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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 16th May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 16, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


RNA Granules

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology
  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life)

Why in News: In yeast cells, a protein (sbp1) promotes disintegration of RNA granules, the study found that the Sbp1 protein helps in reducing the aggregates of human proteins involved in neurodegenerative disorders.

What is an RNA granule?

  • In the cytoplasm of any cell and one comes across structures made of messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins known as RNA granules
  • Unlike other structures in the cell (such as mitochondria), the RNA granules are not covered and confined by a membrane
  • This makes them highly dynamic in nature, thereby allowing them to constantly exchange components with the surrounding
  • RNA granules are present in the cytoplasm at low numbers under normal conditions but increase in number and size under stressful conditions including diseases.
  • A defining feature which does not change from one organism to another (conserved) of the RNA granule protein components is the presence of stretches containing repeats of certain amino acids
  • Such stretches are referred to as low complexity regions. Repeats of arginine (R), glycine (G) and glycine (G) — known as RGG — are an example of low complexity sequence.

Protein Synthesis

  • Messenger RNAs are converted to proteins (building blocks of the cell) by the process of translation.
  • RNA granules determine messenger RNA (mRNA) fate by deciding when and how much protein would be produced from mRNA.
  • Protein synthesis is a multi-step and energy expensive process.
  • Therefore, a common strategy used by cells when it encounters unfavorable conditions is to shut down protein production and conserve energy to deal with the stressful situation.
  • RNA granules help in the process of shutting down protein production.
  • Some RNA granule types (such as Processing bodies or P-bodies) not only regulate protein production but also accomplish degradation and elimination of the mRNAs, which in turn helps in reducing protein production.

Treatment of disease

  • In recent years, a strong link has emerged between RNA granules and neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD).
  • The proteins implicated in these diseases are RNA binding proteins that can reside in RNA granules.
  • These proteins also contain low complexity sequences (repeats of amino acids) that are important for their movement into RNA granules.
  • In fact, these proteins are deposited as insoluble granules/aggregates in the neurons of ALS and FTD patients which are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases.
  • Finding ways of solubilizing these aggregates could provide a breakthrough in treating these diseases.

Findings of the study

  • A recent study has identified a protein (Sbp1) as a factor that dissolves the RNA granules (P-bodies)
  • The work also concluded that low complexity sequences (containing repeats of arginine (R) and glycine (G) amino acids — RGG) which normally promote granule formation, in this case promote the disintegration of RNA granules in yeast cells.
  • The identified protein Sbp1 is specific for dissolving P-bodies and not stress granules which are related RNA granule types also present in the cytoplasm.
  • This finding can be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD).

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) RNA interference (RNAi)’ technology has gained popularity in the last few years. why? (2019)

  1. It is used in developing gene silencing therapies.
  2. It can be used in developing therapies for the treatment of cancer.
  3. It can be used to develop hormone replacement therapies.
  4. It can be used to produce crop plants that are resistant to virtual pathogens.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 4
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1 and 4 only

Source: The Hindu


Pullulan Polymer

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology
  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life)

In News: Biomaterial from fungal extract helps heal wounds

Pullulan polymer

  • The biomaterial is derived from the polymer pullulan which is secreted by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.
  • It is an exopolysaccharide, that is, this polymer is secreted by the fungus itself into the medium on which it is growing.
  • Pullulan as a biomaterial is already successful and widely used commercially.
  • It is exploited in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry because of its non-toxic, non-mutagenic and non-immunogenic properties.
  • In the biomedicine sector, it has been used for drug and gene delivery

Disinfecting the wounds and hastening the process of healing

  • Pullulan is basically a polymeric chain of glucose by keeping the biocompatible carbohydrate backbone of the polymer intact and adding some quaternary ammonium groups, make the polymer positively charged
  • They process the polymer to get a powder which is water-soluble. This solution can be applied on the wound surface and then covered with sterile gauze. This can also be used in a gel form.
  • With this gel the wounds can be disinfected and also healed faster.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) What is cas9 protein that is often mentioned in news? (2019)

  1. A molecular scissors used in targeted gene editing.
  2. A biosensor used in the accurate detection of pathogens in patients.
  3. A gene that makes plants pest-resistant
  4. A herbicidal substance synthesized in generally modified crops

Q.2) The term ‘ACE2’ is talked about in the context of (2021)

  1. genes introduced in the genetically modified plants
  2. development of India’s own satellite navigation system
  3. radio collar for wildlife tracking
  4. spread of viral diseases

Source: The Hindu


Thomas Cup

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology
  • Mains – GS 3 (Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology)

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: India lifts first-ever Thomas Cup after 3-0 wins over Indonesia

  • A determined Indian men’s team etched its name in the history books by lifting the Thomas Cup title for the first time with a dominant 3-0 win over 14-time champions Indonesia in the final.
  • India dished out a performance for the ages with World Championships medallist Lakshya Sen, Kidambi Srikanth and world number 8 doubles duo of Chirag Shetty and Satwiksairaj Rankireddy producing memorable performances.

