SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [18th December 2017]- Day 21
Q.1) Notwithstanding, an increasing role of the market and the NGOs as institutions of modernization and progress in the country, the state continues to have a leading say in transformation of society to make it just and equal. Illustrate.
The oldest and simplest justification for government is as protector: protecting citizens from violence. Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan describes a world of unrelenting insecurity without a government to provide the safety of law and order, protecting citizens from each other and from foreign foes. The horrors of little or no government to provide that function are on global display in the world’s many fragile states and essentially ungoverned regions. And indeed, when the chaos of war and disorder mounts too high, citizens will choose even despotic and fanatic governments, such as the Taliban and ISIS, over the depredations of warring bands.
The Role of Civil Society & NGOs:
- Civil society and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have the power to influence individual behaviour and the institutions that are involved in healthy diet and physical activity promotion.
- By collaborating with national and international partners, they can support the implementation of the Global Strategy on modernization and also to transformation of society.
Constitution provisions on the state to make society just and equal:
The Constitution of India has clearly articulated the social and economic goals and has specified agents for achieving the promised social revelation.
- Matters concerning formation and working of the executive agencies in both political and civil are spelt out.
- Citizens have been assured that the executive together with other organs of the State Legislative & Judiciary would uphold their rights and remove the inequities from which the anti-democratic forces derive their sustenance.
- Good Governance, it was hoped, would transform the social, political and economic life of the people, within the framework of democracy.
Over the years, the Indian government has introduced several schemes that have not only helped Indian citizens improve their financial situations, but have also contributed to the country’s economy, along with that it had helped the society to transform into just and equal.
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)
- Sukanya samridhi yojna
- Swatch baharath abhiyan
- Housing for all
- AMRUT and Smart cities
- MUDRA bank
The future of government builds on these foundations of protecting and providing. Government will continue to protect citizens from violence and from the worst vicissitudes of life. Government will continue to provide public goods, at a level necessary to ensure a globally competitive economy and a well-functioning society. But wherever possible, government should invest in citizen capabilities to enable them to provide for themselves in rapidly and continually changing circumstances.
But government investment will have to recognize and address the changing needs of citizens over their entire lifetimes, provide platforms to help them get the resources and make the connections they need, and see a whole set of public goods created by the sum of their deliberately many parts.
2. Along with micro-financing institutions, the self-help groups (SHG’s) are emerging as institutions of social capital. Discuss? Do you think SHGs have moved beyond credit and are doing commendable work in other areas as well? Substantiate.
- How are SHGs emerging as institutions of social capital?
- SHGs have moved beyond credit- Substantiate with apt examples.
A self-help group (SHG) is a voluntary association of men or women in similar economic conditions.
The members of the group make small savings for a duration of time until they have enough capital in the group to start their own lending process. These funds can then be utilised for lending purposes (to members or other people). Under the SHG-Bank linkage programme, many SHGs have become institutions of micro-credit.
How are SHGs emerging as institutions of social capital?
SHGs have gone beyond mere economics of loan management.
Once a group has been formed, the credit link is established and the group meets on a regular basis and gradually the groups tend to take up a much wider social role.
The SHGs provide a forum in which people can meet on a regular basis and discus various issues or concerns that the members face in their day-to-day life which acts as the basic source of social capital generation.
SHGs have moved beyond credit:
- By providing employment opportunities and financial and social security SHGs have helped improve the status of women. The formation of SHGs and promoting credit activities helped in empowering the women, creating awareness regarding their rights and responsibilities.
- SHGs have become a vehicle to lift people from below poverty line, empower women generate awareness about welfare and developmental schemes of government, monitor its implementation etc. to name a few.
- SHGs have helped the members to develop their leadership qualities which are useful not only within the group but also in their interaction and participation in other institutions.
- Kudumbashree in Kerala has helped in providing skill training and poverty eradication of women.
- They act as pressure groups for policy framing as seen in legislation- making for prohibition in Bihar which was the result of pressure from several women SHGs in Bihar.
- In some states like Tamil nadu SHGs have worked successfully for implementtion of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. SHGs have helped inculcate sanitation habits among the community people.
- Haryana govt used SHGs for increasing sex ratio and making beti bachao beti
- A tourist spot is beig maintained by a Self-Help Group in Tamil Nadu.
- SHGs like SEWA, Lizzat papad promotes entreprenurial culture among women.
The kind of development and the kind of leadership emerging with the SHGs movement is phenomenal. In fact, SHGs are instrumental in bringing about structural changes in the rural society and its economy.
Given the multi-faceted role played by SHG in inclusive development, Government needs to further support SHG by handholding nascent SHGs and bringing them at par with the rest of the sections.
Best answer: Lapis Lazuli
3. In the emerging multi- faceted nature of governance, the civil society institutions can play a constructive role not only in harnessing the resources of the government but also in tapping the structure and resources of the market to give a fair deal to the people, and in creating an environment where sustainable development takes place. Comment.
Approach: It’s a difficult question to comprehend; hence it is understandable there won’t be many points. In such cases, you can quote examples to add necessary volume to your answer. A half page answer won’t cut it. For the answer, make a structure:
- Introduction – CSO definition
- Part I – CSO and the government
- Part II – CSO and the market
This way even if you do not have enough content, you’ll still be able to answer the question reasonably well
Civil Society Institutions are the sub total of NGOs and institutions that promote the well being of the under-privileged. They play a role in implementing the policies of government, providing assistance at a grass root level and act as a voice to the underprivileged.
