1. What is Raman Effect? Who gave this concept? Discuss his contribution to science
Raman Effect, change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. The phenomenon is named for Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. Usually when light falls on a transparent material, it passes through with same wavelength and colour. However some part of it deflects with change in wavelength and colour. This is known as Raman Effect.
Sir Chandrashekara Venkata Raman led experiments on scattering of light when discovering the effect on 28th February 1928, and received Nobel prize for it in 1930 and was also conferred Bharat Ratna in 1954.
1) Professor C V Raman was first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the Tabla and the Mridanga.
2) Raman also discovered the quantum photon spin which later proved the quantum nature of light.
3) Today Raman spectroscopy, which relies on these ‘fingerprints,’ is used in laboratories all over the world to identify molecules and to analyze living cells and tissues to detect diseases such as cancer. Iy is being used in life sciences, nuclear science, drugs, bomb-detection, in forensics, in disease diagnosis and in RNA/DNA diagnosis.
4) In 1943, he established the ‘Raman Research Institute’, near Bangalore.
5) Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman–Nath theory. Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems.
Raman was a great scholar, physicist and mentor who not only received Noble Prize for his work Raman’s effect but also encourages and trained hundreds of students in the field of science. He founded the Indian Journal of Physics and the Indian Academy of Sciences. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India.
2. What is the meaning of Transfer of Technology? Why is it so important? Examine.
Transfer of Technology is process of transferring scientific findings and technological innovation from one organization/ country to another for purpose of further development and Commercialization. The technology may be related to fields like defense, agriculture, IT, nuclear energy etc.
Importance of the Transfer of Technology (ToT):
Enables developing countries to acquire state -of-the-art technology from developed world without
Spending considerable money and time on its development.
Helps the developing countries to become independent in producing the goods after acquiring the technology, instead of depending on the other countries for products every time.
Helps them leapfrog to advanced technologies and Research and Development.
Enables developed countries to monetize the existing technologies.
Helps generate employment and the full ecosystem and ancillary industries around the acquired technology.
ToT assumes significance in the current times especially in the context of Climate Change. ToT for cleaner and greener fuels from developed counties to developing countries is the only way for the world to adhere to Paris Climate deal and limit the Greenhouse gases and move towards sustainable development.
Technology transfer is an important means by which developing countries gain access to technologies that are new to them. For example: India’s deal with France for buying Rafale jet fighters which also included transfer of technology. By this around 100 Rafale jet fighters will be made in India at the Hindustan Aeronautics Facility under the transfer of technology. This will generate employment opportunities and will ultimately boost the Make in India programme.
But, there is need to limit the reliance on such transfer as export control regime like Wassenaar arrangement can restrict such transfer at the whim and fancy of the exporting nation. Steps need to be taken to develop domestic base by R&D. Government initiative of start-up India, Atal innovation mission, promote domestic private defence industry etc. are commendable efforts to reduce such dependence
Write a suitable conclusion.
Best answer: thevagabond85
Technology helps convert natural things like mineral,air etc into useful resource. Today, Technology has become major source of revenue for knowledge economies (industrially advanced economies) like USA, Japan, South Korea . Transfer of technology(ToT), as the phrase implies, refers to exchange of technology between two entities. ToT may come through govt route (MoU) or via FDI route through investing entities. GoI makes ToT one of prime criteria while considerations for defense procurements and FDI approval.
ToT has become important for following reasons :
* Bridging North South gap : LDCs and developing nations can use the transferred technology in fast achieving goals enshrined in SDG. ToT from rich nations to under-developed nations is cornerstone for success of Paris climate agreement.
* Resource optimization : by reducing redundancy in technology development across global institutions.
* Revenue : The technology owner gets due reward in form of revenue which can be further utilized for improving existing technology or inventing newer ones.
Issues thwarting smoother ToT :
* Critical technology : countries esp, militarily advanced are apprehensive of letting critical technology transfer as it can reduce their military might.
* Technology as capital : high cost is placed by producer nation making it unaffordable for developing nations.
* Often such ToT takes place with stringent strings attached diluting the sovereignity of recepient nation.
Thus, in order to make ToT smoother, standard guidelines need to be put in place. Multilateral institutions like WB, AIIB need to provide cheaper loans to poor nations. Also, global R&D institutions for areas like climate change(as set up under GCF), poverty alleviation, healthcare solutions need to be set up. But, more importantly advanced economies need to keep human interest ahead of national interest.
