1. India requires a ‘port led development’ strategy. Do you agree? Substantiate. Also discuss the significance of developing small ports in this regard.
Most of you have written an apt introduction and have mentioned some very good points for the first part of the question. But most of you have almost neglected the second part. In such type of questions, both the sections of the question carry equal marks. So try not to miss any aspect. Directly coming to the points:
Strategic location: India is strategically placed in Indian ocean which accounts for more than 70% of oil trade and about 1/3 of world’s trade by volume. By increasing its port capacity India can become a major stake holder in this trade.
Boost to ‘Make in India’: As Make in India initiative is majorly export based, better ports will promote trade and increase the demand for Indian goods creating more employment opportunity and development in the hinterland.
Ease of Doing business: Infrastructure is one of the major aspects which decides the ranking in ease of doing business.
Employment opportunities: Port development will require skilled and unskilled labour. This will create employment opportunities in port cities. It will create a growth pole effect.
International Standards: Large cargos, which take 2 days to get unloaded in India are unloaded in 4 hours in Shanghai and Dubai ports. This shows that India has to go a long way reach international standards so that it can handle large cargos with ease.
Logistic cost: With mechanization, the logistic cost will come down to a great extent.
Environment Friendly: Waterways are more environment friendly than roadways, waterways and airways. Better ports will be able to handle more ships that will be overall environment friendly.
Boost to tourism: With large coastline and scenic beauty India can promote sea cruses and eco-tourism.
Look East: Improved trading facility will help in improving bilateral trade relations, especially with South-East Asian countries.
FDI: Improved ports will be able to attract more FDI.
(More unique points can be added)
Sagarmala project is a brilliant step to achieve this goal.
Importance of smaller ports:
They can ease a lot of pressure from the major ports which are already conjusted.
They can act as collection center for goods from hinterland and can transport them to major ports.
They can be easily connected by inland waterways decreasing the cost of transportation of goods.
They can handle smaller cargos and can act as temporary docking facility till there is traffic on the major port.
They can act as refueling points.
They can open more hubs for trading increasing ease of doing business.
(Here also you can add more points. There can be some overlapping points in first and second part of the answer like employment generation. But try to use that point only once.)
Best Answer: Naveen
If India carries on 90% of its trade through waterways and has a coastline as long as 7500 km then its quite clear about going for a port led development. Port led development basically means aiming for a growth model keeping ports as centre of attractions.
India needs port led development for following reasons :-
1) Geographical advantage – must be taken from a long coastline.
2) Compliment Make in India- efficient exports from India to rest of the world which is imperative for successful MII.
3) Integrated development as along with ports, roads,railways and industries would also be developed.
4) Capable of massive employment generation.
5) Modernization of ports will reduce wastage , improve efficiency and reduce cost.
6) Boost trade and commerce and will add tremendously to GDP.
Taking this into consideration, government has come with the Sagarmala project which envisions port led development. However, there need to develop small ports as they are significant in their own way-
1) Compliment the major ports with their services and share their burden.
2)Facilitate connectivity and efficiency in trade.
3)Capable of employment generation and regional growth.
4)Can boost inland waterways trade.
Sagarmala project must be implemented with full vigor and in order to witness a comprehensive development it must be backed with other initiatives like blue revolution and Make in India.
2. India has witnessed tremendous growth in the civil aviation sector recently. What according to you is the significance of small airports and budget airlines for the economy? Examine.
Your introduction should mention about the present status of Indian civil aviation sector. Also mention the reasons of tremendous growth in recent years (in brief).
Ninth largest civil aviation market.
224 Million Passengers in 2016.
60 Million international passengers by 2017.
81 international airlines connecting over 40 countries.
Third largest aviation market by 2020.
800 aircraft by 2020.
Sector policy for aviation: – (additional info)
The AAI is responsible for developing, financing, operating, and maintaining all public sector airports. New airports are permitted under the Greenfield Airport Policy 2008. Investment in airports is encouraged under the PPP Policy of the Government of India.
Regional Air Connectivity Policy offers attractive incentives in the form of exemption of landing, parking and navigation fees to airlines operating at designated airports in non-metro areas.
