DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 8th March 2023

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  • March 7, 2023
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Judicial custody vs police custody and Arrest vs custody vs detention


  • Prelims – Polity

Context: Recently, the former Delhi Deputy Chief was sent to ‘judicial custody’ in a liquor policy case.

About Arrest vs Custody vs Detention :

Arrest: –

  • The Term Arrest is not defined either in the Code of Criminal Procedure Code or the Various Substantive Acts.
  • The word ‘Arrest’ is derived from the French word ‘Arret’ which means “to stop or Stay”.
  • An arrest is a restraint of the Liberty of the Person.
  • An arrest is an act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.

Custody: –

  • The control and care of a person or property, especially when granted by a court.
  • Custody is the state of being guarded, or kept in prison temporarily, especially by the police.
  • According to Section 27 of the Indian Evidence Act, of 1872 the expression “in Custody” denotes Surveillance or restriction on the movements of the person connected.

Difference between Arrest and Custody:-

  • An arrest is a mode of formally taking a person into police custody. Whereas ‘custody ‘ merely denotes surveillance or restriction on the movement of the person concerned.
  • A person may be taken in custody completely or even partially.
  • Thus, in every arrest there is custody but the converse is not true.


  • When the police or any authority holds someone under suspicion of any illegal act but has not charged them with a crime is known as Detention.
  • The person is detained against their will and their liberties are revoked for a time being.
  • The police have the right to detain someone if they suspect them of unlawful activity or any wrongdoing.
  • However, the police cannot detain somebody without reasonable suspicion, and can only detain them for a certain period of time which varies from region to region.
  • After the prescribed time, the police must either release or arrest the person according to the case.

About Judicial custody vs police custody :-

Police custody

  • When a person is arrested by police for charges of committing a heinous crime or on suspicion, he is detained in police custody.
  • A person is kept in police custody after he is arrested on the basis of an FIR or suspicion.
  • The period of detention is 15 days.
  • A person in police custody is kept in prison or a cell at that particular police station.
  • The investigating authority can interrogate a person.
  • The person has the right to legal counsel, and the right to be informed of the grounds which the police have to ensure.
  • The rule to produce a person before a magistrate within 24 hours of arrest is given under Section 167 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973.
  • The person arrested must be produced before the magistrate within 24 hours and if charges are not proved, then he is granted bail, or else he is sent back to police custody for further investigation and interrogation.
  • The magistrate has been given the power under Section 167 to remand a person in police custody.
  • He can also order to change the custody from police custody to judicial custody.
  • In such a situation, the time period of police custody is deducted from the total time period of judicial custody.

Judicial custody

  • It implies that the accused is lodged in jail and is under the custody of a magistrate.
  • The person detained under the purview of the judicial magistrate is lodged in central or state prison.
  • While in judicial custody, officials need the permission of the court for questioning.
  • In the case of non-bailable offenses, punished with life imprisonment or imprisonment not less than 10 years, the period of detention is 90 days, and in bailable offenses, the maximum period is 60 days.
  • A person in judicial custody is kept in central jail.
  • The person is kept in judicial custody on the orders of the magistrate until and unless he is granted bail.
  • A person is kept in judicial custody after the public prosecutor makes the court believe that such custody is necessary for further investigation.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the concerned magistrate and such an accused is locked up in a police station, not in jail.
  2. During judicial custody, the police officer in charge of the case is not allowed to interrogate the suspect without the approval of the court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. When a prisoner makes out a sufficient case, parole cannot be denied to a such prisoner because it becomes a matter of his/her right.
  2. State Governments have their own Prisoners Release on Parole Rules.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

National Consumers Cooperative Federation of India Limited (NCCF)


  • Prelims – Economy

Context: Recently, the Centre directed NAFED and the National Consumers Cooperative Federation of India Limited (NCCF) to immediately intervene in the market for the purchase of Red Onion (Kharif) in the wake of reports of their falling prices.

About National Consumers Cooperative Federation of India Limited (NCCF) :-

  • NCCF is an apex organization for Consumer Cooperatives.
  • It works under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution.

