DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th February 2023

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  • March 1, 2023
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Yellow River

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  • Prelims – Geography

Context:  A recent study has noted that the Chinese practice of building embankments is one of the reasons to blame for the devastating floods occurring in the “Yellow river”.

About Yellow River:

  • The Yellow River (Huang He) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze).
  • It’s the fifth-longest river in the world.
  • Source: The Bayankala Mountains on the Plateau of Tibet in western central China.
  • Mouth: southern Bohai Sea
  • Claims to fame: world’s muddiest major river, “China’s cradle (of civilization)”
  • Provinces flowed through: Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, and Shandong
  • Tributaries: Black River, White River, Tao River, Huangshui, Fen River, Luo River, Wei River.
  • The name “Yellow River” comes from the huge amounts of “yellow” loess sediment it carries, which are eroded when it flows through the Loess Plateau.
  • The Yellow River is not just an iconic river of China, but also the symbol of the Chinese spirit: bearing burdens (its sedimentation), adaptation (its course changes), and perseverance (its continual flow).
  • Hukou Waterfall on it is the second-largest waterfall in China.
  • Qinghai Lake on it is China’s biggest lake.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which one of the lakes of West Africa has become dry and turned into a desert? (2022)

  1. Lake Victoria
  2. Lake Faguibine
  3. Lake Oguta
  4. Lake Volta

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2021)

Rivers Flows into
1. Mekong Andaman Sea
2. Thames Irish Sea
3. Volga Caspian Sea
4. Zambezi Indian Ocean

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2 and 4 only

Q3. With reference to the Indus River system, of the following four rivers, three of them pour into one of the which joins the Indus direct. Among the following, which one is such river that joins the Indus direct? (2021)

  1. Chenab
  2. Jhelum
  3.  Ravi
  4. Sutlej

Right to be forgotten

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  • Prelims –Polity

Context: Recently, a doctor brought up the ‘Right to be Forgotten’ in the Delhi High Court after a wrongful arrest in response to a fabricated FIR against him.

About the Right to be forgotten:

  • The Right to be Forgotten” is a right to have private information removed from the internet search engine, database, websites, or other public platforms.
  • Origin: The Right to be Forgotten originates from the 2014 European Court of Justice after which  it was included in the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in addition to the right to erasure.
  • The right is not recognized by a law or a statute in India explicitly.
  • The courts have repeatedly held it to be endemic to the Right to Privacy under Article 21.
  • The Supreme Court in K.S.Puttaswamy vs Union of India referred to the European Union Regulation of 2016 which recognized the right to be forgotten as an individual’s right to remove personal information from the system.
  • However, the court also recognized that such a right can be restricted by the right to freedom of expression and information or for compliance with legal obligations.

Related Laws :

  • Section 43A of the IT Act, 2000 – says that organizations who possess sensitive personal data and fail to maintain appropriate security to safeguard such data may be obligated to pay damages to the affected person.
  • IT Rules, 2021 – It does not include this right but lays down the procedure for filing complaints with the designated Grievance Officer to have content exposing personal information about a complainant removed from the internet.
  • Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022 under section 14 includes the concept of the “Right to be Forgotten”.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to Indian Judiciary, consider the following statements. (2021)

  1. Any retired judge of the Supreme Court of India can be called back to sit by the Chief Justice of India with the prior permission of the President of India.
  2. A High court in India has the power to review its own judgment as the Supreme Court does.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. The- motion to impeach a Judge of the Supreme Court of India cannot be rejected by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha as per the Judges (Inquiry) Act, 1968.
  2. The Constitution of India defines and gives details of what Constitutes ‘incapacity and proven misbehavior’ of the Judges of the Supreme Court of India.
  3. The details of the process of impeachment of the Judges of the Supreme Court of India are given in the Judges (Inquiry) Act, of 1968.
  4. If the motion for the impeachment of a Judge is taken up for voting, the law requires the motion to be backed by each House of the Parliament and supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by not less than two-thirds of the total members of that House present and voting.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4

Heat Waves

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  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Recent reports by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) describe the impact of heat waves.

