1. There is a general perception that people with impeccable integrity can’t survive long in the public services. What is your assessment of this perception? Substantiate.
Integrity, in simple words, is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles. It is one of the most desired value for a civil servant. Integrity is one of the core foundational values of public service. It helps the public servant to uphold consistently ones moral and ethical standards.
Reasons for public perception
1.There is a general perception that people with impeccable integrity can’t survive long in public services. This false assumption is the result of slow progress that we have achieved towards tackling corruption.Today, a large section of society thinks that corruption is inevitable and is required for smooth functioning of the administration.
2.One who selflessly performs his/her duties is subject to pressure from friends, family, higher-ups and also from societal pressures of accumulating wealth and self aggrandisation.
3.Cases of transfers, punishment appointments, denying due position on promotions to officers with impeccable integrity and on clash of interest by political class.
Impeccable Integrity in public services
It is wrong perception that a person with impeccable integrity cannot survive long in public service.
We have enumerable examples of officers with impeccable integrity who have has a long career and done exceedingly well like T N Seshan, Vinod Rai etc.
In public service it is said that one’s reputation precedes oneself. So the quality of an official having high integrity will be well known to those who approach him. It acts as a protective layer of sorts.
Integrity enabled the official to do the right and legal thing with conviction and ensure that it sees logical end. A person without integrity will not have the appetite for a long struggle for what on feels is right.
In this era of social media and information flow an upright official with integrity will inspire many and there will be a popular support to the action of such an officer.
An official with high integrity cannot be threatened with transfers or other threats as they are clear in their conscience.
Integrity gives officer to fight injustice even if it against self. Recently Kerala DGP was reinstated by Supreme Court as he was removed before the end of his tenure. Only an official with high integrity can endure and fight such battles.
It is no wonder that Integrity forms an important part of core civil service foundational values. Implementing ARC recommendations and having strong institutional framework are needed to further instill integrity among public servants.
2. What imparts the characteristics of ‘services’ to civil services in India? Examine with the help of suitable examples.
It is often said that civil services is not like a typical job, where a person performs some task in lieu of a salary. It is something different. It is a service that you do for your country or society.
1.Welfarist approach: service delivery,law and order,policy formulation etc
2.Accountibility to public: RTI,Citizen Charter
3.Selflessness and dedication to public service: Public interest over private interest
4.Allegience to constitutional and citizenship values: Rule by law, real power with people
5.Trusteeship: Fiduciary responsibility
Service’ nature of civil service is what makes it special and place it on a higher pedestal. There few key characteristics that brings out the ‘service’ nature.
Impartiality- Irrespective of the kind of demographics being served, the political orientation of the government a civil servants job is do the duty assigned efficiently. He does not get to pick sides.
Empathy- Understanding peoples problem and improving their life is possible only if one has empathy. This is a foundational value of civil service. A Private corporate executive need not be empathetic but a civil servant has to be.
Benefits- At higher level of civil service, the monetary and other benefits as very small compared to similarly capable person in private sector. But the larger mission of serving the people gives immense satisfaction which cannot be measured in monetary terms.
Transparency- As the work is done for the people, they have every right know the information about the work. This element of transparency is a unique element of public service.
Integrity- Ones ability to stand by and be consistent with moral ethical principles is a key element of civil services.
These elements form core of any civil service and reinforces its ‘service ‘ nature. So civil service to truly reflect its ‘service’ nature efforts have to made to inculcate there values among civil servants.
3. Why are values like empathy and tolerance significant in civil services? Discuss.
Tolerance is a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions, practices, race, religion, nationality etc., differ from one’s own. Empathy on the other hand refers to the ability to imagine oneself in another’s place and understand the others’ feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The necessity of these two values among civil servants was highlighted by the 2nd ARC report.
Significance of Empathy:
It is essential for working towards inclusiveness and equity in society.
An empathetic civil servant will feel what the downtrodden in the society feels thereby ensuring that she takes the extra step/effort required to alleviate the sufferings of poor and dejected people. This will promote equity.
Absence of empathy may result into weakening of trust and faith for the government in the eyes of public.
Empathy as a value thus helps promote inclusive development and sensitivity towards marginalised and deprived.
Significance of tolerance:
It helps uphold human rights, pluralism, democracy, harmony and the rule of law.
Diverse and heterogenous society- dealing with people coming from various backgrounds- caste, creed, religion etc. Civil servants need to keep their prejudices apart and serve them objectively.
Effective team work and mitigating conflicts becomes easy with tolerant attitude.
In globalized world it become smore so necessary for civil servants to understand the culture of others while dealing with foreigners, expatriates etc.
Tolerant attitude towards other species and mother nature helps ensure environmental conservation.
To maintain law and order especially in communal situations. A tolerant bureaucrat will be able to think objectively and take prompt action in emotionally charged situations. Tolerance thus promotes social harmony.
Tolerance promotes dignity of individual. Encourages brotherhood and fraternity.
Instances of communal riots, violent protests as seen in case of Jat reservation in Haryana, and frequent cases of lynching reflects how intolerance in our society is on rise. In such a scenario it has become very important that bureaucracy which maintains the link between the state and the public remains tolerant and empathetic. It will help them uphold our constitutional values, like secularism, brotherhood and fraternity, in true spirit.
