IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 6th June 2020
(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)
Part of: GS-Prelims and GS-II – Global Groupings
- The WHO Foundation was created recently as an independent grant-making entity.
- It will support the WHO’s efforts to address the most pressing global health challenges.
- The foundation will enable WHO to tap new non-traditional sources of funding, including the general public.
- It will support the global health ecosystem by funding high-impact initiatives and advancing strategies of innovation, effectiveness, and rapid response.
- Its Headquarter will be in Geneva.
- It will be legally independent from the WHO.
- It will provide funds to WHO and trusted implementing partners to deliver on the Organization’s triple billion goals.
- These goals aim to achieve the following by 2023:
- Protect 1 billion people from health emergencies.
- Extend universal health coverage to 1 billion people.
- Assure healthy lives and wellbeing to 1 billion people.
Part of: GS-Prelims and GS-II – Global Groupings & GS-III – Energy
- OSOWOG initiative was recently proposed by India to set up a framework for facilitating global cooperation which aims at building a global ecosystem of interconnected renewable energy resources that can be easily shared.
- Parent Body: The Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
- Objective: To build global consensus about sharing solar resources among more than 140 countries of West Asia and South-East Asia.
- This grid shall be interconnected with the African power pools also at the later stage.
- Proposals are invited from consulting firms for making a long-term OSOWOG road map, and identify two or three cross-border projects that can be initiated within one or two years.
Important value additions
India’s other renewable energy-related initiatives
- International Solar Alliance (ISA)
- It is a treaty-based inter-governmental Organisation.
- It aims to deploy over 1,000 GW of solar generation capacity globally.
- It aims to mobilise investment of over $1 trillion by 2030.
- Headquartered: Gurgaon.
- It was established following the Paris Declaration as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries.
- Presently, electricity is supplied to Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
- There are now plans to connect Sri Lanka with power transmission lines as well.
- India, along with the other countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation had signed an agreement to enable cross-border electricity trade among the member states on a voluntary basis in 2014.
- Later in August 2018, India also signed a MoU for establishing grid interconnection between the members of the BIMSTEC.
Part of: GS-Prelims and GS-II – International Relations
- India and Australia raised their relationship to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership (CSP) after a ‘virtual’ summit held recently between Prime Ministers of the two countries.
- 9 agreements were concluded though the summit.
- Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA) was also concluded.
- A joint declaration was also issued on a Shared Vision for Maritime Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific.
- MLSA will allow both militaries the reciprocal use of bases, humanitarian and disaster relief cooperation, port exercises, and passage exercises.
- Other agreements included:
- A framework arrangement on cyber technology
- An MoU on mining and processing critical and strategic minerals including Australian rare earth metals used for electronics
- Vocational training
- Water management.
- It was also decided to recommence the talks on India-Australia Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) which has been suspended since 2015.
Important value additions
- India has signed CSPs with the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the United Arab Emirates.
- Australia has CSPs with China, Indonesia and Singapore.
- CSP would raise the level of trust required to improve the trade and investment flows between India and Australia.
Missile Park “AGNEEPRASTHA”
- Foundation Stone for a Missile Park “AGNEEPRASTHA” was laid at INS Kalinga, Visakhapatnam.
- It will be dedicated to all the Officers, Sailors and Support Staff of INS Kalinga.
- It aims to capture glimpses of Missile History of INS Kalinga since 1981 till date.
- The main attraction is P-70 ‘Ametist’, an underwater launched anti-ship missile from the arsenal of the old ‘Chakra’ (Charlie-1 submarine) which was in service during 1988-91.
Rozgar Setu scheme
- It is a scheme launched by Madhya Pradesh government.
- It would help secure employment for skilled workers who have returned to their homes due to COVID-19 pandemic.
- Skilled workers shall be surveyed who were employed at industries.
- After the survey, the government will contact factory and workshop owners and contractors overseeing infrastructure projects such as road and bridge construction so that these workers could be employed.
World Environment Day
- It is celebrated on 5th June every year.
- This year’s theme is ‘Biodiversity’.
- In India, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change held virtual celebrations on this year’s theme with focus on Nagar Van (Urban Forests).
- It relaunched a scheme for creating urban forest in 200 corporations and cities because all these cities have gardens but not forests.
- The urban forests will help in reducing pollution in these cities.