About Heat Waves:

  • A Heat Wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western parts of India.
  • Heat Waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.
  • The extreme temperatures and resultant atmospheric conditions adversely affect people living in these regions as they cause physiological stress, sometimes resulting in death.

 Criteria for Heat Waves given by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD):

  • Heat Waves need not be considered till the maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C for Plains and at least 30°C for Hilly regions
  • When the normal maximum temperature of a station is less than or equal to 40°C Heat Wave Departure from normal is 5°C to 6°C Severe Heat Wave Departure from normal is 7°C or more
  • When the normal maximum temperature of a station is more than 40°C Heat Wave Departure from normal is 4°C to 5°C Severe Heat Wave Departure from normal is 6°C or more
  • When the actual maximum temperature remains 45°C or more irrespective of the normal maximum temperature, heat waves should be declared.

 Health Impacts of Heat Waves

  • Heat Cramps: Ederna (swelling) and Syncope (Fainting), generally accompanied by fever below 39°C i.e.102°F.
  • Heat Exhaustion: Fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, and sweating.
  • Heat Stoke: Body temperatures of 40°C i.e. 104°F or more along with delirium, seizures, or coma. This is a potentially fatal condition.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following: (2022)

  1. Carbon monoxide
  2. Nitrogen oxide
  3. Ozone
  4. Sulfur dioxide

Excess of which of the above in the environment is/are the cause(s) of acid rain?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4

 Q.2)  In the Guidelines, statements: the context of WHO considers the Air Quality following (2022)

  1. The 24-hour mean of PM2.5 should not exceed 15 ug/m³ and the annual mean of PM 2.5 should not exceed 5 µg/m³.
  2. In a year, the highest levels of ozone pollution occur during periods of inclement weather.
  3. PM10 can penetrate the lung barrier and enter the bloodstream.
  4. Excessive ozone in the air can trigger asthma.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1, 3 and 4
  2. 1 and 4 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4
  4. 1 and 2 only

India Municipal Bond Index

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  • Prelims – Economy

Context: India’s first-ever municipal bond index has been unveiled by the National Stock Exchange (NSE) recently.

About India Municipal Bond Index:

  • It is India’s firstmunicipal bond index.
  • It was released by NSE Indices Ltd., an arm of the National Stock Exchange at  SEBI in Bengaluru.
  • It will track the performance of all municipal bondsissued by Indian municipal corporations.
  • It is aimed at tracking the performance of all municipal bondsissued in the country across maturities and investment-grade credit ratings.
  • The Index comprises 28 municipal bonds from 10 different issuers, all of which were in the AA credit rating category.
  • In the Union Budget session 2023, the government mentioned that it will be granting incentives to urban civic bodies for the improvement of their finances and creditworthiness.

Municipal Bonds:

  • It is a security issued by local governments in India or their associated bodies.
  • They were first issued in India in 1997.
  • It is issued to raise money to finance projects such as bridges, schools, hospitals, and the provision of household amenities that aim to achieve socio-economic development.
  • The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urbanization Transformation (AMRUT) and the Smart Cities Mission are two projects which have been funded by municipal  bonds.

MUST READ:  National Stock Exchange of India

Source:  THE HINDU

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the Indian economy, what are the advantages of “Inflation-Indexed Bonds (IIBs)”? (2022)

  1. Government can reduce the coupon rates on its borrowing by way of IIBs.
  2. IIGs provide protection to investors from uncertainty regarding inflation.
  3. The interest received as well as capital gains on IIBs are not taxable.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to Convertible bonds, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. As there is an option to exchange the bond for equity, Convertible Bonds pay a lower rate of interest.
  2. The option to convert to equity affords the bondholder a degree of indexation to rising consumer prices.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Exercise Desert Flag

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  • Prelims – Defense

Context: India’s indigenously-made light combat aircraft Tejas will be participating in its first international multilateral air exercise — Exercise Desert Flag .

