SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [22nd January 2018]- Day 41
1. The National Movement failed to reflect a strong anti-caste ideology and also couldn’t avert partition and communalization of Indian society. Comment.
- How National movement failed to reflect anti-caste ideology?
- How National movement couldn’t avert partition?
The issue of casteism has emerged as one of the biggest hurdle in India’s social and economic development. Though the constitution has abolished untouchability (Article 17), disallows discrimination against anyone in the name of caste etc., instances like that of Dalit being beaten (Una incident), oppression of those marginalised, frequent riots etc shows how grim the issue of caste is.
This in various ways can be attributed to failure of national movement to reflect anti-caste ideology.
How National movement failed to reflect anti-caste ideology?
- Divide and rule policy of Britishers- appeasement of one community over the other (Morley Minto reforms suggesting separate electorate system, Communal award) made them enemy of each other.
- Failure of INC- To raise caste issues at national platforms due to fear of fragmentation.
- Cultural nationalism- The national movement saw events, which were non-secular in nature, being led by nationalist leaders like Dip in Ganga during Bengal partition, celebration of Shivaji and Ganpati festival. This further alienated Muslim participation, which was already poor.
- Emergence of communal groups– Like Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, stoking communal feelings especially in sensitive matters.
National movement couldn’t avert partition:
The communalization and polarisation of the society was at its peak during 1940s. Gandhi Ji who was very much against the partition, had to agree to it after seeing large scale violence in the name of religion throughout India.
This situation was the result of failure of the movement to instil secular feeling among the people.
Despite all failures, India stood united till today, having more Muslims than even Pakistan has, celebrating diversity etc. The tying of rakhis by Hindus and Muslims on each other’s hands during Bengal partition, many of the nationalist leaders like Maulana Azad leading the national movement, struggle for Harijans initiated by Gandhi ji etc shows how secularism and anti-casteism was preached before independence as well.
While pre-independence events and instances do have a bearing on present society. It is time the leaders of present India rise to the situation and solve the issue of casteism (existing even in urban India).
Best answer: Chandrasekhar Das
2. Even though physical and territorial integration was achieved post independence, psychological and emotional integration remained the biggest challenge given the enormous diversity of Elucidate.
- In Introduction write about the given statement
- Write why emotional and psychological integration is important
- Factors inhibiting emotional and psychological integration
- Way forward
’National integration cannot be built by brick & mortar; it cannot be built by chisel & hammer, it has to grow silently in the minds & hearts of men.’’
Dr Radhakrishnan, Former President of India
Unifying post partition India & princely states under one administration was perhaps the most important task faced by then political leadership. In colonial India, nearly 40% of the territory was occupied by 565 small & large states ruled by princes who enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy under the system of British Paramountcy.With great skill and masterful diplomacy & using both persuasion & pressure, Patel succeeded in integrating hundreds of princely states.
Why emotional and psychological integration is important?
It will not be an exaggeration if we say that complete national integration cannot take place without emotional integration. Emotional integration basically means unity of thoughts and feelings of all the citizens of a country. Pt. Jawhar Lal Nehru has said “By emotional integration, I mean the integration of minds and hearts, the suppression of feelings of separatism.” Emotional integration is an essential condition and basis for national integration because sense of oneness is developed among the people of a country through training of mind and heart. In brief, we can say that prefect national integration cannot takes place without emotional integration.
Obstacles to Emotional Integration
The greatest menace to the national solidarity of a country is communalism. Communalism is one factor that poses a great danger to our unity. The formation of the State of Pakistan in 1947 led to terrible communal riots. A very large number of people lost their lives and their homes and had to undergo a lot of suffering to resettle. It is impossible to evolve nationalism without first putting an end to the mutual distrust.More than sixty years after independence communal feelings still exist and riots flare-up even now in different parts of the country. It is the result of narrow-mindedness, prejudice, and lack of knowledge of other religions.
The second danger to national integration is provincialism. It springs from the same sentiments which work behind communalism. In contemporary India, regionalism and regional loyalties have spread so much that even the political unity of the country is being threatened. Some states have expressed the desire to secede from the Union, because they believe themselves to be separate nations.