Government Initiatives related to sector: – (additional info)
Government agencies project that around 500 brownfield and greenfield airports would be required by 2020. The private sector is being encouraged to become actively involved in the construction of airports through different Public Private Partnership models, with substantial state support in terms of financing, concessional land allotment, tax holidays and other incentives.
In the Union Budget 2016-17, the government introduced various proposals for Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) operations for airplanes. These include customs and excise duty exemption for tools and tool-kits used in MRO works. The government has also scrapped the one-year restriction for utilisation of duty free parts apart from allowing import of unserviceable parts by MROs for providing exchange. As per revised norms, the foreign aircraft brought in to India for MRO work would now be permitted to stay up to six months or as extended by aviation regulator Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA). Such foreign aircraft would also be henceforth permitted to carry passengers in the flights at the start and end of its period of stay in India.
The Ministry of Civil Aviation has finalised and put forward for approval to the Union Cabinet, the new aviation policy, which includes proposals such as allowing new airlines to fly abroad, introduction of more regional flights and a new formula for granting bilateral flying rights.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Airports Authority of India (AAI), aimed at providing space technology for construction of airports.
The Government of India is planning to boost regional connectivity by setting up 50 new airports over the next three years, out of which at least 10 would be operational by 2017.
Airports Authority of India (AAI) plans to develop city-side infrastructure at 13 regional airports across India, with help from private players for building of hotels, carparks and other facilities, and thereby boost its non-aeronautical revenues.
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) plans to revive and operationalise around 50 airports in India over the next 10 years to improve regional and remote air connectivity.
Mention the significance of
Budget airlines for the economy.
(Best answer section contain various dimensions and points. Please go through them)
You should conclude it by saying that though various efforts have been made in the past also but the success of policies will depend upon the political will and proper implementation. Civil aviation will not only improve the economy but will also change the outlook of Indian transportation system.
Indian Civil Aviation Sector has been witnessing rapid strides by being fastest growing aviation market in the world according to IATA (International Air Transport Association).
Significance of small airports:
1) Connectivity: as currently only 2% of Indians travel by air.
2) Infrastructural growth: as linkages include roads, employment, impetus to related industries.
3) Tourism: potential can be harnessed by enhancing connectivity, making travelers move beyond metros.
4) Investment: opportunities are possible as Tier 2, 3 cities will become next hub of growth.
5) Location marked in map: which make people more aware about the place & its especiality.
However, cost benefit analysis is must before entering such venture. SWOT analysis considering potential of the place is needed to avoid formation of Ghost Airports.
Significance of Budget airlines:
1) Serves Middle Class Economy: like India, where middle expansion is & will continue.
2) Competitive tendencies: are promoted which helps in rationalizing cost of travel.
3) Enable Government to match cost: of its State carrier with others & giving a reality check.
4) Savings improvement: in economy which strengthens growth.
5) Crisis savior: as prices shoot up in case of last minute booking, but are comparatively low in budget carriers.
However, budget carriers must not become loss making ventures at expense of predatory pricing & create NPAs in future.
Recently, Finance Minister in his budget speech talked about 160 underserved & unserved airports which can be revived at cost of 50-100 Crore rupees. Such policy should be actively pursued to bring forward & backward linkages.
Best Answer2: -Vidhu
Till 2 decades ago India had had only 1 public airlines carrier which led to many issues like poor quality of service, delays, poor connectivity, no improvement due to no competition. All this changed when the aviation sector was liberalized with permission for private airlines to operate and opening up of small airports.
The significance of them are
Small airports: 1. Provides faster means of connectivity for small tier 2 tier 3 towns
2. Helps decongest big airports and reduces share of pollution
3. Raises the image and self-esteem of the local population
4. Helps reduce regional inequalities due to increase in process of trade and business. Rail Road are slow and hence trading becomes faster with airlines
5. Small airports give boost to local business like advertising, hospitality, food chains, support staff, airport crew thus bringing development to the region
6. Helps to bring tourist too far off places like NE region which boosts tourism and local culture promotion and handicrafts
7. Useful in quick response to disasters
Budget airlines 1. Makes air travel affordable to the fast growing middle class population
2. Faster and cheaper travel boosts trade and increase income of people
3. Reduces load on public carriers
4. Brings competition and hence improves quality of service
The recent decisions of FDI in aviation and Regional Connectivity Scheme are definitely steps in the right direction to boost the aviation sector and increase connectivity and quality of the sector.