About Exercise Desert Flag :

  • Exercise Desert Flag is a yearly multinational warfare exercise held by the UAE Air Force.
  • This is the eighth edition of the exercise.
  • The Indian Air Force will be taking part with five LCA Tejas Light Combat Aircraft and two C-17 Globemaster III aircraft.
  • Other participants in the exercise include air forces from France, Kuwait, Australia, the UK, Bahrain, Morocco, Spain, the Republic of Korea, and the USA.
  • The objectives for the exercise were to expose coalition participating forces to large force employment, sharpen tactical capabilities, and enhance interoperability along with fostering closer relations between the participating forces.
  • The  Indian Air Force (IAF)  participated in the exercise for the first time, in  Exercise Desert Flag-VI (2021).


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The term “Levant” often heard in the news roughly corresponds to which of the following regions? (2022)

  1. Region along the eastern Mediterranean shores
  2. Region along North African shores stretching from Egypt to Morocco
  3. Region along the Persian Gulf and the Horn of Africa
  4. The entire coastal Mediterranean Sea of areas

Q.2)  Consider the following pairs:

The region often mentioned in the news:   Country

  1. Anatolia                                              Turkey
  2. Amhara                                               Ethiopia
  3. Cabo Delgado                                     Spain
  4. Catalonia                                             Italy

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

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  • Prelims – Economy

Context: The  FATF suspended Russia’s membership over the Ukraine war recently.

About The Financial Action Task Force (FATF):

  • The FATF was established in 1989 and is based in Paris.
  • It is the global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog.
  • The inter-governmental body sets international standards that aim to prevent these illegal activities and the harm they cause to society.
  • Members: 39
  • India is one of the members.
  • The FATF President is a senior official appointed by the FATF Plenary from among its members.
  • The terms of the FATF Presidency- two-years
  • Current President: Mr. T.Raja Kumar (Singapore ) 
  • The FATF Plenary is the decision-making body of the FATF and meets three times per year.

FATF has two lists:

  • Grey List: Countries that are considered safe havens for supporting terror funding and money laundering are put on this list.
  • This inclusion serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.
  • Black List: Countries known as Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories (NCCTs) are put on the blacklist.
  • These countries support terror funding and money laundering activities.

Functions of  FATF :

  • It works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.
  • It sets international standards to ensure national authorities can effectively go after illicit funds linked to drugs trafficking, the illicit arms trade, cyber fraud, and other serious crimes.
  • In total, more than 200 countries and jurisdictions have committed to implementing the FATF’s Standards as part of a coordinated global response to preventing organized crime, corruption, and terrorism.
  • It researches how money is laundered and terrorism is funded, promotes global standards to mitigate the risks, and assesses whether countries are taking effective action.
  • It  continuously monitors how criminals and terrorists raise, use, and move funds.
  • It regularly publishes reports that raise awareness about the latest money laundering, terrorist financing, and proliferation financing techniques
  • The FATF continuously strengthens its global standards to address new risks, such as the regulation of virtual assets, which have spread as cryptocurrencies gain popularity.
  • It  monitors countries to ensure they implement the FATF Standards fully and effectively.
  • It  holds countries to account that do not comply with the FATF Standards.
  • If a country repeatedly fails to implement FATF Standards then it can be named a Jurisdiction under Increased Monitoring or a High-Risk Jurisdiction.

Source: AIR

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) .“Rapid Financing Instrument” and “Rapid Credit Facility” are related to the provisions of lending by which of the following: (2022)

  1. Asian Development Bank
  2. International Monetary Fund
  3. United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative
  4. World Bank

Q.2) With reference to Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS), which of the following statements is/are correct? (2020)

  1. Quantitative restrictions on imports by foreign investors are prohibited.
  2. They apply to investment measures related to trade in both goods and services.
  3. They are not concerned with the regulation of foreign investment.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Structure of the Earth’s Interior

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  • Prelims – Geography

Context: Recent studies have revealed new insights about Earth’s mantle.

About Structure of the Earth’s interior :

  • The Earth can be divided into one of two ways: mechanically or chemically.
  • Mechanically ( or through the study of liquid states )– it can be divided into the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and inner core.
  • Chemically (or by composition), which is the more popular of the two, it can be divided into the crust, the mantle (subdivided into the upper and lower mantle), and the core (subdivided into the outer core, and inner core.)

