1. What are external state and non- state actors? What challenges do they pose for India’s internal security? Discuss.
Write a short introduction.
State actors: States are territories run by a government and have a permanent population. They can be popularly elected or can be monarchies or dictatorships, they include the governments and their agencies such as military, intelligence apparatus, Government run industries etc. They have formal backing of a sovereign state for carrying out any intended action. State actors may act against other states if there is clash of interests in terms of ideology, economic or strategic interests.
Non-state actors: Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. They include NGOs, MNCs, religious outfits, Drug Cartels, Mafias, terrorist groups etc. they may work in tandem for the peace, stability and development of a country or they may work against the State.
Challenges posed by them for the Indian internal security:
- Insurgency: North-East suffers from violent movements based upon ethnic identities leading to clashes. China is alleged to support such acts e.g. ULFA members of Assam was given shelter by China.
- Terrorism: Pakistan has been a major exporter of terrorism to India. Non-state actors like terrorist groups (eg Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad) are a continuous threat.
- Naxalism: Left wing extremism affects states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- Drug and Human-trafficking: Inter and Intra state trafficking takes place. Drug from Pakistan has affected Punjab, while child and women trafficking takes place via Bangladesh and Nepal.
- Counterfeit currency: Especially from Pakistan. It corrodes economy from inside, by facilitating black money and money laundering activities as well as funding terrorism, which itself creates a demand for fake currency, thereby creating a positive feedback loop.
- Communalism: Propagandas are run and funded by enemy country and other non-state actors to destabilize India by damaging the socio-religious fabric and ensue riots.
- Cyber Security: Recent cyber-attacks by Legion, ATM skimming are examples. Pakistani hackers often hack government websites.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best Answer: Saurabh
India has been facing challenges on the front of internal security since independence from various state and non-state actors.
State actors refer to those entities which have formal backing of a sovereign state for carrying out any intended action. Non state actors on the other hand, have a considerable power of influencing international events but they do not have formal state backing
Examples of state actors are the army, bureaucracy, intelligence agencies etc. whereas non state actors would be NGOs, civil society organizations, extremist outfits, multinational companies etc.
State factors are responsible for posing a challenge to internal security in multiple ways:
1) The state may carry out a limited war against Indian state and this might have ramifications for our internal security too
2) They might support the various insurgent groups, Naxalites, or separatist groups through funding, training or logistics which might pose a threat to our internal security
3) There have been instances where state actors have been responsible for carrying out a limited cyber warfare through hacking and other espionage
Non state actors however have played their nefarious role too in creating problems for India:
1) Non state actors from the neighboring country have been carrying out a proxy war since decades in order to “bleed India to death”
2) Certain dubious NGOs and so called civil society organizations also work in a clandestine manner to provoke discontent sections of Indian society which creates internal security issues
3) Various dubious non state actors run fake currency rackets which pose a challenge to the economic security of India
4) Various organized crime syndicates have been running drug rackets which also create internal security issues through the illicit flow of money
Both state and non-state factors from outside have created problems in our internal security framework. Hence while it is imperative to guard our borders and strengthen our diplomacy, on the other hand, we need to check the various non state actors who come in hidden forms.
2. What is ‘state sponsored terrorism’? Give suitable examples. Is India a victim of this type of terrorism? Substantiate.
State-sponsored terrorism is government support of violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism. This support could be to achieve multiple objectives such as de-stabilizing popular government, or economic or strategic reasons.
The motivating factor behind such acts can be ideological, economical, and historical or a combination there of. The States use this because, physically they don’t have to do anything which gives them deniability. Examples are:
- Iran has long been accused of funding terrorists by the US agencies most notably against Iraq and Israel funding groups like HAMAS and Lebanese Hizbulla.
- USA supporting Al-qaida to keep off the Russian Military.
India as a victim of State sponsored terrorism:
- Terrorism in Kashmir has thwarted any attempts of peace since independence. These activities require huge funds to operate which is not possible without external state’s support both financial, material and logistical.
- The long and porous borders make India vulnerable to such acts e.g. Pakistani army has been giving Cover fire for the terrorists to enter into India
- Pakistan intelligence agency ISI, has been found to be the planning and operating master of many terrorist attacks in India. eg 26/11 attacks of Mumbai.
- China, too is believed to be funding terrorist operations in North Eastern states. eg China is accused of giving shelter to ULFA members of Assam separatist movement.
- China has helped financially and supplied arms and ammunition to the Naxalites to keep the region disturbed.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: 71RR
An act of terrorism may be defined as a peacetime equivalent of war crimes. Forms of terrorism include religious, ideology-oriented, state-sponsored, and the like.