Objectives :-

  • to promote the consumer cooperative movement in the country
  • aspires to facilitate the voluntary formation and democratic functioning of cooperatives, based on self-reliance and mutual aid for overall economic betterment and financial autonomy.
  • to provide supply support to the consumer cooperatives and other distributing agencies for the distribution of consumer goods at reasonable and affordable rates besides rendering technical guidance and assistance to the consumer cooperatives.
  • It is the spokesman of the consumer cooperative movement in the country.
  • It provides the following services for strengthening the movement in the country
  • The National Co-operative Consumers’ Federation of India Ltd. (NCCF) has a Vigilance Cell headed by a Chief Vigilance Officer (CVO) on deputation from Govt. of India.
  • The CVO assists the management of NCCF in maintaining the transparency and integrity in general administration


The membership of NCCF, is open to the following:

  • Apex level Consumer Cooperative Federations in States.
  • State level Cooperative organisations having distribution of Consumer goods as one of its objectives in such states as do not have exclusive apex federation of consumer cooperatives.
  • Consumer Cooperative Societies and other Cooperative Societies doing retail distribution of consumer goods having turnover of Rs.50 Lakhs.
  • Government of India
  • National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)
  • NCUI without any obligation to pay either admission fee or share money
  • NAFED or any other National Cooperative Organization

MUST READ: National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd.(NAFED)

Source: PIB

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which of the following factors/policies were affecting the price of rice in India in the recent past? (2020)

  1. Minimum Support Price
  2. Government’s trading
  3. Government’s stockpiling
  4. Consumer subsidies

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, and 4 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture? (2020)

  1. Fixing Minimum Support Price for agricultural produce of all crops
  2. Computerization of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
  3. Social Capital Development
  4. Free electricity supply to farmers
  5. Waiver of agricultural loans by the banking system
  6. Setting up of cold storage facilities by the governments.

In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture?

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, 4, and 5 only
  3. 2, 3, and 6 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6



  • Prelims – Defence (International Relations)

Context: The first-ever joint military exercise between the Indian and French Army, FRINJEX-23 began recently in Kerela.

About FRINJEX-23:

  • It is the first-ever joint military exercise between the Indian and French Army.
  • FRINJEX-23 will be conducted at Pangode Military Station, Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala.
  • The exercise is unique in its concept and participation with the largest ever contingent being fielded by the
  • Thiruvananthapuram-based Indian Army troops and the French 6th Light Armored Brigade.
  • The theme for the exercise is based on “Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations in a Contested Environment”.

MUST READ:  India – France relations

Source: AIR

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following in respect of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS): (2017)

  1. Inaugural IONS was held in India in 2015 under the chairmanship of the Indian Navy.
  2. IONS is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime cooperation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC)’, Consider the following statements: (2015)

  1. It was established very recently in response to incidents of piracy and accidents of oil spills
  2. It is an alliance meant for maritime security only

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Mango varieties with GI tag and states


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology and Geography

Context : Recent reports suggest that extended monsoon, warm winter may reduce Alphonso mango yield by 40%.

About Mango varieties with GI tag and states :

  • Alphonso – (The Konkan region comprising Palghar, Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts) Maharashtra
  • Laxman Bhog – (Malda) West Bengal
  • Khirsapati (Himsagar) – (Malda) West Bengal
  • Fazli – (Malda) West Bengal
  • Malihabadi Dusseheri – Lucknow (Malihabad, Mal, Kakori and Bakshi kaTalab along the banks of Gomti river) Uttar Pradesh
  • Appimidi –  (Shimoga, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, Chikmagalur, Hassan and Udupi regions) Karnataka
  • Gir Kesar – (Junagadh (Around Gir Forest) Gujarat
  • Marathwada Kesar – (Marathwada Division (Aurangabad, Nanded, Parbhani, Latur, Beed, Hingoli, Jalna and Osmanabad) Maharashtra
  • Banganapalle – (Banganapalli ,Kurnool) Andhra Pradesh
  • Zardalu- (Bhagalpur and surroundings of Banka and Munger district)  Bihar
  • Rataul – (Baghpat) Uttar Pradesh
  • Salem Mango – (Krishnagiri, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri )Tamil Nadu


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Moringa (drumstick tree) is a leguminous evergreen tree.
  2. Tamarind tree is endemic to south Asia.
  3. In India, most of the tamarind is collected as minor forest produce.
  4. India exports tamarind and seeds of moringa.
  5. Seeds of moringa and tamarind can be used in the production of biofuels.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
  2. 3, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1,2, 3 and 5 only

Q.2) With reference to ‘palm oil’, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. The palm oil tree is native to Southeast Asia.
  2. The palm oil is a raw material for some industries producing lipstick and perfumes.
  3. The palm oil can be used to produce biodiesel.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3



  • Prelims – Science and technology

Context: Recent studies show that the Artificial sweetener erythritol can increase heart attack risk.

About Erythritol :

  • Erythritol is a sugar alcohol used as a low-calorie sweetener.
  • Erythritol belongs to a class of compounds called sugar alcohols.
  • Other sugar alcohols: xylitol, sorbitol, and maltitol.
  • With only 6% of the calories of sugar, it still contains 70% the sweetness.

Natural Occurrence and Production

  • Erythritol, just like sorbitol and xylitol, is a sugar alcohol that is naturally found in many fruits, vegetables, and fermented foods.
  • It also occurs in human body fluids such as eye lens tissue, serum, plasma, fetal fluid, and urine.
  • At the industrial level, it is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast, Moniliella pollinis.


  • It is used in beverages such as coffee and tea, liquid dietary supplements, juice blends, soft drinks, and flavoured water product variations, with foods including confections, biscuits and cookies, tabletop sweeteners, and sugar-free chewing gum.

Advantages :

  • It functions as low-calorie sweeteners in sugar-free or low-sugar products.
  • It is  found in small amounts in nature, especially in fruits and vegetables.
  • It contains almost no calories.
  • It does not raise blood sugar or insulin levels.
  • Human studies show very few side effects.

Erythritol side effects:-

  • About 90% of the erythritol is absorbed into your bloodstream.
  • Due to their unique chemical structure, the body can’t digest them, and they pass unchanged through most of the digestive system until they reach the colon.
  • In the colon, they’re fermented by the resident bacteria, which produce gas as a by-product. 
  • Consequently, eating large amounts of sugar alcohols may cause bloating and digestive upset.


 Previous Year Questions

Q.1) “Triclosan” considered harmful when exposed to high levels for a long time, is most likely present in which of the following? (2021)

  1. Food preservatives
  2. Fruit-ripening substances
  3. Reused plastic containers
  4. Toiletries

Q.2) Bisphenol A (BPA), a cause of concern, is a structural/key component in the manufacture of which of the following kinds of plastics? (2021)

  1. Low-density polyethylene
  2. Polycarbonate
  3. Polyethylene terephthalate
  4. Polyvinyl Chloride

SWACHH SUJAL SHAKTI SAMMAN 2023 and National Water Mission (NWM)


  • Prelims – Government initiatives (Polity )

Context: Recently, the  President Conferred the  SWACHH SUJAL SHAKTI SAMMAN 2023


  • The “Swachh Sujal Shakti Samman 2023”, is organized by the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Objective: to honor the women champions of the rural water and sanitation sector.
  • This event organized in the run-up to International Women’s Day was to felicitate the exceptional and exemplary work being done at the grassroots level by women in the implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen (SBM-G), Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain (JSA-CTR).
  • Ministry of Jal Shakti Celebrates International Women’s Day, 2023
  • President of India Smt. Droupadi Murmu felicitated the ‘Swachh Sujal Shakti Samman’ Awardees.
  • Union Minister of Jal Shakti presented the first copy of ‘Swachh Sujal Shakti Ki Abhivyakti’ to President
  • President also presented with National Water Missions customized ‘My Stamp’ by Minister of State for Communications.

About National Water Mission (NWM) :

  • The National Water Mission is one of the eight missions in the National Action Plan on Climate Change launched by the Prime Minister to tackle the threats of global warming.
  • The objective of the National Water Mission is “conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management”.

5 major Goals  of the National Water Mission:

  • Comprehensive water data base in the public domain.
  • Assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources;
  • Promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation, and preservation;
  • Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas;
  • Increasing water use efficiency by 20%; and
  • Promotion of basin-level integrated water resources management

MUST READ :  Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) and JAL JEEVAN MISSION

Source: PIB

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2015)

  1. The Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme was launched during 1996-97 to provide loan assistance to poor farmers.
  2. The Command Area Development Programme was launched in 1974-75 for the development of water-use efficiency.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: The nationwide ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at (2017)

  1. expanding the cultivable area under irrigation.
  2. enabling the banks to assess the quantum of loans to be granted to farmers on the basis of soil quality.
  3. checking the overuse of fertilizers in farmlands.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Khairul Manazil and Mubarak Masjid


  • Prelims – Art and culture

About Khairul Manazil:

  • It is right across Delhi’s Purana Qila, which Humayun and Sher Shah Suri built in the 16th century.
  • The Khairul Manazil is a crumbling memory of one of Mughal history’s most powerful women—Maham Anga.
  • This mosque was built by Maham Anga in 1561, roughly 23 years after the Purana Qila.
  • It looks like a typical Mughal monument from the outset, its interiors are heavily inspired by Delhi Sultanate architecture.
  • Anga was more than Akbar’s wet nurse
  • She was his furiously ambitious foster.
  • She was also a teenage Akbar’s political adviser and de facto regent from 1560-1562.

About Mubarak Masjid :

  • It was commissioned by Mubarak Begum.
  • She was a famous courtesan who became one of the 13 wives of Resident Major General Sir David Ochterlony or “Loony Akhtar”, as he was popularly called.
  • Today, the mosque continues to be operational under the Delhi Waqf Board.
  • Mosques hold a special spiritual and central position in Islam.
  • They are reflections of the sacred Ka‘bah, which serves as a link between man and God.
  • They are a source of portraying equality in Islam and can be looked at as spiritual clinics that work around the clock.
  • Furthermore, a special sign regarding the age of the Mahdi and the Promised Messiah foretold in Surah al-Kahf, verse 22 of the Holy Quran is pointed out as the building of mosques.
  • It can be specified as the founding mosque of Ahmadiyyat.
  • Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Promised Messiah, after his claim of being the Mahdi and the Messiah, offered around ninety-five percent of his prayers in this mosque.
  • The date of its foundation can be deduced based on ilm-ul-adad (knowledge of numbers) by adding the value of the alphabet present in this revelation, which amounts to figure 1300.
  • The year 1300 AH happens to correspond with the year 1883 of the Gregorian calendar.
  • It was then that the foundation of this mosque was due to take place according to the will of the Divine, although the foundation of the Ahmadiyya Jamaat was laid six years later.


 Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The Prime Minister recently inaugurated the new Circuit House near Somnath Temple Veraval. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Somnath Temple? (2022)

  1. Somnath Temple is one of the Jyotirlinga shrines.
  2. A description of the Somnath Temple was given by Al-Biruni.
  3. Pran Pratishtha of Somnath Temple (installation of the present-day temple) was done by President S. Radhakrishnan.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following statements (2018)

  1. White marble was used in making Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri
  2. Red sandstone and marble were used in making Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

India – Italy Bilateral Relations


  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: Recently, Italy’s Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni visited India after a gap of nearly five years.

India – Italy relations

Historical background:

  • India and Italy are ancient civilizations but young states (Italy having been reunified only in 1861).
  • The classical languages, Sanskrit and Latin both belong to the Indo-European language family.
  • Peoples of these two ancient civilizations have known, interacted and traded with each other for over 2000 years.
  • The Venetian merchant Marco Polo, during his travels to the east, also travelled to India in the 13th century and wrote about his experiences.
  • Indian troops, serving with the British Indian Army, were active in Italy during the World War II.
    • These included the Rajputana Rifles and Gurkha Rifles.
    • The 10th Indian Division took part in the East African Allied campaign against the Italians in Somaliland and Abyssinia.