The Crust

  • The Crust is the cold, fragile, and rock-based outer layer.
  • There are two types of crust, each with unique physical and chemical characteristics: (i) continental crust; (ii) oceanic crust.
  • Basalt lava flows are produced when magma under the seafloor erupts, forming the oceanic crust.
  • The crust makes up about 0.5% of the earth’s mass and over 1% of its volume.
  • The oceanic crust is 5 km thinner than the continental crust (about 30 km).
  • Silica (Si) and Aluminum (Al) are the two main components of the crust.


  • The mantle is the layer beneath the crust.
  • The Mohorovich Discontinuity is the separation between the crust and mantle.
  • The mantle has a thickness of around 2900 km.
  • Approximately 84% of the earth’s volume and 67% of its mass are made up of the mantle.
  • It is primarily composed of silicon and magnesium.
  • The density of the layer, which ranges from 3.3 to 5.4g/cm3, is greater than that of the crust.
  • The entire crust and the topmost solid portion of the mantle comprise the Lithosphere.
  • An extremely vicious, weakly elastic, ductile, deforming zone of the upper mantle, the asthenosphere (between 80 and 200 km), is located just beneath the lithosphere.


  • It is the layer that surrounds the earth’s core that is the deepest.
  • Guttenberg’s Discontinuity divides the mantle from the core.
  • It is also called NIFE since it contains nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe).
  • Nearly 15% of the earth’s volume and 32.5 percent of its mass are made up of the core.
  • The density of the earth’s core fluctuates around 5 and 14.5 g/cm3.
  • The inner core and the outer core are the sub-layers that make up the Core.
  • The inner core is solid, but the outer core is liquid (or semi-liquid).


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the water on the planet Earth, consider the following statements:

  1. The amount of water in the rivers and lakes is more than the amount of groundwater.
  2. The amount of water I n polar ice caps and glaciers is more than the amount of groundwater.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2021)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) The Earth’s magnetic field has reversed every few hundred thousand years. (2018)

  1. When the Earth was created more than 4000 million years ago, there was 54% oxygen and no carbon dioxide.
  2. When living organisms originated, they modified the early atmosphere of the Earth.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Musical instruments

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  •    Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently, Prime Minister spoke of several musical instruments and folk artists in his Mann ki Baat address.

About musical instruments :


  • Sursingar is a stringed instrument made of ivory and wood.
  • This traditional instrument is found in various parts of North India.
  • The strings of the instrument are usually four in number and made of brass or bronze, and are plucked with a metal pick.
  • The Sursingar (along with the Rudra Veena and the Surbahar) usually accompanies Dhrupad, the genre of Hindustani vocal music which has a low, deep, and thoughtful pitch.
  • Noted performers: Baba Allauddin Khan, Birendra Kishore Roy Choudhury, Shaukat Ali Khan, and Radhika Mohan Maitra.


  • Karakattam is an ancient folk dance of Tamil Nadu in which performers in colorful saris dance with a pot (karakam) on their heads to invoke Mariamman, the goddess of the rain.
  • This dance is categorized into two types: Aatta Karakam symbolizes joy and happiness and is mainly performed as entertainment. 
  • Sakthi Karakam is performed only in temples as a spiritual offering.
  • It involves three tiers of flower arrangements of different colors sitting on top of a container filled to the brim with either water, rice, or soil. 
  • Other features:  blowing fire, inserting needles into eyes, and keeping balance while holding a bottle parallel to the ground on the performer’s back.
  • Noted performers: V Durga Devi of Salem.


  • It is a stringed instrument, usually with eight strings that are plucked with a pick.
  • It  is a moderately sized instrument, smaller than the Veena, Sitar, or guitar, and was developed in Europe in the 18th century as an evolution of the older Mandora (Mandola).
  • The instrument’s modern form and proportions were strongly influenced by its maker Pasquale Vinaccia of Naples (1806-82).
  • The Mandolin has long been part of the Indian film music tradition, having been used by several great composers.
  • Noted Performers:  late Uppalapu Srinivas, often known as ‘Mandolin’ Srinivas, Sajjad Hussain, Kishore DesaiSnehashish Mozumder, Pradipto Sengupta, and N S Prasad.

