SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [23rd January 2018]- Day 42
1. The Janata Party government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress. Comment. Also analyse the factors that led to the fall of the first non-Congress government in India.
- How was Janta Party not different from Congress in its policies?
- Factors that led to fall of Janta Party.
The Janta Party was formed in 1977, after elections were announce post-emergency, by coming together of various opposition parties with sole objective of removing Congress from power. For the first time since Independence, a non-congress party came to power.
How was Janta Party not different from Congress in its policies?
Janta party did come to power but they were not very different from the Congress party as-
- They like Congress party frequently invoked Article 356 (President’s rule) to topple governments in states where congress was ruling.
- Despite huge promises, they could not address the fundamental issues of poverty, unemployment, inflation, fuel shortages and shortages of food.
- The issue of caste too remained the same.
Fall of Janta party:
- The party lacked much required cohesiveness because of ideological difference between various groups. The opposition to emergency could keep the party together only for a while.
- It lacked leadership, direction and a common programme.
- Failure to bring about any significant changes especially in economy. Issues like unemployment, shortage of food and fuel remained the same.
- The new Janata-led government reversed many Emergency-era decrees and opened official investigations into Emergency-era abuses.
- They amended the constitution to make it more difficult for any future government to declare emergency, therbey strengthening democracy.
- Several major foreign policy and economic reforms were attempted.
Thus, despite being first non-congress party, Janta party failed to provide the country much-needed change with its strong leadership. This led to its fall within 18 months of being into power, with Congress coming back to power.
Best answer: Saurabh
2. Examine the role of Rajiv Gandhi in the making of a modern and aspirational India.
- Introduction: Give a small intro about Rajiv Gandhi.
- Body: In body, the answer should contain his achievements and also controversies. It should be balanced answer. Be neutral, don’t show your political affiliations here.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
It is widely known that the seeds for India’s modern growth and development was laid down well before 1991 economic reforms and this credit goes to then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, who took over as youngest PM of India at te age of 40 after assassination of his mother and PM Smt Indira Gandhi.
Role of Rajiv Gandhi:
- Anti-defection: Helped in Stable government.
- Panchayat Raj: Laid foundation for 73rd and 74th
- Diplomacy: Visit to China, help to Srilanka, Seychelles government by sending Indian Troops.
- Operation Black Thunder: Elimination of Militancy in Punjab.
- Restrictions: removed import quotas, Opened up certain sectors to private players.
- IT revolution: Brought in Computer revolution, Telecommunication revolution like bringing in MTNL etc.
- Subsidies: To private companies to increase industrial production, quality investments.
- Government support: Science and Technology, Reduced Taxes and Tariffs.
- Jawahar Navodaya school.
- New Education Policy.
- Shah Bano Case.
- Bofors scandal.
Note: Explanations are required to each point.
The liberalization of economy and reduction of permit raj system was put forth by Rajiv Gandhi which some years later helped in opening up of Indian economy to foreign investments. He also helped develop relationship with China and other countries which laid foundation for India as soft power to the world.
- India’s economy prior to LPG reforms.
- India after Indira.
Best Answer: Krishna
3. The decade of 1990s was an era of massive transformations. In fact, the India that we live in today is the outcome of the events that took place in the 90s. Elucidate.
- Introduction: Give a small intro about situation that led to LPG reforms.
- Body: In body, the answer should contain areas of reforms and how they helped today’s world.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
Due to huge balance of payment crisis, India had agreed to International Institution’s condition of opening up of economy which in turn helped India to transform to what it is today as an emerging super power of 21st century.
Transformation in 1990’s:
- Banking Reforms.
- Removal of restrictions on private players: Control of government monopoly from 18 to just 3 sectors.
- Tax and Tariff.
- 73rd and 74th
- Single party to Multi-party democracy.
- Nuclear tests.
- Regional parties emergence
- Kashmir Militancy.
- Babri Masjid.
- Mandal commission.
Outcome of these transformations on present day:
- Economic: FDI, Global presence, increased standard of living, employment, Quality of Education etc.
- Politics: Power to people through decentralization of power, Nuclear deterrence, Regional voice.
- Social: Kashmir problem, terrorism, Hindu-Muslim divide, reservation riots.
Note: Explanations are required to each point.
The transformation which took place during 1990’2 proved to be both boon and bane in various fronts. Along with economic development it also led to increase in unequal growth where rich got richer and poor got poorer. But it also led to emergency of India as regional power in Asia Pacific.
Connecting the dots:
- India’s economy after to LPG reforms.
- 21st century India as nuclear power.