3. Rural roads hold the key to transform rural economy in India. Elucidate.
Talk about the present conditions of rural roads and compare it with any data’s or other countries growth story due to this like how china has given importance to rural roads and how it helped them in increasing their economy.
Talk about need for roads in rural area:-
-Talk about how it helps in connecting people to main frame development and how it helps in their welfare like access to health, education etc.
-Talk about its economic importance and their livelihood like bringing their products to market place, how it helps in bringing economic development in form of new industries, employment opportunity which can also reduce in migration and other related problems.
-How it helps bring in service sectors and tourists.
-How it will also help in inclusive development and implementation of various programs by government without roads it would be difficult to provide all facilities.
-Its importance in internal security of country to counter things like naxalism, terrorism, separatism etc.
-In case of bad roads its effects on local population like prone to disasters, rescue becoming difficult, loss of many lives in short time etc.
Conclude with the government programs being undertaken and their improvements and any suggestion to speed up the process. Also can talk about NEW development bank, where we can get access to more funds and help in taking up projects in large scale.
Best answer 1: RK
Economic development of any region depends on various factors like factors of production, geographical conditions, political stability and most importantly logistical operations.
Well connected rural road is the lynchpin for a sustainable rural development and growth.
1) Human capital– One of the Low literacy levels and less participation in higher education in rural areas, especially among girls citing safety reasons and lack of prompt health services are due to lack of connectivity to main land. Only a healthy and skilled person can contribute well to rural development. It also affects Rural-urban migration in search of employment
2) Transfer of goods and marketing – Lack of logistical operations due to poor road development makes transport of capital goods and raw materials and also finished products from agro sector and MSME sectors (in which rural people are predominantly dependent on) to the destination affects the profit.
3) Vulnerability– Bad roads during natural hazards and disasters would make rural people more susceptible to attacks and makes movements difficult and destroys the economical sectors- like clogs water during floods and causes soil erosion
4) Infrastructure and investment – Poor connected roads does not invite new industries and investment to the rural area. It also affects infrastructural development like school, hospital building due to lack of logistical support.
A centrally sponsored scheme, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana in the line of developing of good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages needs mention. According to the latest estimate around 125,455 roads have been completed. CAG in its recent social audit report has found flaws in identifying the eligible roads, inefficient contract management upon implementing PMGSY.
The Rural ministry and concerned departments should address these defects and also increase funding via CSR, WB, ADB and hasten the road development efficiently and effectively.
Best Answer 2: Yogesh Bhatt
China has saying that for development of backward area, first thing they need is road, and rest all follows. 70% population is in rural areas, and still 40% population do not have access of all weather roads in India. World Bank data shows that rural area with poor road has direct relation with development.
Rural road can transform rural economy by following ways-
1- Connectivity- it increases connectivity of rural area to urban area so attract business, communication, banking services, import export of goods specially agriculture product marketing to main market.
2- Explore rural tourism- Indian experience from Uttarkhand, HP, and North East states prove that rural area where road connectivity is better and efficient, tourism industry is more flourished.
3- Reduce migration- it greatly helps for reducing distress migration as road attract business and work in local areas itself.
4- Employment- road attracts secondary and tertiary sector development and reduces burden from agriculture so productive employment.
5- Welfare program- road development direct affects health for vulnerable section like pregnant women, new born child and so on. Also program like RTE, RTF, electricity, livestock care all develops well because of road connectivity.
6- Border area development- in strategic area needs all weather roads to stable the local population there which is very important for nation security.
Under PMGSY with World Bank, initiative likes Bharatmala, MGNREGA for road construction, army focus in border areas, states special focus for road development across country to boost rural economy.