3. Discuss the contribution of women scientists in India’s space programme.
Women contributes to about 20% of the work force of ISRO working as technicians and engineers to senior level scientists.
The following link will tell you about the 8 senior scientists of ISRO who have contributed in India’s space program.
Most of you have written about the programs like MoM, RISAT, Chandrayaan etc. That was to be mentioned but many of you have missed the personalities. Since the question is specific, that too about the scientist, you need to mention specific personalities and their contributions here.
4. Why is it important to have a clean and transparent sports administration in the country? Discuss in the light of recent impetus by the apex court to reform the BCCI.
In India most of the sports are administered by sports federations. Sport federations take care of functioning and funding of the sports they are concerned with. Most of the sport federations are not working properly as was seen in case of BCCI. They are not governed well and this is also shown in the poor show Indian players put up in the various world sports events, like Olympics.
Why is it important to have a clean and transparent sports administration?
Elaborate in few sentences on various concerns such as – Prevalent Corruption, Lack of Accountability, Nepotism, Politicization of sports federations or high political interference, Irregularity in fund Allocation, Haphazard structure, Lack of professionalism in leadership and transparent functioning etc.
Accountability of sports bodies is an important issue in many countries. India and its favourite sport cricket have suffered decades of accusations of fixing matches, bribery and non-transparency decision making. The Board of Cricket Control of India (BCCI), the richest body of the sport, is now under judicial scrutiny for allegations of corruption and bribery. The Supreme Court of India is forcing governance reforms with an aim to clean up the sport. However, BCCI is opposing and resisting high levels of transparency.
It is time to ensure complete transparency in sport administration across the country starting with the most popular sport in India. The clean up process should start with the BCCI. Recommendations on the lines of Lodha committee should be implement in all other sports.
Sports administration in our country suffers from various forms of inefficiencies. This is evident from the continuously poor record of India in various International events, in spite of having immensely talented sportsmen. SC realizing this malice formed the Jusice Lodha committee to reform the working of BCCI.
A clean and transparent sports administration is required for following reasons:
Remove Political influence: Sports bodies are dominated by politicians having zero or very less sports experience and are thus unable to empathise with the problems ailing various sports.
To eliminate corruption: in the working of sports bodies and selection panels.
To remove nepotism in team selection
Nurturing talent: To build a robust system of continuous nurturing and training the sportsmen for future events.
Encourage retired sportsmen to get involved in training and other activities.
To efficiently utilize public money for the intended purpose of training and excellence in sports.
Justice Lodha Committee sought to introduce these reforms in BCCI by limiting tenure of post bearers, setting age limit, barring legislators from holding posts and bringing in a practice of transparency and financial accountability. These reforms envisage to encourage the sportsmen and help realize their full potential in sports.
5. People now a days are getting more aware and concerned about their health and lifestyle. In this light, discuss the uniqueness of Indian way of living for a healthy and fit lifestyle.
Best answers are good to go as synopsis. Refer below answers. However note that it is important to highlight urban and rural lifestyle and also present generation youth (especially impact of service sector or IT culture) and old generation. Also note on our traditional indigenous methods.
Both urban as well as rural India, is witnessing a continuous deterioration in its environmental quality. Lifestyle diseases like diabetes, cardiac ailments, obesity etc. have become widespread (even in rural areas). This has made people aware and conscious about their health and lifestyle.
This awareness has brought the focus of people again on the Indian way of living, which was forgotten initially under the influence of westernization. There are several unique dimensions to it.
Our traditional knowledge says that there is a deep connection between human life and the surrounding environment. E.g. early to bed and early to rise is emphasized because cycle of the sun impacts us.
Against the predominant use of bread (wheat) in the west, the traditional Indian staple food basket contains a lot of variety like rice, wheat, millets, jowar, bajra, pulses, gluten free grains, etc. which ensures nutritional sufficiency. Some of these are preferred only in specific season.
The western philosophy of accumulation is now considered a flawed concept. Rather the Indian way of bringing out the inner happiness is considered more suitable to deal with problem of increasing stress. As a result, Yoga, pranayama and other meditative practices are become popular among Indian people again.
Our traditional wisdom believes in the preventive redressal of illness and disease through following a balanced life and diet (naturopathy). On the contrary, the western medical science lays emphasis on symptomatic relief and post-disease redressal.
To sum up, the time has come when adoption of Indian values has become necessary to ensure sustainability of human existence as we progress economically.