Topic: General Studies 2:
- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests
Context: Vijay Gokhale, a former Foreign Secretary of India and a former Ambassador to China, has given his views on the US-China relations
American administration since the 1960s have been complicit in China’s rise
US have been complicit in China’s rise in the unrealised hope that China will become a ‘responsible stakeholder’ under US Hegemony
- President Richard Nixon gave China the international acceptability it craved in return for being admitted to Mao’s presence in 1972;
- President Jimmy Carter terminated diplomatic relations with Taiwan in order to normalise relations with China in 1978;
- President George H.W. Bush washed away the sins of Tiananmen in 1989 for geopolitical gain
- President Bill Clinton ushered the Chinese into the World Trade Organization at the expense of American business
What has been Chinese action in return for US support in these decades?
- Rhetoric over action: In return China have spoken anti-Soviet rhetoric during the Cold War and promoted the market principles
- Suspicious view of USA: Every Chinese leader from Chairman Mao to President Xi Jinping has been clear that the U.S. represents an existential threat to the continued supremacy of the communist regime.
- Started creating Parallel Universe: The collapse of the Soviet Union only reinforced China’s suspicious view of US and strengthened China’s resolve to resist by creating its own parallel universe.
- Alternate trading system – the Belt and Road Initiative;
- A multilateral banking system under its control – Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, New Development Bank;
- China’s own global positioning system –BeiDou
- China’s own digital payment platforms – WeChat Pay and Alipay
- A world-class digital network -Huawei 5G
- Development of a modern military force.
- Professed Peaceful Rise: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Hu Jintao’s assured about “peaceful rise” so as to allay the fears of other and also to utilise the financial and technological resources of the West.
- Regional Hegemon: China started building military installations in the South China Sea as its economic power increased
Recent announcements on China by U.S. President Donald Trump
- Break from past: President Trump is the first one to finally acknowledge the uneasy facts about the Chinese
- Strategic Shift It was Mr. Trump’s 2017 National Security Strategy document that, perhaps for the first time, clubbed China along with Russia as a challenge to American power, influence and interests
- Clashes on various front: Trump has called China out on trade practices and on 5G
- Decoupling of relationship: U.S. is heavily dependent on supply chains in China, while the Chinese have been unable to break free of the dollar. Both Trump & Xi-Jinping wants to decouple their closely inter-linked economies.
- Hongkong: Trump administration has stated it would revoke Hong Kong’s special trade status under U.S. law.
- Chinese Immigration: US administration has passed an order limiting the entry of certain Chinese graduate students and researchers who may have ties to the People’s Liberation Army.
- Tighter Regulation: U.S. President has also ordered financial regulators to closely examine Chinese firms listed in U.S. stock markets, and warned those that do not comply with U.S. laws could be delisted
What does all these announcements indicate?
- It is a clear indication that the competition between the U.S. and China is likely to sharpen in the post-COVID world.
- The points of divergence, even dispute, between US-China have so far been in the material realm. With Hong Kong, the U.S.-China rivalry may be entering the ideological domain.
A binary choice between the U.S. and China is likely to test India’s capacity to maintain strategic and decisional autonomy
Connecting the dots:
- Cold War and Nuclear arms race
- Impact of rising US-China tensions on rules-based international order
(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)
Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)
- Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.
- Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.
Q.1 Which of the following are triple billion goals of World Health Organisation?
- To protect 1 billion people from health emergencies.
- To extend Universal health coverage to 1 billion people.
- To bring 1 billion people out of poverty.
Select the correct code:
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
Q.2 ‘One Sun, One World, One Grid’ initiative was recently proposed by which of the following country?
- South Africa
Q.3 Consider the following statements regarding International Solar Alliance:
- It is a treaty-based organisation.
- It aims to deploy 5,000 GW of solar generation capacity globally.
- It aims to mobilize investment of over $1 trillion by 2050.
Which of the above is/are correct?
- 1 and 3 only
- 2 only
- 1 only
- 2 and 3 only
Q.4 Comprehensive Strategic Partnership was recently established by which of the following two countries?
- India and Australia
- Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
- India and Vietnam
- South Africa and India
Q.5 Rojgar Setu scheme was recently launched by which of the following state of India?
- Madhya Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh
Q.6 Which of the following is the theme of World Environment Day 2020?
- Air pollution
- Marine Life
- Let’s save Arctic and Antarctic circles
ANSWERS FOR 5th June 2020 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)
About need for reforms in Health Sector:
About India-Australia Summit:
About promoting Ayush: