DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 1st August 2023

  • IASbaba
  • August 1, 2023
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  • Prelims –Government Schemes

Context: Recently, the outcomes of the SAGE (Senior Care Aging Growth Engine) PORTAL and SACRED portal were reviewed.


About SAGE (Senior Care Aging Growth Engine) PORTAL:-

  • Launched: 2021.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • The SAGE scheme identifies, evaluate, verify, aggregate, and deliver products, solutions and services directly to the stakeholders.
  • Implementation: The Government acts as a facilitator, enabling the elderly to access the products through these identified start-ups. ( SAGE)


  • To support the needs of India’s elderly persons. (Quality of Life for Elderly Index)
  • To select, support and create a “one-stop access” to elderly care products and services.
  • To encourage the selected “startups” based on innovative products and services to address the services from health, housing, care centers, and technology access linked to needs ranging from finances, food and wealth management to legal guidance.
  • To promote private enterprises to bring out innovation in products to benefit elders.


  • The start-ups selected under SAGE will be those which will provide new innovative products and services to elderly persons.
  • These include various areas like health, travel, finance, legal, housing, and food among others.


  • The selected Start-Ups / Start-up ideas are provided equity support of up to 1 crore per project through IFCI.
  • The fund of up to Rs.1 crore is provided as one-time equity.
  • This is done while ensuring that the total Govt. equity in the start-up should not exceed 49%.

 Benefits of the SAGE portal:-

  • The SAGE portal would encourage entrepreneurs and start-ups to enter the “silver economy“.
    • Silver economy: the system of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services aimed at using the purchasing potential of older and ageing people and satisfying their consumption, living and health needs.
  • It will promote business innovation to cater elderly.
  • It will provide “one-stop access” to elderly care products and services by credible start-ups.

 About Senior Able Citizens for Re-Employment in Dignity (SACRED) Portal:-

  • Launched:2021
  • Ministry: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • It is a unique & innovative technology-driven Employment marketplace.
  • Objective: To devise ways to ensure Senior Citizens live healthy, happy, empowered, dignified and self-reliant life.
  • Significance: It brings together both Job providers & Job seekers on a transparent online portal.

Mechanism of Working:-

  • Any job provider can register on the portal.
  • The Interested and eligible senior citizens can apply for the job as per the matching criteria of his/her eligibility.


  • It will help Private & Public sector enterprises across sectors to share their demand for human resources.
  • It will help Senior experienced citizens get themselves registered for visibility of the emerging workplace demands, and apply for relevant job opportunities.
  • It will bring people together by virtual matching of preferences by providing the senior citizens with a platform to connect with private enterprises for certain positions.

MUST READ: Elder Line



Q.1) Consider the following statements in relation to Janani Suraksha Yojana: (2023)

  1. It is a safe motherhood intervention of the State Health Departments.
  2. Its objective is to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality among poor pregnant women.
  3. It aims to promote institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.
  4. Its objective includes providing public health facilities to sick infants up to one year of age.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) With reference to Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Private and public hospitals must adopt it.
  2. As it aims to achieve universal health coverage, every citizen of India should be part of it ultimately.
  3. It has seamless portability across the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Justice Rohini Commission


  • Prelims – Polity

Context: The Justice Rohini Commission has submitted its report to President Droupadi Murmu.


  • Justice G Rohini, Retd. Chief Justice, Delhi High Court, is the chairperson of the Commission.
  • The Commission for Other Backward Classes was appointed to examine the sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes.
  • The Commission had been entrusted with the task to study the various entries in the Central List of OBCs and recommend the correction of any repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies and errors of spelling or transcription.

About Justice Rohini Commission:-

  • Formed in 2017.
  • Chairperson: Justice G Rohini, Retd. Chief Justice, Delhi High Court.
  • The commission was set up by the President of India, under Article 340 of the Indian Constitution.
    • Article 340: The President may, by order, appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition.
  • Mandate: To examine the issues related to the sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes. ( OBC Subcategorization)

Need for sub-categorization:-

  • The sub-categorization will ensure those communities that are more backward among the OBC communities can access the benefits of reservation in educational institutions and government jobs. (OBC Reservations)

Other commissions for OBCs:-

Kalelkar Commission:-

  • It was set up in 1953.
  • It was the first to identify backward classes other than the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) at the national level.

Mandal Commission:-

  • It was set up in 1979.
  • It submitted the report, 1980 estimated the OBC population at 52% and classified 1,257 communities as backward.

 Constitutional body for OBCs:-

  • National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC): The 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provided constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC).
  • It was previously a statutory body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

MUST READ: OBC reservation in local bodies



Q.1) Consider the following organizations/ bodies in India : (2023)

  1. The National Commission for Backward Classes
  2. The National Human Rights Commission
  3. The National Law Commission
  4. The National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

How many of the above are constitutional bodies?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) If the President of India exercises his power as provided under Article 356 of the Constitution in respect of a particular State, then (2018)

  1. the Assembly of the State is automatically dissolved.
  2. the powers of the Legislature of that State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of the Parliament.
  3. Article 19 is suspended in that State.
  4. the President can make laws relating to that State.

Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund


  • Prelims – Governance

Context: The Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund has been set up recently.

About Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund:-

  • Launched:2021.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises.
  • Self-Reliant India (SRI) Fund is Rs.10, 000 crore fund launched by the Indian Government.
  • It was registered as a Category-II Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) with SEBI. (SEBI)
  • Category II AIF: This category includes AIFs which does not fall in Category I AIF and Category III AIF.
  • These include private equity funds or debt funds for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator. (AIF)

Objectives of Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund:-

  • It will be oriented towards providing funding support to the Daughter Funds for onward provision to MSMEs as growth capital, in the form of equity or quasi-equity, for:
    • Enhancing equity/equity-like financing to MSMEs and listing of MSMEs on Stock Exchanges
    • Supporting faster growth of MSME Businesses and thereby igniting the economy and creating employment opportunities;
    • Supporting enterprises which have the potential to graduate beyond the MSME bracket and become National / International Champions
    • Supporting MSMEs which help make India self-reliant by producing relevant technologies, goods and services.

Structure of SRI Fund:-

  • The Fund is an investment strategy of holding a portfolio of other investment funds, rather than investing directly.
    • Fund of Fund: In the context of AIFs, a Fund of Fund is an AIF which invests in another AIF.
  • Accordingly, SRI Fund will be a combination of Mother/Daughter Funds which will leverage private equity/ other funds
  • Mother Fund will provide funds only to the Daughter Funds for onward investment as growth capital, while the investment in MSMEs will be done by the Daughter Funds under the Fund.
  • Both the Mother and Daughter Funds will be duly registered as Alternate Investment Funds with SEBI.

Working of SRI Fund:-

  • It operates via the mother-fund and daughter-fund (Fund of Funds)
  • mother-fund and daughter-fund (Fund of Funds) structure:
  • The mother fund is the SEBI fund that invests up to 20 per cent of the overall corpus.
    • The NSIC Venture Capital Fund Limited (NVCFL) is registered as the Mother Fund under the SRI Fund implementation.
  • The daughter fund (mostly venture capital and private equity funds) raises the rest of 80 per cent of the capital from outside sources.
  • The investment by this fund will get leveraged fivefold, making the total value of the investment capital to MSMEs Rs.50,000 crore.

Tenure of SRI Fund:-

  • Considering the nature of MSME and the difficulties expected in exiting, a longer fund life of 15 years may be kept.
  • Commitment Period: Up to 6 years from the date of last closing.

MUST READ: Atma-nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan



Q.1) Consider the following statements with reference to India: (2023)

  1. According to the ‘Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006’, the ‘medium enterprises’ are those with
  2. investments in plant and machinery between (‘ 15 crore and ’25 crore).
  3. All bank loans to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises qualify under the priority sector.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. In India, credit rating agencies are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India.
  2. The rating agency popularly known as ICRA is a public limited company.
  3. Brickwork Ratings is an Indian credit rating agency.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3



  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently, World Hepatitis Day 2023 was observed.

About World Hepatitis Day 2023:-

  • World Hepatitis Day 2023 is observed on July 28.
  • It is observed each year with the objective to enhance awareness of viral hepatitis.
  • Theme for World Hepatitis Day 2023: “One life, one liver,” focusing on creating awareness about viral hepatitis.
  • Historical Background:-
    • It was initially observed on May 19 but was later shifted to July 28 in 2010.
    • The World Hepatitis Alliance, established in 2007, organized the first community-driven World Hepatitis Day in 2008.
    • This date was chosen to honour Dr Baruch Samuel Blumberg.
    • Dr Baruch Samuel Blumberg: the American physician who discovered Hepatitis B in the 1960s.
  • Objective: World Hepatitis Day serves as an occasion to strengthen national and international efforts against hepatitis, urging individuals, partners, and the public to take action.
  • Significance of World Hepatitis Day: increasing public awareness about viral hepatitis and its impact on public health.
  • Activities: Various events like campaigns, seminars, and lectures encourage worldwide participation to educate people about the disease and advocate for a healthier future.

About Hepatitis:-

IMAGE SOURCE: verywellhealth.com

  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. (Polio Disease)
  • It can be:-
    • Acute: inflammation of the liver that presents with sickness like jaundice, fever, and vomiting.
    • Chronic: inflammation of the liver that lasts more than six months, but essentially shows no symptoms.

Common symptoms of Hepatitis include-

  • fatigue
  • flu-like symptoms
  • dark urine
  • pale stool
  • abdominal pain
  • loss of appetite
  • unexplained weight loss
  • yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice

Types of Hepatitis:-

There are five main types of viral hepatitis:-

Hepatitis A (HAV):-

  • HAV is usually non-chronic.
  • It does not cause chronic liver problems and rarely leads to long-term complications.
  • Transmission: It is primarily transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food or water.
  • Treatment: Vaccination is available and recommended for individuals at risk.

Hepatitis B (HBV):-

  • It is the world’s most common liver infection. , Unlike HAV, HBV can lead to chronic infection like increasing the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • Transmission: It mainly spreads through infected blood, sexual contact and from mother to child during childbirth.
  • Treatment: Vaccination is highly recommended and should be administered to newborns and individuals at risk.

Hepatitis C (HCV):-

  • It can lead to chronic infection in the majority of cases.
  • Transmission: It is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood, often associated with unsafe injection practices and inadequate sterilization of medical equipment.
  • Treatment: There is no vaccine for HCV, but antiviral treatments are available and can cure the infection in many cases.

 Hepatitis D (HDV):-

  • It is a unique type of hepatitis that only occurs in individuals infected with HBV.
  • According to WHO, HDV affects nearly 5% of people with a chronic hepatitis B infection.
  • It is considered the most severe form of viral hepatitis.
  • It can accelerate the progression of HBV-related liver disease.
  • Treatment: Preventing HBV infection through vaccination is the key to preventing HDV (Disease Surveillance System)

Hepatitis E (HEV):-

  • Transmission: It is mainly transmitted through contaminated water in areas with poor sanitation.
  • It is usually a self-limiting disease, but pregnant women are at higher risk of severe complications and mortality.
  • Treatment: there is no specific treatment or vaccine for HEV.

MUST READ: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)



Q.1) Consider the following statements in the context of interventions being undertaken under the Anaemia Mukt Bharat Strategy: (2023)

  1. It provides prophylactic calcium supplementation for preschool children, adolescents and pregnant women.
  2. It runs a campaign for delayed cord clamping at the time of childbirth.
  3. It provides for periodic deworming. to children and adolescents.
  4. It addresses non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with a special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q.2) Which one of the following statements is not correct? (2019)

  1. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted much like HIV.
  2. Hepatitis B unlike Hepatitis C, does not have a vaccine.
  3. Globally, the number of people infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses arc several times more than those infected with HIV.
  4. Some of those infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses do not show the symptoms for many years.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) started reviewing delisting regulations for listed companies.


  • This is being done in an attempt to rein in the manipulation of shares of a company that has opted for delisting from the stock exchanges.
  • The capital markets regulator has said it may allow companies to delist shares at a fixed price, as against the current ‘reverse book-building process.
    • Delisting: it is the removal of listed security from a stock exchange.

About the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI):-

  • Establishment: 1992.
  • Historical Background:-
  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India was constituted as a non-statutory body in 1988 through a resolution of the Government of India.
  • It was established as a statutory body in the year 1992 under the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.
  • HQ: Mumbai, Maharashtra.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Finance.

Structure of SEBI:-

  • The chairman is nominated by the Union Government of India. ( SEBI)
  • Two members,e., Officers from the Union Finance Ministry.
  • One member from the Reserve Bank of India.
  • The remaining five members are nominated by the Union Government of India, out of them at least three shall be whole-time members. (SEBI) extends trading ban on Agri commodities

Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT)

  • A Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) has been constituted to protect the interest of entities that feel aggrieved by SEBI’s decision.
  • It is a statutory body established under the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.
  • Objective: to hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India or by an adjudicating officer under the Act.
  • Composition: It consists of a Presiding Officer and two other Members.
  • Powers: It has the same powers as those vested in a civil court.
  • Appeal: If any person feels aggrieved by SAT’s decision or order can appeal to the Supreme Court.

Powers and Functions of SEBI:-

  • SEBI is a quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial body.
    • It can draft regulations, conduct inquiries, pass rulings and impose penalties.
  • It functions to fulfil the requirements of three categories –
    • Issuers: By providing a marketplace in which the issuers can increase their finance.
    • Investors: By ensuring the safety and supply of precise and accurate information.
    • Intermediaries: By enabling a competitive professional market for intermediaries.
  • By the Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014, SEBI is now able to regulate any money pooling scheme worth Rs. 100 cr. or more and attach assets in cases of non-compliance.
  • SEBI Chairman has the authority to order “search and seizure operations“.
  • SEBI board can also seek information, such as telephone call data records, from any persons or entities with respect to any securities transaction being investigated by it.
  • SEBI perform the function of registration and regulation of the working of venture capital funds and collective investment schemes including mutual funds.
    • Venture capital funds: these are pooled investment funds that manage the money of investors who seek private equity stakes in startups and small- to medium-sized enterprises with strong growth potential.
    • Collective investment schemes: it is an investment scheme where investors come together and pool their money in order to invest their whole collection in a particular asset.
  • It also works for promoting and regulating self-regulatory organizations.
  • It works for prohibiting fraudulent and unfair trade practices relating to securities markets.

MUST READ: Sweat Equity Rules: SEBI



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. In India, credit rating agencies are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India.
  2. The rating agency popularly known as ICRA is a public limited company.
  3. Brickwork Ratings is an Indian credit rating agency.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the Indian economy, consider the following statements. (2022)

  1. An increase in Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) indicates the appreciation of the rupee.
  2. An increase in the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) indicates an improvement in trade competitiveness.
  3. An increasing trend in domestic inflation relative to inflation in other countries is likely to cause an increasing divergence between NEER and REER.

Which of the above statements is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

RBI’s Digital Payments Index


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, RBI’s Digital Payments Index (DPI) jumped to 395.57 in March 2023 from 377.46 in Sept 2022.

Key highlights of DPI:-

  • The RBI-DPI index has increased across all parameters driven by significant growth in payment infrastructure and payment performance across the country over the period.
  • As per the Economic Survey 2022-23, India has the highest fintech adoption rate of 87 per cent among the public compared to the global average of 64 per cent.
  • India has gained third place in digital payments, coming only after US and China.
  • UPI (Unified Payments Interface) transactions, have on average, grown 121 per cent in terms of value and 115 per cent in terms of volume between FY19 and FY22.
  • The increase in RBI’s Digital Payments Index (RBI-DPI) highlights the remarkable surge in digital payment adoption in India, predominantly propelled by the success of UPI.
  • With customers increasingly adopting digital payments, even for small-value transactions, the index underscores the need for form-factor agnostic accessibility to include the financially underserved within the formal financial system.

About RBI’s Digital Payments Index:-

  • Launched: 2021.
  • Base period: MARCH 2018. (DPI)
  • The RBI introduced the composite Digital Payments Index (RBI-DPI) in January 2021 with March 2018 as the base.
  • Objective: to capture digitization of payments.
  • Significance: It is a measure of the extent of digitization of payments across the country. (Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC): RBI)
  • It comprises five parameters to measure the deepening and penetration of digital payments over different time periods.

Five Parameters:-

  • Payment Enablers (weight 25%)
  • Payment Infrastructure – Demand-side factors (10%)
  • Payment Infrastructure – Supply-side factors (15%)
  • Payment Performance (45%) and
  • Consumer Centricity (5%).

MUST READ: UPI and NPCI Regulation



Q.1) With reference to Central Bank digital currencies, consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. It is possible to make payments in a digital currency without using the US dollar or the SWIFT system.
  2. A digital currency can be distributed with a condition programmed into it such as a timeframe for spending it.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) In the context of finance, the term ‘beta’ refers to (2023)

  1. the process of simultaneous buying and selling of an asset from different platforms.
  2. an investment strategy of a portfolio manager to balance risk versus reward.
  3. a type of systemic risk that arises where perfect hedging is not possible.
  4. a numeric value that measures the fluctuations. of stock to changes in the overall stock market.

Scrub Typhus


  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently, an alert was issued against scrub typhus in Kerala.

About Scrub Typhus:-

IMAGE SOURCE: kathmandupost.com

  • Scrub typhus is also known as bush typhus.
  • Caused by: It is a disease caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi.
  • Transmission: Scrub typhus is spread to people through bites of infected chiggers (larval mites).

Common symptoms of scrub typhus:-

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • body aches
  • rash
  • dry cough
  • skin rashes
  • red eyes
  • In some cases mental changes, ranging from confusion to coma. Treatment of Scrub typhus:-
  • Vaccination: No vaccine is available to prevent scrub typhus. ( New Brucellosis Vaccine by ICAR)
  • Medication: the antibiotic Doxycycline is used.
    • Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of some bacterial and parasitic infections such as bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, Lyme disease, cholera, typhus, and syphilis.

Prevention of Scrub typhus:-

  • Mite repellents can be applied to exposed skin.
  • Wearing fully covered clothes before entering shrubby areas for work.
  • People should not dry clothes on the ground or grass.
  • Regular cleaning of surroundings including removal of shrubs and low vegetation.

MUST READ: Ebola Disease



Q.1) ‘Wolbachia method’ is sometimes talked about with reference to which one of the following? (2023)

  1. Controlling the viral diseases spread by mosquitoes
  2. Converting crop residues into packing material
  3. Producing biodegradable plastics
  4. Producing biochar from the thermos-chemical conversion of biomass

Q.2) In the context of vaccines manufactured to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Serum Institute of India produced a COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield using an mRNA platform.
  2. The Sputnik V vaccine is manufactured using a vector-based platform.
  3. COVAXIN is an inactivated pathogen-based vaccine.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Human Challenge Studies


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance), GS 3 (Science and Technology) and GS 4 (Ethics)

Context: The Bioethics Unit of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) posted the consensus policy statement for the ethical conduct of human challenge studies, in India.

About human challenge studies:

  • Human challenge studies are those studies in which human beings are exposed to diseases to learn more about it.
  • Human challenge studies are usually conducted to understand the various facets of infectious microbes and the diseases or conditions caused by such pathogens.
  • WHO definition – The WHO Working Group for Guidance on Human Challenge Studies in Covid-19 has said that the Controlled human infection studies (or ‘human challenge studies’) involve the deliberate infection of healthy volunteers.
  • They can be substantially faster to conduct than vaccine field trials, because fewer participants need to be exposed to experimental vaccines in order to provide estimates of efficacy and safety.
    • Such studies can compare the efficacy of multiple vaccine candidates and thus select the most promising vaccines for larger studies.

Difference between Human challenge studies and Traditional human clinical trials:

Nature of exposure:

  • The fundamental difference between the two scientific methods is the nature of exposure to pathogens by participants.
  • Participants in traditional clinical trials are strongly advised to adopt and adhere to safety measures to avoid being infected and infection is left to chance.
  • Volunteers in a human challenge study are deliberately exposed to disease-causing pathogens.

Difference in kind of study:

  • Traditional clinical trials are undertaken to study the safety and efficacy of drugs and vaccines.
  • Human challenge studies are carried out to understand the various facets of infection and disease pathogenesis besides selecting the best candidate drug or vaccine.

Associated risks:

  • The adverse effects of the candidate drugs or vaccines are not known in both the studies.
  • Volunteers in a human challenge trial face an additional risk when deliberately exposed to the pathogen.

Types of diseases studied:

  • Human challenge studies are often undertaken to study “less deadly diseases” such as influenza, dengue, typhoid, cholera and malaria, unlike in traditional clinical studies.

Significance of human challenge studies

  • The disease burden and mortality from infectious diseases is significantly high at around 30% in India.
  • It will help supplement traditional human clinical trials and speed up the process of finding safe and effective interventions in the form of drugs and/or vaccines.
  • It will vastly help in providing better insight into multiple aspects of even well studied pathogens, infection, transmission, disease pathogenesis and prevention.
  • Since many infectious diseases are endemic in several developing countries, and resistance to existing drugs is increasing, there is a pressing need to find more effective medical interventions.

Global scenario:

  • Globally, these studies have been carried out for hundreds of years; the yellow fever study in the early 1900s, for instance, established that mosquitoes transmitted the yellow fever virus.
  • Many countries, including low-and middle-income countries such as Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania and Thailand, have carried out human challenge studies.
  • Indian scenario: India has not undertaken such trials before and will be collaborating with scientists and institutions outside India who have been conducting such studies.

Ethical dimensions of human challenge trial:

  • Human challenge trial are deliberately exposed to a disease-causing pathogen makes it ethically more challenging.
  • The ICMR consensus statement has clearly mentioned that only healthy individuals in the 18-45 years age bracket are to be enrolled.
  • Participants with pre-existing medical conditions are to be excluded but very often people are unaware of many medical conditions.
    • This makes it essential to carry out detailed medical examination of the participants before enrolment.
  • Information on payment for participation should be mentioned in the consent form but the exact amount of payment for participation is to be revealed only after the volunteer has consented to participate.
  • Enticing people to participate by advertising the amount of money that volunteers will be paid is quite common in traditional clinical trials, as was seen in the Covaxin trial conducted in Bhopal.

Way Forward:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) says that in the last 50 years, challenge studies have been performed safely in tens of thousands of consenting adult volunteers under the oversight of research ethics committees and these studies have recently helped to accelerate the development of vaccines against typhoid and cholera among others.
  • Based on the data available so far, WHO estimates that participation in SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies would be the least risky for young healthy adults.
    • In ages 18-30 years (whether healthy or not), hospitalisation rates for COVID-19 are currently estimated to be around 1% and fatal infection rates around 0.03%
  • These challenge studies allowed us to understand more about the human immune response to influenza and test preventative and therapeutic measures.

Source:  The Hindu

Mob Lynching


  • Mains – GS2 (Governance) and GS3 (Security Issues)

Context: The Supreme Court (SC) of India directed the seven remedial measures in its judgment ‘Tehseen Poonawala 2018’ to States because of their lax response to lynching.

About Tehseen Poonawala judgment:

  • In Tehseen Poonawalla vs Union of India, 2018, Supreme Court condemned incidents of lynching and mob violence against Dalits and minority community members as “horrendous acts of mobocracy”, and asked Parliament to pass law-establishing lynching as a separate offence with punishment.
    • Such a law should be effective enough to instill a sense of fear in the perpetrators.
    • SC said that such incidents “threaten rule of law and the country’s social fabric.”
    • The court said the growing numbness of the ordinary Indian to the frequent incidents of lynchings happening right before his eyes in a society based on rule of law is shocking.
    • It is also the obligation of the Centre and the States to ensure that “nobody takes the law into his hands nor become a law into himself”.

About Mob lynching:

  • Mob lynching is a form of collective violence in which a group of people attacks and kills a person or a group of people, often based on their identity, beliefs, or actions.
  • It is not a new phenomenon in India, but it has become more frequent and visible in recent years, especially with the rise of social media and fake news.
  • Mob lynching has become a serious problem in India, where it has claimed hundreds of lives in recent years.
    • The victims of mob lynching are mostly from marginalized communities, such as religious minorities, Dalits, Adivasis and women.

Reasons for rise in mob-lynching incidents in India:

  • Failure of state: The failure of state in protecting Minorities from mob, lack of proper mechanism in place.
    • People are losing their faith in law and order machinery therefore; they are taking laws in their hand.
  • Rise in intolerance: In recent times, intolerance has increased especially against marginalised.
    • For example, intolerance has increased against Muslims for cow slaughter and mob-lynching case has increased on any news of beef eating lead to mob lynching of the Muslims.
  • Propagandas: In India, people are very emotive on sensitive issues. It is very easy to flare them up.
    • Some people are spreading wrong information on social media especially on Facebook and WhatsApp.
  • Misguided youth: with rise in unemployment, politicians or religious groups are misguiding youth ideologically.
    • Due to misguidance of youth, they act against certain sects to take revenge or are motivated by thrill and excitement.
  • Defence: Mob violence may be done for defence against any perceived and presumed threat from other social groups.
    • It is also motivated by a desire to protect one’s territory. E.g., mob crime against a nation’s citizens.
  • Biased view: A bias against any group due to historical or social reasons motivate mob to commit a hate crime.
    • For example, Muslim being tagged as terrorist lead to an act of lynching against them by mob.
  • Lack of impunity: One of the major reasons for the rise in mob lynching is impunity.
    • Police find it difficult to register cases against big crowds, some people get advantage of it.
    • There is no particular law to deal with lynching and it finds no mention in the Indian Penal Code. Hence, often the perpetrators get away with it.

Negative Impacts:

  • Mob lynching violates the human rights and dignity of the victims and their families, who often do not get justice or compensation for their losses.
  • It creates a climate of fear and insecurity among the vulnerable groups, who face constant threats and harassment from the mobs.
  • It undermines the rule of law and democracy, as the mobs take the law into their own hands and challenge the authority of the state and its institutions.
  • It erodes the social fabric and harmony, as it fuels communal hatred and violence, and widens the gaps between different groups.
  • It hampers economic development and progress, as it disrupts the normal functioning of society and affects the livelihoods and opportunities of many people.

Government Measures:

  • Designated Fast Track Courts: States were directed to set up designated fast track courts in every district to exclusively deal with cases involving mob lynchings.
  • Special Task Force: The court had also mooted the setting up of a special task force with the objective of procuring intelligence reports about the people involved in spreading hate speeches, provocative statements and fake news, which could lead to mob lynchings.
  • Victim Compensation Schemes: Directions were also issued to set up Victim compensation schemes for relief and rehabilitation of victims.
    • The Supreme Court issued notices to the Centre and several states asking them to submit the steps taken by them towards implementing the measures and file compliance reports.
    • As of now only three states Manipur, West Bengal and Rajasthan have enacted laws against mob lynching.
  • The Jharkhand Assembly has passed Prevention of Mob Violence and Mob Lynching Bill, 2021 that has been returned by governor recently for reconsideration of a few provisions.

Way Forward:

Mob lynching in India is a serious issue that has claimed many lives and violated human rights. Some steps taken by the government and civil society to prevent mob lynching include enacting laws, creating helplines, raising awareness and promoting communal harmony.

However, there are still many challenges in implementing these measures, such as lack of accountability, political interference, social media rumours and communal hatred. The way forward is to strengthen the rule of law, ensure justice for the victims, educate the masses and foster a culture of tolerance and peace.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Commissions Set up
1.Mandal Commission 1979
2.Justice Rohini Commission 2017
3.Kalelkar Commission 1949

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


Hepatitis A is usually noon chronic.


There is no specific treatment or vaccine for Hepatitis E.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


RBI’s Digital Payments Index was launched in 2022.


Its Base period is MARCH 2018.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) What are human challenges studies (HCS)? Analyse the difference between Human challenge studies and Traditional human clinical trials. What are the ethical challenges involved in HCS? (250 words)

Q.2) What is mob-lynching? What are various reasons for a rise in mob-lynching incidents in India. Suggest some measures to prevent mob-lynching. (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 1st August 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 31st July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – c

Q.3) -b

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