4. The children and young must find greater attention in India’s public policy discourse. Do you agree? Substantiate.
An estimated 26 millions of children are born every year. the share of children of the age group 0-6 years to the total population is 13.1 percent in 2011.
India accounted almost 43 per cent underweight children. About 38.7 percent of children were stunted, 15.1 percent were wasted and 29.4 percent of children were underweight in India in 2013-14 (RSoC 2013-14)
In India, the number of under-5 mortality rate and infant mortality rates are 49 and 42, respectively. The implications that child malnutrition have for growth and development are multiple and cumulative.
Why should children and young get more attention:
The state of public schooling is appalling. The teachers are not qualified, as reflected in the recent amendment to the RTE act. Yet, there is a reduction in the number? of schools under rationalisation schemes.
50% of the Indian children are multi dimensionally poor. There are crucial problems like malnutrition, stunting etc., limiting the ability of these children to develop their capabilities. Public health policy must address this with increased attention.
Today’s children are citizens of tomorrow. Without providing the crucial inputs of education and health, we would be sacrificing lives of one more generation.
There has to be increased focus on Skill development through vocational training. It is a paradox that there is shortage of workforce in many crucial services in the world’s second most populous country.
Jobs have to be created to empower the youth and thus protect the next generation. Jobless youth today would become state dependent in its old age. This will stress the public purse immensely.
India has just recently made its children Polio free, yet the children are still vulnerable to various other diseases, which are either environment related or nutrition related. Only proper nutrition and timely vaccines can make these children attend schools without absence.
5. Critically analyse centre’s crop insurance schemes, their performance and further scope for improvement.
Agriculture in India is varied, diversified and prone to variety of risks, most farmers are small and marginal, rain fed agriculture. Crop insurance in India though necessary suffers from structural, design and financial deficiencies.
Crop insurance in India was scattered till 1985, then CCIS was launched on nationwide basis , following which NAIS was launched in 1999 to address anomalies arose during CCIS, Later MNAIS and WBCIS were launched and in 2013 NCIP was launched a mixture of NAIS,WBCIS and CPIS.
Recently in 2016 GOI implemented the PMFBY where in technology plays a major part
The PKMishra committee(2013)was appointed to analyse the performance of the schemes
1)NAIS did not address the problems of horticulture crops, did not cover post-harvest losses, area discrepancy , high rate of premiums was noted, lack of awareness and interest amongst farmer limited the spread of it.
2) MNAIS also had similar problems along with NCIP suffered from problem of high premiums which affected the spread of the scheme resulting only in 23% insurance coverage even after three decades
3) The recent CAGreport says that due to high premium and unpaid claims resulted in profit making of Insurance companies and an amount to the extent of 32000 crores might have not reached the intended beneficiaries. Lack of verification from the Government also led to wrongful disbursement of 5600 crores to Insurance companies.
4) To address all the problems from Kharif of 2016 Fasal bima yojana was launched subsuming all existing schemes to increased insured cropped area from existing 23 % to 50% in three years with attractive low premiums of 2%, 3% and 5% and designed to cover post-harvest losses and crop inundation with technology as basis of implementation and use of mobile phones, satellite imagery and GIS for assessment offered a ray of hope
But structural deficiencies in the scheme like fund sharing of 50:50 between centre and states, resulted in low interest from states, damage by wild animals not covered and tenant farmers still remain vulnerable and lack of unit of assessment has limited the spread of the scheme.
There is a definite need to use technology to assess area of destruction and regular verifications have to be made to reduce false claims.
Need for centralised weather system with knowledge dispersal leading to increased awareness and insurance literacy amongst farmers
.There is a definite need to revisit premiums across the seasons and make for timely disbursal of relief funds to reach intended beneficiaries. A community basedinsurance can be a viable product.
There is a need to create a centreofexpertise to look after crop insurance as a whole and also an urgent need to integrate crop insurance with disaster mitigation activities. So that Indian farmer can reap the benefits of his efforts rather than be helpless.
BEST ANSWER : BY RKM
Crop insurance schemes aims to protect the farmers from the after-effects and risks from natural calamities like droughts and floods. The govt has launched various schemes like Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme , Experimental Crop Insurance , Farm Income Insurance Scheme , National Agriculture Insurance Scheme and Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.
1.Reduction in premium rates so as to enable more farmers to avail insurance. Under PMFBY target of from current 23% of the area under cultivation at present to 50% of the crop area by 2018-19.
2 .Fast settlement of claims by using technologies.
3. Use of remote sensing for accurate assessment of claims.
4. Provide insurance for both yield and price.
1.Delay in transfer of funds due to lack of cooperation from state govts. A recent CAG report noted Rs 32,000 crore released as premium subsidy under old insurance might not have reached the intended beneficiaries — there was no record or data on this.
2. Non digitisation and lack of proper land records.
3. Most of previous schemes doesnt include small farmers esp NAIS (arountD14% small farmers availed the benefits).
4. Lack of awareness among farmers.
Scope of improvement-
1.Social audits by Panchyats and full digitalisation of land records.
2.Better integration of schemes along with time bound settlement of claims.
3.Creating awareness among farmers.
Agriculture in india is still a vary risky business due to frequent calamities and small land holdings . So there is need to increase insurance coverage of farmers to remove their vulnerability from various risks.