4. Recently, the Kigali agreement amended the Montreal Protocol. What are the new provisions? What is their importance for India? Discuss.
Your introduction should mention about Montreal Protocol in brief.
The Montreal Protocol entered into force on 1989 aimed at reducing the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances, primarily used in refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The primary substances depleting the ozone layer were CFCs (ChloroFluoro Carbons), this led to manufacturers moving to HCFCs (Hydro ChloroFluoro Carbons) – though they do not deplete the ozone layer, is a potent Green House Gas, 14800 times more potent than CO2.
197 countries agree to phase down use of HFC gases as refrigerant gases. The gases cause climate change
Starting 2019, developed countries will reduce use of HFCs achieving 85% reduction below 2011-13 levels by 2036
Most developing countries will cap use of HFCs by 2024 and reduce to 80% below 2020-22 levels by 2045
India and some other developing countries will cap use of HFCs by 2028 and reduce to 85% below 2024-26 levels by 2047
Discuss the importance of that agreement for India.
As a country where air-conditioning and refrigeration is yet to become pervasive, it gained an extra four years to start the transition
Indian industry could get higher incremental costs than those agreed to for earlier technology shifts
Move will help India in completing its INDC goals
Climate change can have adverse effects on countries like India. It will reduce the impact.
Unable to get developed countries to take deeper commitments to drive technology costs further down
Could not get 2030 as freeze year that would have given it critical two years after expiry of patents to develop cheaper technology options
Could not secure language for payment of full costs of technology transition by Indian refrigeration industry
(You can add more points here)
Your conclusion should mention that though implementation of Kigali agreement might have some negative impact on India for short period but it will help in reducing the negatives of climate change on the whole world which in turn will benefit India who may face the adverse impacts of climate change.
Best answer: Meiji
The Montreal Protocol signed in 1988 aimed at reducing the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances, primarily used in refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The primary substances depleting the ozone layer were CFCs (ChloroFluoro Carbons), this led to manufacturers moving to HCFCs (Hydro ChloroFluoro Carbons) – though they do not deplete the ozone layer, is a potent Green House Gas, 14800 times more potent than CO2.
The Kyoto Protocol and the latest Paris Agreement did not take HCFCs into account and this led to countries amending the Montreal Protocol at Kigali in 2016. It is a significant move which helps in preventing 0.5 Celsius of global warming. The new provisions are binding unlike Paris Agreement, they are –
a. Developed countries will start to phase down HFCs by 2019.
b. Developing countries will follow with a freeze of HFCs consumption levels in 2024, with some countries freezing consumption in 2028.
c. By the late 2040s, all countries are expected to consume no more than 15-20% of their respective baselines. The agreement is expected to reduce HFC use by 85% by 2045.
d. As per the agreement, China, which is the largest producer of HFCs in the world, will reduce HFC use by 80% by 2045 over the 2020-22 baseline. India will reduce the use of HFCs by 85% over the 2024-26 baseline by 2046.
India as a developing country still hasn’t peaked its consumption and production. It has to rapidly develop its domestic industry and introduce new technologies for usage of alternative gases by 2025. This requires significant funding in research and is possible only with the help of developed countries. Indian policy makers should take into account India’s’ role in protecting the global commons and also the needs of millions who are still dependent on the usage of these products.
Best Answer2: FictitiousName
Montreal Protocol, a binding agreement passed in 1987, aimed at reducing the ozone depleting substances. The replacing chemical refrigerants like HFC though not ozone depleting are very potent GHGs, and thus Kigali agreement has been entered into to reduce HFCs, that aims at-
1. Binding reduction: Earlier HFCs were covered under Kyoto Protocol which were not binding.
2. Targeted approach of three phase reduction based on respective capabilities. First Western Nations, followed by China, Africa and in the third stage countries like India. -> CBDR approach.
3. Target of 85% reduction by 2045 that may result in 0.5-1 degree reduction in Global Warming estimates -> climate change control.