Another expression of the disorganizing influences at work in the country is linguism. With independence came the problem of deciding a national language, because a national language is essential for maintaining the unity of the nation.
Casteism is the most restricted form of narrow interests. It is the greatest curse for our national unity. As a result of this, not only the country but even Hindu society has been fragmented into small pieces, each one of which is concerned only with preserving its own interests, without caring for those of other groups.
Different political parties
In our country there are many political parties. Out of these some work for the growth of the national unity but there are certain other parties which cause national disruption.
Lack of good leadership
The success of democracy depends upon the good leaders. Most of our leaders are selfish and unscrupulous. They either work for their own vested interests. They do not care for the national interest. Such leaders stand as an obstacle is the path of national unity.
India is a country, which has large percentage of illiterates. The larger percentage of the illiteracy is considered responsible to misdirect the emotional feelings on one side & on the other hand it results in developing negative tendencies restricting national and emotional integration
Way forward and conclusion
Keeping in mind the objectives of emotional and psychological integration, the following initiatives should be taken,
- Reorganization of Syllabi. In order to reorganize and reshape the syllabi of colleges and the universities to accord with the needs of the nations.
- Encouragement to extra-curricular activities. Besides imparting formal knowledge to the students the teachers must provide them with the opportunity to take part in such extra-curricular activities which are important from the standpoint of emotional integration.
- Efforts like Ek Bharat shreshtha Bharat need to promoted.
For this, teachers, administrators and guardians will have to work collectively. Then along the country will witness solid national integration in spite of religious pluralism.
Best Answer: Kanishka
3. The failure to evolve a permanent solution to the ‘official language’ problem in the early years of independence still haunts the nation. Do you agree? Critically examine.
- Introduction: Give a small intro about the issue with Official language during constitution making and early 50’s.
- Body: In body, the answer should contain two parts. One for issues arising out of language and then how English and Hindi are unifying despite so many issues.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
Official Language of Indian Union is Hindi along with English. It was adopted after much debates and issues which rose during 1950’s and 60’s. Language is seen as cultural pride among people and failure to get consensus in initial periods is creating lot of issues till date.
Central government’s recent move to add Hindi as one of the languages of UN has opposition not just from other countries but inside the country too.
The issues that are caused due to official language are:
- Anti-Hindi protests and Anti-Hindi sentiments: In Tamil nadu and Karnataka recently.
- North-south divide & Separatism: Dravida-nadu demands.
- Regionalism: Among different states.
- Politics: Language based political parties and issues.
- Dominations: Belief that non-Hind speakers are being sidelined by Hindi speakers.
- State creation: Bodoland, Gorkhaland etc.
The official language issue was handled in proper way and certain steps were taken to respect the diversity of country:
- Commissions: Dhar, JVP and Fazal Ali.
- Reorganization of states: Andhra, Haryana, Himachal, Gujarat from parent state.
- English: Extension of English till agreed upon by all non-Hindi speakers.
- 8th Schedule: 22 languages as of now recognized as official languages.
- Three languages education: Many states in south have three language policy in education.
- Soft push: growth of Bollywood, Migration across country has made Hindi a Pan-India acceptance.
- Legislature: In Parliament and state legislatures, members are allowed to speak in their mother tongue and other languages they are comfortable with.
- English: As working language of Judiciary and between Union & state correspondences.
Note: One part of answer needs more points compared to another. This is “critically examine” question. Explanation is also very important include a line or two.
Hindi written in Devanagari script is the official language of India.
In the beginning, English was accepted only for 15 years but was later extended indefinitely. The concerns of Non-Hindi speakers were genuine as Hindi was more foreign to them than English. Presently 8th schedule of constitution includes 22 languages which can be considered as official languages of country and anything changes in that should be by consent and not coercion.
Connecting the dots:
- States Reorganization.
- Issues after Independence.
Best Answer: M_ayushi
Q4. THE LAUNCH OF THE ‘TEN POINT PROGRAM’ IN 1967 WAS A PART OF THE SOCIALIST AGENDA. COMMENT. WHAT WERE THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROGRAM? WHAT WERE ITS POLITICAL MANIFESTATIONS? DISCUSS.
