As communication plays a vital part today it seen that people in low-income groups also consider cell phone a vital commodity. The government realizing this touched the right pulse with launch of “Digital India programme”. The intention being making it convenient for public to access govt services. Government can tap this potential by various ways, some of which are:

Through mobile Apps:

With increasing number of smart phones, govt is able to make the most out of the technology by launching various apps to carter the needs of citizens. Some areas are:

Helping Farmers: To improve efficiency of insurance schemes govt launched the

Crop insurance mobile app. This expedites the process significantly. Also through the

AgriMArket mobile app govt has helped farmers increase their income.

Health: Mobile phones have created an impact in rural areas by apps such as

Creation of blood bank app and Mera Aspataal.

Education: With shortage of faculty in schools and poor education standards the

Apps such as National library ,E-pathshala etc go a long way in proving quality education.,

Economy: Mobile phones played most significant part in boosting our economy. The various payment interfaces to encourage cashless transactions and employment news via apps are some examples. Karnataka govt took this another level by using app to monitor MGNREGA in rual areas.

A significant population also doesnt own a smart phone but various sms based services such as weather forecasts, pregnancy care etc are provided.

Though the above steps are laudable but lot more needs to be done especially for digitally illiterate population. The Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan is a welcome step in this direction.

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