MUST READ:  Ustad Bismillah Khan


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following pairs : (2018)

Crafts Heritage of
Puthukkuli shawls Tamil Nadu
Sujni embroidery Maharashtra
Uppada Jamdani saris Karnataka

Which of the pairs given above is /are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the famous Sattriya dance, consider the following statements: (2014)

  1. Sattriya is a combination of music, dance, and drama
  2. It is a centuries-old living tradition of Vaishnavites of Assam
  3. It is based on classical Ragas and Talas of devotional songs composed by Tulsidas, Kabir, and Mirabai

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

National Science Day and the Raman Effect

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  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: In 1986, the Government of India, under then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, designated February 28 as National Science Day to commemorate the announcement of the discovery of the “Raman Effect”.

  • This year’s edition is being celebrated under the theme of “Global Science for Global Wellbeing”, in light of India’s G20 presidency.

About Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman:

  • Raman was born on 7 november 1888 in Tirucirapalli, Madras Presidency to Tamil Parents.
  • He joined Indian Financial Service in Calcutta as Assistant Accountant General at the age of 19.
  • In 1926, he established the Indian Journal of Physics as the first editor.
  • In February 1928, Raman led an experiment with K.S. Krishnan, on the scattering of light, when he discovered what is called Raman Effect.
  • He was the president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929.
  • He won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his Raman Scattering and for the discovery of Raman Effect.
  • He founded the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1934 and started publishing the proceedings of the Academy.
  • He retired from IISc Bangalore in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore in 1949.
  • He was against the control of research programmes by the government such as the establishment of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

About Raman Effect:

  • Raman is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels. It is also called Raman scattering.
  • In simpler words, it is a change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.
  • When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam.
  • Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength.
    • A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light and its presence is a result of the Raman Effect.
  • The Raman effect forms the basis for Raman spectroscopy which is used by chemists and physicists to gain information about materials.
  • Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

Raman Spectroscopy:

  • Raman Spectroscopy is a non-destructive chemical analysis technique which provides detailed information about chemical structure, phase and polymorphy, crystallinity and molecular interactions.
  • It is based upon the interaction of light with the chemical bonds within a material.
  • In this, a molecule scatters incident light from a high intensity laser light source.
  • Most of the scattered light is at the same wavelength (or colour) as the laser source and does not provide useful information which is called Rayleigh Scatter.
  • However, a small amount of light (typically 0.0000001%) is scattered at different wavelengths (or colours), which depend on the chemical structure of the analyte which is called Raman Scatter.

Significance of the discovery:

  • CV Raman’s discovery took the world by storm as it had deep implications far beyond Raman’s original intentions.
  • As Raman himself remarked in his 1930 Nobel Prize speech, “The character of the scattered radiations enables us to obtain an insight into the ultimate structure of the scattering substance.”
    • For quantum theory, in vogue in the scientific world at the time, Raman’s discovery was crucial.
  • The discovery would also find its use in chemistry, giving birth to a new field known as Raman spectroscopy as a basic analytical tool to conduct non-destructive chemical analysis for both organic and inorganic compounds.
  • With the invention of lasers and the capabilities to concentrate much stronger beams of light, the uses of Raman spectroscopy have only ballooned over time.
  • This method has a wide variety of applications, from studying art and other objects of cultural importance in a non-invasive fashion to finding drugs hidden inside luggage at customs.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which one of the following is the context in which the term “qubit” is mentioned? (2022)

  1. Cloud Services
  2. Quantum Computing
  3. Visible Light Communication Technologies
  4. Wireless Communication Technologies

Q.2) Which one of the following is a reason why astronomical distances are measured in light-years? (2021)

  1. Distance among stellar bodies do not change
  2. Gravity of stellar bodies does not change
  3. Light always travels in straight line
  4. Speed of light is always same

New Delivery Mechanisms for Genetic Therapy

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  • Mains – GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: Recently, A biotech company called Aera Therapeutics has unveiled a type of protein nanoparticle that can be used to deliver all sorts of genetic medicines around the body.