State-sponsored terrorism (SST) refers to the government support of non-state actors involved in terrorism, to fulfill certain targeted foreign policy objectives. It gained currency during the cold war period and is applied by many countries in the contemporary geo-political context, due to its benefits like:
– Low-cost high return nature,
– Involves covert operations and avoids direct geo-political conflicts.
Examples of SST include:
– Russian support of Slavs in the Balkans,
– Bulgaria’s support of Macedonian terrorists against Yugoslavia, after World War I,
– US support to Al-Qaeda against the USSR in Afghanistan,
India has been facing the problem of SST.
– Pakistan’s ISI and Military train, fund and aid in infiltration of terrorists in India (Pathankot, Nagrota attacks),
– Pakistan’s involvement in separatist movements in Jammu and Kashmir, and Punjab,
– China’s financial, logistic and ideological support to North-East insurgency groups and left-wing extremists.
The international community needs to take cognizance of the threats posed by state-sponsored terrorism and strive towards remedial measures.
3. The line between state and non state actors posing threat to India is getting blurred day by day. Do you agree? Examine.
Non – state actors are individuals or organisations that have social, political and economic power and have influence at national and international level but they do not ally with a particular country or State. Violence blow up when the conflicting interest of these actors and government are not reconciled consensually.
External State actors are the organizations which are place outside the country and are backed by hostile States to create disturbance in a country.
These two actors post the major external and internal threat to India. In current scenario, the line between these two actors has become obscure with increasing nexus between the two.
Currently the major threats faced by India are:
- Kashmir Separatist movement
- Left – wing extremism
- Insurgency in North – Eastern states
- Terrorism in hinterland
It is known that the first and fourth threats are backed by Pakistani military and intelligence agency (ISI).
Also, it is believed that China is backing the insurgency in North – East as well as the Naxal groups. The corridor build by China in PoK is a threat to sovereignty of India.
The money to fuel these campaigns is also being brought through underground channels. Hawala transactions, Drug money and underworld are playing a major role here. Pakistan and China are also inducing the Counterfeit Currency notes (CCN) in the market to disrupt the economy. With increase in cyber crimes, online communication and online transactions these actors are much more closely knit than ever before.
It has also been seen recently that Pakistan is training the Sikh militias to revive the Khalistan movement in Punjab. Porous borders of Nepal and Bangladesh are also creating problems of infiltration.
Some of the threats posed by state and non state nexus are:
- Acts of violence like bomb blasts, shootings etc.
- Constant feeling of threat and insecurity by the citizens.
- Inflow of counterfeit currency notes to disrupt the economy of India.
- Smuggling of weapons and drugs across borders.
- They propagate religious hatred and incite the regional feelings to promote secessionist schemes.
(Note: You can add many more points here and conclude.)
Best Answer 1: Monica Mohan
State actors are the governments of foreign countries such as military groups and ministries and non-state actors are individuals/organisations who influence policies but are not allied with any state such as NGOs,Inter-Governmental Organisations or terrorist outfits.
The divide between state and non-state actors are converging where state supports non-state actors and influence, make them work for the interests of the state or support the non-state actors whose policies and ideologies converge with that of the state. Eg.: Pakistan supporting LeT and JeM terror groups for its interests in quivering the territorial integrity of India. It is also sometimes the other way around where non-state actors influence state’s policies. Eg.: IMF’s condition to open up India’s economy during Balance of Payment Crisis of 1980s.
THREAT TO INDIA:
- India’s sovereignty and territorial integrity gets affected due to terror groups supported by foreign states.
- Intelligence agencies aiding smuggling of weapons and drugs affects internal security and destroys Indian youth.
- Religious fanatics supported by external state supported organisations cause communal tensions in the country.
- Demonstrations staged by some NGOs against developmental projects with no evidences to prove their statement but with the aid from foreign countries stall country’s development.
- State actors like China and Pakistan supporting fake currency generation and dissemination by anti-social non-state actors like Naxals disrupts Indian economy.
- Support extended by external state actors towards Hawala traders creates informal export market thus disrupting Indian commerce.
- The influence of state actors like China on non-state actor like UNSC by using vetos on Indian resolutions pose a serious threat to isolation of India in global stage.
Thus, the converging interests of state and non-state actors pose a major threat to India and India has to commit itself to bring out such state actors in international forums, stage surgical strikes and make efforts to embrace its friendly neighbours to re-affirm its sovereignty and to prevent being isolated.