Trade and Investment:

  • Italy is among India’s top 5 trading partners in the EU.
  • The bilateral trade witnessed a strong growth till 2007, before the world-wide recession of 2008 led to a marked slowdown in the Italian economy, which had an adverse impact on the bilateral trade.
  • India ranks 19th as the country of origin of Italian imports, accounting for 1.2% of Italian imports.
  • Italy also joined the successful India-France led International Solar Alliance comprising over 90 members.
  • In 2021, the two countries inked a Strategic Partnership on Energy Transition to advanced collaboration on areas like green hydrogen and biofuels.


  • The Indian Army’s 4th, 8th and 10th divisions, with more than 50,000 troops, played a significant role in one of the bitterest advances of the allied forces for the liberation of Italy in the Second World War.
  • Joint Defence Committee was established in 2018 to enhance and encourage a “structured dialogue” between Indian and Italian defence firms.
  • Italy supported India’s “intensified engagement” with nuclear, missile and dual-use technology and substances-export control regimes like the Wassenaar Arrangement, the Australia Group, and the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) which strengthen global non-proliferation efforts.

Cultural Exchange:

  • The agreement for cultural cooperation was signed in 1976.
  • It was replaced by a new Agreement in July 2004.
  • The Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP) between Italy and India entails exchange of students in language programmes as well as other academic courses.

Scientific Cooperation:

  • An Agreement on Science and Technology Co-operation has existed since 1978.
  • The Agreement envisages three yearly action plans under which a maximum of thirty joint research projects can be undertaken.
    • This agreement was replaced by one signed in Nov 2003.
  • Some of the prime areas of joint research are Electronics, Biotechnology, Design Engineering Automotive Technologies, Energy, etc.

Indian diaspora:

  • The Indian community in Italy (estimated at 2.4 lakhs and 25000 PIOs) is the third largest community of Indians in Europe after the UK and the Netherlands.
  • According to official Italian data, there are 65 lakhs legal Indian migrants year 2020 (As per official data with the Italian Ministry of Labour and Social Policy: Year 2020)
    • It accounts 4.4% of the non-EU citizens and 5th largest foreign community in Italy.

Issues associated with the Bilateral relations

  • Lack of separate Frame works: India does not have a separate trade agreement with Italy like it has for England . engagement with Italy is under the umbrella of EU
  • Saddled by incidents: Incidents like treatment of Italian Marines, Cancellation of VVIP chopper deal have worn down the relationship.
  • Lower trade : India and Italy have been trading partners since the Roman era, and so it is unfortunate that India has such a low volume of trade and investment.
  • The Enrica Lexie Case – Where two Indian fishermen were killed by Italian marines in 2012, the event was a big mistake, this tragic fact quickly became politicised.
  • Italy’s current political instability – Italy is in a very precarious position – with a nationalist, naturalist near fascist on one side and a populist movement on the other.
  • Italy is the ‘Achilles heel of Europe ‘having one of the lowest growth rates at 1.5% with high youth unemployment at 30% and increasing debt at a worrying 133% of its GDP.

Way Forward

  • Both countries should shape the international discourse around priorities that both countries hold dear:
    • from taking advantage of our economic complementarity to strengthening our partnership based on shared values
    • on our thriving creating industries
    • scientific knowledge and technological prowess
    • from the development of a rules-based international system to the promotion of just trade
    • inclusive growth and the realisation of the 2030 Agenda.

India’s partnership with Italy is gaining strength on all levels—political, economic, and strategic. PM Meloni’s recent  visit would further boost ties while also adding fodder to the reinvigorated EU-India partnership. For India-Italy relations, the future is likely to be bright and progressive.

Source:  The Hindu

Fisheries Sector in India


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: Recently, the Union Minister of Fisheries launched three national flagship programmes for the development of the fisheries sector.