Role of Civil Society Institutions:
- Identifying weaker sections neglected by government, championing the cause of Fair Market Prices.
- Identifying neglected but important areas such as Net Neutrality, Aadhar Concerns in PDS in Rural areas etc.
- Fund Raising- Charity shops, staffed by volunteers to collect funds, regulated by Government bodies; distribution of donated goods at grass root level, by workers who know the demographics of the area.
- Identifying families or households where proper implementation of RTE Act, NNM, NHP is not held, collaboration with SHG’s and Panchayat’s to educate about rights of education and making it obligatory on Senior members to implement the same.
- Students and professionals- Who intern at NGO’s and other CSOs may be mobilized into volunteer work which will make them aware of Societal Conditions.
What is necessary is a specific legal framework and Regulatory body to ensure minimal mis-governance. Governance refers to providing various services to people at affordable
costs. In current scenario along with governments, civil society institutions
corporate and other such players are taking part resulting in a multifaceted nature of governance.
Best Answer: IronMan
4. Does India have a cohesive policy for NGOs? Examine. Also evaluate the need of framing of a law to regulate the activities of NGOs in the country.
- Introduction- Define what NGO is and give examples of some NGOs.
- Write how NGO’s are currently regulated and need for framing a new law.
- A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
- Examples: Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Infosys foundation, Prerana etc.
Points to be covered:
India presently doesn’t have a cohesive NGO policy but NGOs which are in Lakhs are regulated under various other laws:
- Societies Registration Act.
- National Policy on Voluntary sector.
- Foreign Contribution Regulation Act.
Need for framing law to regulate NGO:
- Finance: Taxation, Audit, Fund misappropriation and usage, Money laundering and black to white conversion etc.
- Development: Anti-development activities, corporate rivalry, creating hurdles.
- Security: Anti-national activity like terror funding, Kashmir militancy, Naxalism and Maoism.
- Judicial: Proxy litigations, judicial jeopardy.
Pick any 5-6 issues among these and explain for a line or two. Total points in answer should be 8-10 and within word limits as specified.
Central government has come up with Draft NGO bill recently to regulate their activities as Supreme court and Intelligence bureau has raised several concerns regarding their activities. Due to certain groups/individuals, there has been bad name to entire sector where in several NGOs have contributed tremendously to social development of country.
Best answer: Shubhangi
5. Development is a multifaceted process. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have captured the vital aspects of human life and set targets accordingly. Does India’s developmental discourse resonate with the SDGs? Critically examine.
‘Development is a multifaceted process. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have captured the vital aspects of human life and set targets accordingly.’ This is just a case statement. Many of you have interpreted it to be a part of the question and used around 150 – 200 words to explain what the development is and SDGs.
The only question that was asked is – Does India’s developmental discourse resonate with the SDGs? Critically examine.
Many of you have mentioned all the policies run by GoI in resonance with SDGs, but since critical analysis was asked, some drawbacks and loop holes should’ve been mentioned as well.
At the Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, UN Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030.
The SDGs build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), eight anti-poverty targets that the world committed to achieving by 2015. The MDGs, adopted in 2000, aimed at an array of issues that included slashing poverty, hunger, disease, gender inequality, and access to water and sanitation. Enormous progress has been made on the MDGs, showing the value of a unifying agenda underpinned by goals and targets. Despite this success, the indignity of poverty has not been ended for all.
The new SDGs, and the broader sustainability agenda, go much further than the MDGs, addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people.
What are the SDGs?
Note: Try to remember several schemes of Government of India for each goal so that if a goal specific question is asked you can answer that effectively.
In this question you don’t need to write all schemes as critical analysis is asked.
India is trying hard to achieve the targets of SDGs but there are several impediments and loopholes.
- India’s humungous population is a huge disadvantage. Whatever policy is launched there is a huge gap between the resources and the beneficiaries.
- India is still having the largest number of people living below poverty line.
- According to Global hunger Index, India ranks 100 out of 119 countries.
- India is having a huge deficit of doctors and hospitals. Government hospitals are overcrowded and lack the number of beds required for increasing number of patients. Private hospitals are unaffordable by the masses.
- In education, even though we have achieved almost 100% of enrolment under SarvaShiksha Abhiyan the quality of education is still very poor. Studies have shown that students of 5th standard are not able to answer the questions of 1st Apart from this infrastructure is lacking, especially in rural areas.
- In higher education also, we have miles to go. Not even a single institution of India is there in top 100 universities of the World.
- The idea of gender empowerment or equality is not new to India but women still face discrimination in work place and in personal life. Child sex ratio has reached its lowest point in the last census. Crime against women has also increased, especially in the metros.
- India has launched its Swachch bharat Abhiyan with full energy. Slowly the change is coming in the mindset of people to avoid open defecation. There is still a long way to go as in many places the infrastructure for proper sanitation is missing. Waste disposal is also a major challenge in India.
- India was one of the fastest growing nations of the World but recent implementation of demonetisation and GST. But it is expected that Indian economy will get back on the track soon.
- Several schemes are going on for National Action Plan for Climate Change. India is a part of Paris treaty and has already set its target. The only criticism here is that, the targets that have been set are believed to be unachievable. And with increasing pollution levels in Indian cities, the situation is very grim.
More Points can be added to criticism depending upon the word limit and articulation. Try to mention the name of the schemes to back up your points with facts.
Conclusion: Even though critical analysis is asked in the question, try to end your answer on a positive note. That we are on a right path and eventually we will reach there.
Best Answer 1: Rinki
Best Answer 2: Neeraj Ravi