Best Answer 2: Anshuman Mathur
4. The recent demonetization drive has not only given a boost to a ‘cash-less’ economy but also a ‘less cash’ economy. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Provide brief points explaining the term demonitisation and intent behind demonitisation drive.
Demonetization refers to the withdrawal of certain currency notes as a legal tender. In recent demonetization, Government of India withdrew Rs 500 and Rs 1000 from market circulation with the aim to check on black money, counterfeit currency and terrorism.
Many have focused on only negative aspect of ‘less-cash’ economy and have missed to cover positive aspect of ‘less-cash’ economy. One who has covered both aspects and emphasized more on positive aspect of ‘less-cash’ economy gets more marks.
The government’s dream is that there should be cashless society. However, 100% cashless economy is not possible considering India’s scenario. But the government intends to make a start with less-cash economy – and believes that cashless economy will not be a far-off destination. Becoming less-cash economy also in a way ensures transparency and helps to realise a corruption-free society.
Now provide points how demonitisation drive has boosted both cash-less economy and also ‘less-cash’ economy.
Some points include:
- E-payments, e-wallets, mobile phone banking and various other modes of cashless transactions have also led to less-cash transactions.
- The banking infrastructure in India is still weak in terms of reach and not large enough to cater to the teeming millions in interior India.
- The dominance and significance of cash in India’s monetary ecosystem is mind-boggling. Studies had shown that 98 per cent of consumer transactions in value terms and 68 per cent in volume terms were cash based transactions.
- Demonetisation drive is now forcing people to use plastic money for essential day-to-day purchases.
- Various discounts and incentives on purchase through digital method.
- Fall in money circulation has led to overall fall in demand and GDP growth – resulted in less-cash economy.
- Digital transactions and smart phone culture is slowly giving rise to online transaction i.e. both cash-less and less-cash transactions.
“Digital transactions are a parallel mechanism, not a substitute, for cash transactions, and a cashless economy is actually a less-cash economy, as no economy can be fully cashless.”
Best answer: Pankaj Nimbolkar
5. Public spending in India needs a major overhaul in terms of targeting and monitoring. Discuss.
(A statement has been provided and question directly demands you to discuss on the given statement. In simple terms, the statement says – Public expenditure or spending needs major remodeling or revamping, especially in terms of targeting and monitoring. Write why there is need for it?)
Provide importance of effective public spending in and different types of public expenditure.
Discuss what are the issues with suitable examples? – includes reckless and waste spending, leakages, channelisation of funds/resources for improper use, high revenue expenditure and non-planned expenditure, problem of debt explosion, out-dated budgetary practices
Examples can be Wage Burden of Public Employees (seventh pay commission), Wasteful Expenditure on welfare schemes: MPLADS scheme, MGNREGA, subsidies etc.
Kautilya, in Arthashastra, had observed that ‘A King with depleted Treasury eats into the very vitality of the citizens and the country’.
Now provide how majority of these issues are due to poor monitoring and targeting and how public money can be efficiently spent by bringing major restructuring in these two areas.
End the answer with some suitable monitoring and targeting measures that can be adopted. Measures include fiscal deficit targeting through FRBM, more dynamic way of identifying beneficiaries for welfare schemes, better targeting and monitoring through centralized public grievance redressal and monitoring system, ICT and e-Governance programmes, JAM, DBT schemes.
(Note: None of the answers have met the demands of the question fully. Try to rewrite and modify your answer according to the framework provided in synopsis above.)
Best answer I: Suarabh
India is a welfare state and hence it is imperative for the state to spend towards social sector initiatives and also to fuel investment which would create employment opportunities.
However, public spending in India has been marred by impediments such as leakage, ill targeting, embezzlement etc.:
- Recent CAG reports have suggested that only 25% of the workdays given under MGNREGA have gone to genuine beneficiaries
- Scams in schemes such as NRHM have been surfaced in the state of UP by CAG
- Fertilizer subsidy has been pocketed by rich farmers due to ill targeting and corruption
- Black marketing of ration under PDS has been going on since long
Various measures are required and some have been taken in order to overhaul public spending:
- DBT: The government has initiated Direct Benefits transfer for various schemes in order to prevent leakages
- The government’s appeal to the financially well off to give up subsidy and the subsequent imposition of an income cap for availing subsidy is an example of better targeting
- The initiatives of Neem coated urea and Nutrient based subsidy would prevent wasteful expenditure on fertilizer subsidy
- Aadhar linkage of bank accounts would prevent money going to dubious people and would prevent corruption
Public spending is a crucial element of policy for the Indian state. Certainly the traditional methods need an overhaul and though the government has taken some steps, but a lot more needs to be done.
Best answer II: MOL0929
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