Recently launched schemes:

National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) Phase-II:

  • The Indian Economy loses about 7200 crores annually due to fish diseases therefore, early detection and managing the spread is crucial for controlling the diseases.
  • Government of India has implemented the National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) since 2013 for strengthening the farmer-based disease surveillance system
  • To continue the efforts with intensity, the Government has sanctioned the NSPAAD: Phase-II under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana.
  • The phase-II will be implemented at pan-India, and all the State Fisheries Departments along with Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) are expected to play an important role

Genetic improvement program of Penaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp)-Phase-I:

  • The farmed shrimp alone contributes about 70% of India’s seafood exports worth Rs. 42000 crores.
    • But the whole sector mostly depends on one exotic Pathogen Free stock of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) species which is quite risky
  • To break this single species dependence and to promote indigenous species, the government has taken up the genetic improvement programme of the Indian white shrimp ( P. indicus) as a national priority.
  • This program will lead to “Atamanirbharata” for shrimp stock, which is at present imported from other countries.

Shrimp Crop Insurance product:

  • Shrimp farming is labelled as a “risky venture” contrary to the fact that India achieved about 430% growth in shrimp production during the last one decade.
  • Majority of the aquaculture farmers are small farmers, own 2-3 ponds and face huge obstacles to raise working capital for the crop, due to lack of access to institutional credit and insurance
  • ICAR-CIBA developed a Shrimp Crop Insurance product which charges a differential premium based on location and requirements of the individual farmer from 3.7 to 7.7 % of input costs
  • Farmers will be compensated to the tune of 80 % loss of input cost in the event of total crop loss. i.e., more than 70% crop loss.

Fisheries Sector in India

  • The fisheries sector is a direct source of livelihood for more than 20 million fishers and fish farmers; contributes INR 1.75 trillion annually to the gross value added to India’s economy.
  • 3rd largest fish producing country.
  • With around 7.7% of the global fish production.
  • Second largest aquaculture fish producer.
  • Increased production from 5 lakh tons in 1950-51 to 142 lakh tons in 2019-20.
  • The sector provides livelihood to about 16 million fishers.
  • It has enough potential earn foreign exchange.
  • Total GDP increased from 0.40% in 1950-51 to 1.07% in 2019-20
  • It has been recognized as a ‘Sunrise Sector’.

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojna (PMMSY)

Challenges faced by Indian fisheries

  • Sustainability: The Food and Agriculture Organisation’s State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture reports note that nearly 90 per cent of the global marine fish stocks have been fully exploited or over-fished.
  • Lack of access to credit: Fisheries have been considered risky business and lack of access to formal credit has forced small farmers into debt at high-interest rates.
  • Lack of Infrastructure: Lack of refrigeration facilities leads to spoilage of the huge catch. The use of formalin to keep the stock fresh has led to a ban on the export of fish.
  • Technical and managerial issues like:
    • Limited availability of spawn, seedlings, and fingerlings during the necessary time frame.
    • Limited availability of feed and medicines.
    • Lack of access to the potential market.
    • Limited availability of working capital in the sector

Way Forward:

Fisheries drive the growth rate of the agricultural sector. Solving bottlenecks faced by the industry will help in improving the contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy and earning precious foreign capital.

Source:  NewsOnAir

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements:

  1. Judicial custody is arresting a person by police for charges of committing a heinous crime or on suspicion and producing him before the magistrate.
  2. Police custody implies that the accused is lodged in jail and is under the custody of a police.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding National Consumers Cooperative Federation of India Limited (NCCF):

  1. NCCF is an apex organization for Consumer Cooperatives.
  2. It works under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following pairs:

GI tagged mango variety and Region

  1. Laxman Bhog – Malda
  2. Banganapalle – Kurnool
  3. Rataul – Lucknow
  4. Malihabadi Dusseheri – Baghpat

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. One pair only
  2. Two pairs only
  3. Three pairs only
  4. All four pairs

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 8th March – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 7th March – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d

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