Thomas Cup

  • The Thomas Cup, sometimes called the World Men’s Team Championships, is an international badminton competition among teams representing member nations of the Badminton World Federation (BWF), the sport’s global governing body.
  • The championships have been conducted every two years since 1982, amended from being conducted every three years since the first tournament held in 1948–1949.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the Laureus World Sports Award which was instituted in the year 2000:

  1. American golfer Tiger Woods was the first winner of this award.
  2. The award has been received mostly by ‘Formula One’ players so far.
  3. Roger Federer received this award the maximum number of times compared to others.

Select the correct code:

  1. 1 and 2 Only
  2. 2 and 3 Only
  3. 1 and 3 Only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Source: Indian Express


National Register of Citizens (NRC)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains – GS 2 (Citizenship, Federalism; Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

In News: The State Coordinator of National Register of Citizens (NRC), Assam has requested members of foreigners tribunals across the state not to consider draft NRC and supplementary list as reliable evidence for disposal of cases under judicial or quasi-judicial process

  • Reason – Final NRC is yet to be published by the Registrar General of Citizens Registration which is mandatory as per cause 7 of the Schedule of the Citizenship Rules, 2003. Before that there is possibility reverification of names considering the errors.
  • Results of the Draft NRC and Supplementary list may change when Final NRC gets published

NRC

  • National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein.
  • The NRC was published only once in 1951.
  • This NRC was prepared under a directive from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

NRC in Assam

  • The NRC in Assam is basically a list of Indian citizens living in the state. The citizens’ register sets out to identify foreign nationals in the state that borders Bangladesh.
  • The reason behind the move was to identify Indian citizens in Assam amid “unabated” migration from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

How will the NRC be updated?

  • The NRC will be updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.

Eligibility for inclusion in updated NRC

  • Persons whose names appear in NRC, 1951
  • Persons whose names appear in the Electoral Rolls up to 24th March (midnight), 1971
  • Descendants of the above persons
  • Persons who came to Assam from Bangladesh between 1st January 1966 and 25th March 1971 and registered themselves with the Foreigner Regional Registration Office (FRRO) and were declared by the Foreigner Tribunal as Indian citizens.
  • All Indian Citizens including their children and descendants who have moved to Assam post 24th March 1971 would be eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC on adducing satisfactory proof of residence in any part of the country (outside Assam) as of 24th March 1971.
  • Persons who can provide any of the admissible documents issued up to 24th March midnight, 1971.

 Objectives and need 

  • It effectively suggests bringing legislation that will enable the government to identify infiltrators who have been living in India illegally, detain them and finally deport them where they came from.
  • It will target illegal immigrants in India.

Foreigners Tribunals

  • The tribunals are quasi-judicial bodies, to determine if a person staying illegally is a “foreigner” or not.
  • Every individual, whose name does not figure in the final National Register of Citizens (NRC), can represent his/her case in front of the appellate authority i.e. Foreigners Tribunals (FT).
  • Composition: Advocates not below the age of 35 years of age with at least 7 years of practice (or) Retired Judicial Officers from the Assam Judicial Service (or) Retired IAS of ACS Officers (not below the rank of Secretary/Addl. Secretary) having experience in quasi-judicial works.

Who can setup these tribunals?

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has amended the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order, 1964, and has empowered district magistrates in all States and Union Territories to set up tribunals (quasi-judicial bodies) to decide whether a person staying illegally in India is a foreigner or not.
  • Earlier, the powers to constitute tribunals were vested only with the Centre.

Who can approach?

  • The amended order (Foreigners (Tribunal) Order, 2019) also empowers individuals to approach the Tribunals.
  • Earlier, only the State administration could move the Tribunal against a suspect.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2013)

  1. The National Development Council is an organ of the Planning Commission.
  2. The Economic and Social Planning is kept in the Concurrent List in the Constitution of India.
  3. The Constitution of India prescribes that Panchayats should be assigned the task of preparation of plans for economic development and social justice.

Select the correct code:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Source: Hindustan Times


Shrivelled Wheat

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs
  • Mains – GS 1 (Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes)

In News: The Centre announced a major relaxation in the Fair and Average Quality (FAQ) norms of wheat by raising the maximum permissible limit of “shriveled and broken grains” to 18 percent from the existing 6 percent.

  • The move is aimed at providing relief to Punjab and Haryana farmers during the ongoing rabi marketing season.
  • The move comes after the two states wrote to the Centre, seeking relaxation in the Uniform Specifications of Wheat for RMS 2022-23.
  • The emergence of shrivelled grains is a natural phenomenon appearing as a result of extreme heat wave that enveloped the northern part of the country in March.

Source: Indian Express


Baba’s Explainer – OBC Reservations

OBC Reservations

Syllabus

  • GS-2: Governance & Policy Measures
  • GS-2: Equality & Equity

Why In News: Supreme Court has stayed 27 percent reservation for OBCs in local body polls in Madhya Pradesh.

Read Complete Details on NATO – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to RNA Granules, consider the following statements

  1. RNA granules are found in the cytoplasm of the cell
  2. RNA granules are covered and confined by a membrane
  3. RNA granules help in the process of shutting down protein production

Select the correct code:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements

  1. It is a biomaterial secreted by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans
  2. It’s been used for drug and gene delivery in the biomedicine sector

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements

  1. Foreigners’ Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body
  2. District magistrates in all States and Union Territories is empowered to set up Foreigners’ Tribunal
  3. Only state administration could move the Tribunal against a suspect

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 3

ANSWERS FOR 16th MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 b
2 c
3 a

 

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