- In the introduction, discuss the events the led to the socialistic shift and launch of the program
- In the body, enumerate the main features of the program
- Conclude by mentioning the political outcomes as a result of the move
By 1967, the successive wars in 1962 and 1965 had drained the national economy. There was an acute shortage of foodgrains and India was highly dependent on international food aid. Poverty was at all time high and the poor population of India was in desperate need of state support. Therefore, in 1967, Indira Gandhi put forward a socialist agenda, focusing on the poor, called the 10 point program.
Salient Features of the 10 Point Program
- Nationalization of banks, general insurance, export and import
- Public distribution of foodgrains to make food available to the poor at subsidized prices
- End to princely privileges and private purses to ease burden on the state resources
- Better implementation of land reforms for redistribution of land to tenants and poor farmers
- Curb on monopolies in the industry and improve efficiency and productivity
- Reduce poverty – urban and rural (Garibi Hatao)
- Focus on rural works programs
The program put the poor at the centre of development agenda of the government. However, the drastic shift towards leftist socialism led to a split in the Congress. Two organizations were formed – Congress (R) for requisitionists and Congress (O) for organization.
Indira Gandhi got the support of majority of the party and the All India Congress Committee. The Congress (O) became the real congress and now Indira was the real leader of Congress and Government. She enjoyed great popularity and power for the next decade and a half.
Extra: 20 Point Programme
The successor to the 10 point programme, in the 20-point programme, Indira Gandhi addressed the concerns of the poor by including clean drinking water, healthcare, education, social justice for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, opportunities for women, environment protection etc.
Although, specific schemes and policies have been developed over the years but the spirit of the 10 and 20-point programme has guided all subsequent governments’ efforts towards poverty alleviation.
Best Answer: Anand
Q.5) THE SHIMLA AGREEMENT OF 1972 WAS A LOST OPPORTUNITY IN A WINNING CAUSE. DO YOU AGREE? CRITICALLY COMMENT.
The 1971 India-Pakistan and the Shimla Agreement of July 2, 1972 are some of the most important events of the 20th century history of the Indian subcontinent. While the 1971 war has been extensively analyzed and commented upon, the Shimla conference that dealt with its aftermath has not attracted enough research as it ought to have and it was considered as a lost opportunity in a wining cause.
Shimla Agreement was signed at Shimla, India, by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the President of Pakistan, and Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India on the night of July 2nd, 1972. The agreement was much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war. For India, it is not a lost opportunity as they were some of the favorable outcomes with this agreement such as:
- The agreement paved the way for diplomatic recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan.
- The agreement converted the cease-fire line of December 17, 1971 into the ‘Line of Control (LOC)’ between India and Pakistan and it was agreed that “neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations”.
- At the Shimla conference in 1972, Indira Gandhi was at the zenith of her power. The Shimla agreement therefore escaped critical scrutiny.
- The 1971 war culminated in the capture of 93,000 Pakistani prisoners and a unilateral declaration of a cease fire by India after our ground forces had made minor incursions into West Pakistan.
There is debate that there are few opportunities that India missed here. India failed to take political advantage of the military win. It is argued that India could have used that opportunity to push Pakistan further back and out of Kashmir. The implications of this step could have been:
- Issue of J&k might have been permanently resolved.
- Kargil war might have never taken place.
Like Via article III of the agreement, the two countries had resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through ‘bilateral negotiations’ or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. This clause opposed third party intervention and insisted on bilateral mechanism for resolution of issues between India and Pakistan. However, some of the decisions taken as part of Shimla agreement have led to loss of a golden opportunity to resolve the issue of Kashmir on permanent basis.
At Shimla we accepted Kashmir as a ‘dispute.’ We also gave equal status to Pakistan by permitting it to retain land occupied by it in J&K, thus sowing the seeds of Kargil- like adventures in the future, all this when we held all the cards and Kashmir was not the cause of the 1971 War, this was one of the grave mistake India has committed during the agreement.
Best Answer: aishwarya