Key highlights of the report:

  • Some methods avoid the delivery problem altogether by taking cells out of the body, editing them in a lab, and giving them back to the patient.
  • But that strategy is lengthy, expensive and tough on patients.

About Genetic Therapy:

  • Gene therapy is a technique which uses Gene editing for the replacement of defective genes with healthy ones in order to treat genetic disorders.
  • In simple terms, it is an experimental technique through which healthy genes are inserted into an individual or embryo to treat disease.
  • A viral or bacterial vector (harmless) is used to carry a corrective gene into a patient’s cells, where the gene then directs the cell to produce the proteins necessary to treat the disease.
  • Gene therapies can work by several mechanisms:
    • Replacing a disease-causing gene with a healthy copy of the gene
    • Inactivating a disease-causing gene that is not functioning properly
    • Introducing a new or modified gene into the body to help treat a disease.

Benefits of Gene Therapy:

  • Treatment of Rare Diseases: Gene and cell-base gene therapy can help treat rare and debilitating diseases that have limited treatment options.
    • Often, these rare inherited diseases result in disability or premature death.
    • Studies have shown that Gene and Cell-based Gene Therapies have slowed or completely stopped the progression of rare diseases.
  • Effectiveness: The advantage of gene therapy over traditional pharmacological approaches is that therapeutic benefits of Gene Therapy remain effective for a long period of time without the need of repeated interventions.
    • A fundamental aspect of Gene Therapies is that they aim to treat the cause of the disease, not just the symptoms.
  • Accuracy: It’s difficult to design specific medicines that influence specific proteins.
    • However, with gene therapy it may be possible to design therapeutic agents that can influence any of body’s roughly 20,000 genes.

Limitations of Genetic Therapy:

  • The presently available genetic therapy technologies can only fix the genome in reachable parts of the body, and right now, reach is very limited.
    • The liver, eyes and blood are the main places where cures might be possible.
  • The fundamental issue with genetic medicines is that our bodies have evolved to keep bad things out of our cells.
  • That’s great for staving off viruses or other pathogens, but also makes it incredibly hard to sneak a medicine in.
  • Scientists have been stuck using the same kinds of packaging for technologies like mRNA or Crispr or DNA.
  • They largely rely on viral vectors, which are basically hollowed out shells of a virus, and lipid nanoparticles, which can be thought of as fatty bubbles that encase genetic material.
    • But they can only efficiently deliver to certain Zip codes – with a few exceptions, lipid nanoparticles’ routes are largely limited to the liver and eyes, for example.
  • These have other limitations, for example how much cargo they can hold.
    • Some genes for fixing the diseases are too big to fit inside a virus.
  • It can be tough to squeeze the instructions for making Crispr tools into a usable lipid nanoparticle.

Way Forward:

  • The good side of genetic engineering needs to be promoted with appropriate checks and balances.
  • From a research point of view, more studies need to be conducted to address the concerns of allergic and immune responses to GM food on a case-by-case basis.
  • There is still immense potential to explore in the field like leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) for advancements in biological sciences.
  • Genomic data can be developed more which will help in the development of biomedical sciences and viral sciences.
  • The regulations need to refine more especially concerning labelling, ethical concerns, false advertising, etc.

Source:  Live mint

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding India Municipal Bond Index:

  1. It is India’s first municipal bond index released by Bombay Stock Exchange Indices Ltd.
  2. It will track the performance of all municipal bonds issued by Indian municipal corporations.
  3. Smart Cities Mission scheme have been funded by municipal

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding Interior of the structure:

  1. The Mohorovich Discontinuity is the separation between the crust and mantle.
  2. Guttenberg’s Discontinuity divides the mantle from the core.
  3. Silica and Aluminum are the two main components of the crust.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.3) With reference to Indian art and culture, consider the following statements:

  1. Sursingar is a stringed instrument made of ivory and wood.
  2. Karakattam is an ancient folk dance of Kerala.
  3. Sakthi Karakam is performed only in temples as a spiritual offering.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 27th February 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 7th February – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – a

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