Best Answer: Kanishka
Q4. How far has Indian Cinema captured the mood and sentiments of a nation in the making? Examine with the help of suitable examples.
- In such question, it is very important to rightly understand the demand of the question
- Simply putting examples won’t help. You have to build a proper answer around examples.
- Keep the language of your answer as such that it stays close to the theme of the question
- Such essay-like questions test your skill for “expressing” an idea or opinion.
“Cinema is a reflection of the society”. This statement holds true for Indian cinema which has been showcasing the various events of their times and past also. Be it the Oscar nominated movie Mother India which presented the hardships of a newly independent but poor and largely agrarian economy. Movies like Do Bigha Zameen highlighted the botched up land reforms that took place after independence.
From time to time, movies on India’s struggle for her independence such as Gandhi, Lagaan etc are made to remind people of India’s past so as to appreciate the present. Movies like Haqeeqat, Border depict the wars India has had with her neighbours.
The 1990s saw the rise of Kashmir militancy and movies like Dil Se, Mission Kashmir tried to capture the same. The economic reforms of 1991 had a profound impact on India society, especially women. Similarly, the depiction of women from 1970s as subordinate to men changed to strong and independent 1990s onwards. Recent movies like Dangal, Pink have thrown light on the issue of women empowerment – a topic issue of our times.
India is a young country not just in years but by its population as well. 50% of the population is below 25 years of age and movies like Rang De Basanti, 3 idiots have shown what impact youthful energy can have.
Indian Cinema has not shied away from dealing with sensitive topic – be it reservation (Arakshan movie), religious dogma (PK), Peepli Live (rural distress). However, recent events such as demands for ban on movies and violence against movie actors and directors goes against the spirit of Indian Constitution which guarantees every citizen the right to freedom of speech and expression. India Cinema has been a prime candidate for exercising this fundamental right is spreading awareness and capturing the different milieus of India’s national development journey.
Best Answer: Anshuman Mathur
Q.5) EXAMINE THE MAJOR TRENDS OF INSURGENCY THAT EMERGED DURING THE 1980S.
Insurgency: Insurgency is best defined as an organized movement aimed at the overthrow or destruction of a constituted government through the use of subversion, espionage, terrorism and armed conflict.
The major trends of insurgency that emerged during the 1980’s in all over India, due to different reasons, from Punjab, North-East India, Central India (Maoism) and Kashmir insurgency. Many separatist movements exist with thousands of members, however, with moderate local support and high voter participation in the democratic elections. The Khalistan movement in Punjab was active in the 1980s and the 1990s, but is now largely subdued within India. Insurgency has occurred in North-East India, in the states of Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Assam and Nagaland.
Assam Insurgency: The militant organisation United Liberation Front of Assam demands a separate country for the indigenous people of Assam. The Government of India had banned the ULFA in late 1980’s and has officially labelled it as a terrorist group. The Assamese secessionists have protested against the illegal migration from the neighbouring regions. Since the mid-20th century, people from present-day Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan) have been migrating to Assam.
Nagalim: The Nagalim is a proposed independent country for the Naga people. In the 1950s, the Naga National Council led a violent unsuccessful insurgency against the Government of India, demanding a separate country for the Nagas. The secessionist violence decreased considerably after the formation of the Naga-majority Nagaland state, and more militants surrendered after the Shillong Accord of 1975, by 1980’s the change in the demand and the people aspirations have changed.
Khalistan: The Khalistan movement aimed to create a separate Sikh country. The territorial definition of the proposed country ranges from the Punjab state of India to the greater Punjab region, including the Indian Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Northern Districts of Rajasthan such as Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh. The movement was mainly active in the Punjab state of India from the 1970s to the early 1990s. In June 1984, the Indian Government ordered a military operation, Operation Blue Star to clear Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar and thirty other Gurdwaras of armed terrorists who were desecrating Gurudwaras by using those as sanctuary
Kashmir insurgency: The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and nationalists. After Sheikh Abdullah’s death, his son Farooq Abdullah took over as Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. Farooq Abdullah eventually fell out of favour with the Central Government and the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi had he dismissed. A year later Farooq Abdullah announced an alliance with the ruling Congress party for the elections of 1987. The elections were allegedly rigged in favour of Farooq Abdullah.
This led to the rise of an armed insurgency movement composed, in part, of those who unfairly lost elections. Pakistan supplied these groups with logistical support, arms, recruits and training.
After Independence, the government of India focused on people to people contact and gave special attention to tribal policy. The sixth schedule of our constitution is exclusively for this region and it provides for self-rule, autonomy and decentralization, and art 370, 371a- 371i, given special provisions to different states and areas for their development and also to address the issues of insurgency.
Best Answer: swathi