India has a growing middle class and a largely consumption based economy. To add to it, it lies in the tropical region and thus the use of ACs and refrigerators are expected to increase. Looking through this prism, the newer technologies would mostly have to be imported, and will have a price effect in turn affecting the consumption demand.
However, one must also note that India is also one of the countries that will be deeply affected by the menace of rising temperatures – extreme events, dependency on monsoon, agriculture base and a long coastline. To add to it India has a pronounced commitment towards climate justice to littoral and island states. In such context, it is in long term benefit for India economically and diplomatically.
The importance of the agreement also lies in the fact that it may provide a boost to other GHG controlling programs, create vital economic opportunities in technology and R&D and is portrays India as a responsible player since it has shed its argument of including HFCs only in Kyoto Protocol.
Best Answer3: -amitk010
Montreal protocol is a protocol aiming at phasing out the ozone depleting substances. Hailed as one of the most successful international environmental protocol, the MP has recently been amended at Kigali.
The most important in the amendment is the agreement on clear cut deadlines on peaking and phasing out deadlines of the HFCs. The developed counties are required to peak by 2019 and the developing countries by 2028.
It also mandates countries like India to destroy the existing HFC23 stock which has not been done despite making promises.
Though, being regarded as a political defeat for India (as India wanted 2030 as the peaking year), it is significant in many ways.
Such a bold commitment is in tandem with India’s commitment as INDCs under the UNFCCC
2. HFCs are not ozone depleting but add to global warming hence committing an early date in Kigali actually strengthens India’s resolve to stand up for the cause of climate change.
3. However this is going to be a challenge in terms of finance and technology which will be needed to meet the peaking year of 2028. India has to make a strong case for financing mechanisms and technology transfer in future negotiations on MP.
4. At the same time, India has to ensure that it regulates the CFC/HFC industry tightly while protecting the MSME players. The costs of compliance are going to be high even for the corporate but the process has to begin now.
Any commitment under the Montreal Protocol impinges upon economic health but has a larger cause to serve. If India has to emerge as a significant global power, such bold acts should be encouraged across the sections of our democracy. The refrigeration industry is a single vertical and to easy to address. Experiences gained from this can be applied to regulations across the sectors of economy to comply our commitments in terms of INDCs too.
5. What is a feminist foreign policy? Explain and contextualize. Why the need is being felt to have a feminist foreign policy?
A country’s foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs -policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Feminist Foreign Policy (FFP) refers to women-centric foreign policy which aims at striking a balance between ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ facets of policymaking which till now has remained biased towards the former in forms of war, power, military actions, etc. In other words, FFP aims to strengthen women’s rights, representation and access to resources.
Sweden became the first state ever to publicly adopt a feminist foreign policy, with a stated ambition to become the strongest voice for gender equality and full employment of human rights for all women and girls.
Why the need is felt to have FFP?
to promote gender equality in the international arena
including women in peace and security decision-making will help create the conditions for sustainable global peace
FFP promotes the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction and stresses the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security
To counter growing incidents of human rights violations.
To have an empathetic attitude towards issues like refugee crisis.
Best answer: SherniZaad
Sweden became the world’s first country to adopt a feminist foreign policy. Feminist Foreign Policy aims at striking a balance between ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ facets of policymaking which till now has remained biased towards the former in forms of war, power, military actions, etc.
Ever since the world began witnessing development in the form of Industrial Revolution, Colonialism and Imperialism, foreign policies have been influenced by the theory of masculinity witnessed in the form of world wars, cold war, defense and security. However, when world started developing besides just growing economically, few gradual changes started happening in terms of feminism and human rights, and globally the value of peace and equality started gaining prominence.
There’s growing need for FFP because:-
1)We need a peaceful and a safer world free from social disasters like wars and terrorism.
2) Inclusive development where both men and women contribute equally.
3) Sustainable development in order to protect our environment from over exploitation.
4) To counter growing incidents of human rights violations.
5) To have an empathetic attitude towards issues like refugee crisis.
As the world is progressing, its women are becoming more and more aware of their capabilities. Also the importance given to FFP by developed nations like Sweden gives a ray of hope towards a peaceful and a happy world.