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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs [Prelims + Mains Focus] – 27th October 2018

  • IASbaba
  • October 27, 2018
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IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Analysis
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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs (Prelims + Mains

Focus)- 27th October 2018

Archives


(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


Understanding the basics: CBI and CVI

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains II – Indian Polity: Constitutional and Non Constitutional bodies, Statutory bodies and other bodies –  their functions and roles

In news:

  • Many reports have surfaced stating dishonesty and harassment of the public by those at top positions in the CBI.
  • It is important to know basics – about CBI, its functions and role of CVC

About CBI

  • CBI was established under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1941.
  • It is the primary central government body responsible for policing.
  • It comes under the Department of Personnel and Training which is under the PMO.
  • Hence, the head of the CBI reports directly to the PMO as FBI reports directly to the President of the United States.
  • CBI is not a statutory body as it was created by executive resolution.

In the last 65 years, the organisation has evolved from an anti corruption agency to a multi faceted, multi disciplinary central police law enforcement agency.

Today it has following divisions

  • Anti Corruption Division
  • Economic Offences Division
  • Special Crimes Division
  • Directorate of Prosecution
  • Administration Division
  • Policy & Coordination Division
  • Central Forensic Science Laboratory

Do you know?

  • Director, CBI as Inspector General of Police, Delhi Special Police Establishment, is responsible for the administration of the organisation.
  • With enactment of CVC Act, 2003, the Superintendence of Delhi Special Police Establishment vests with the Central Government except investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, in which, the superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
  • CBI has been provided security of two year tenure in CBI by the CVC Act, 2003.
  • The CVC Act also provides mechanism for selection of Director, CBI and other officers of the rank of SP and above in CBI.

The CBI is subject to three ministries of the Government of India and Two Constitutional bodies:-

  1. Ministry of Home Affairs: Cadre Clearance
  2. DoPT: Administration, Budget and Induction of non IPS officers
  3. Union Public Service Commission: Officers of and above the rank of Deputy SPECIES
  4. Law and Justice Ministry: Public prosecutors
  5. Central Vigilance Commission: Anti-corruption cases.

About CVC and its role with regard to CBI

  • Central Vigilance Commission is a statutory body under CVC Act and serves as the apex anti-corruption body.
  • CVC was established in 1964 under the recommendations of Santhanam Committee, it gained statutory authority in 2003 CVC Act.
  • It superintends the work of CBI in corruption cases.
  • CVC has no investigation wing of its own as it depends on CBI and the Chief Vigilance Officers of central organizations, while CBI has its own investigation wing.

Functions and powers of the Central Vigilance Commission under the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003

  • Exercise superintendence over the functioning of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) insofar as it relates to the investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; or an offence under the Cr.PC for certain categories of public servants – section 8(1)(a);
  • Give directions to the Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) for superintendence insofar as it relates to the investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 – section 8(1)(b);
  • To inquire or cause an inquiry or investigation to be made on a reference by the Central Government – section 8(1)(c);
  • To inquire or cause an inquiry or investigation to be made into any complaint received against any official belonging to such category of officials specified in sub-section 2 of Section 8 of the CVC Act, 2003 – section 8(1)(d);
  • Review the progress of investigations conducted by the DSPE into offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 or an offence under the Cr.PC – section (8)(1)(e);
  • Review the progress of the applications pending with the competent authorities for sanction of prosecution under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 – section 8(1)(f);
  • Tender advice to the Central Government and its organizations on such matters as may be referred to it by them – section 8(1) (g);
  • Exercise superintendence over the vigilance administrations of the various Central Government Ministries, Departments and Organizations of the Central Government – section 8(1)(h)

Crux:

  • Remember Section 8 of the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003
  • In simpler words, CBI works under the guidance of CVC when the matter is related to public corruption. CVC doesn’t have any control or oversight over CBI as its officers are appointed, transferred and promoted by DoPT which comes under PMO.
  • CBI investigates other high-profile cases other than the matters of public corruption while CVC’s role is only limited to matters of corruption and probity in public life.

Person in news: M.S. Swaminathan

1ST World Agriculture Prize for Swaminathan

In news:

  • Renowned agricultural scientist and the chief architect of the green revolution in India, M S Swaminathan, was awarded the first World Agriculture Prize for his contributions to Indian agriculture .
  • The prize, instituted by the private think tank Indian Council for Food and Agriculture (ICFA), includes a $100,000 cash award. (₹73,45,500)

Receiving the prize, Swaminathan said: “There is no agriculture without farmers. It is the basic need of people and it cannot be commercialised”.


(MAINS FOCUS)


INTERNATIONAL

TOPIC:General studies 2

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Touching base

Introduction

  • India and Japan institutionalised annual meeting since 2006, since then both the countries have held a closely aligned world-view.
  • In the forthcoming annual summit both the countries are expected to take stock of all the challenges they are facing, notably with regard to the U.S. and China.

Challenges before India and Japan

  • Trade tariffs applied by U.S., sanctions against Iran and Russia, as well as the U.S.’s exit from several multilateral and security regimes are impacting both countries in different ways.
  • For India, the impact is more direct, as the economy has been hurt by new American tariffs, review of its GSP (trading) status, and restrictions on visas for professionals.
  • The possible U.S. sanctions over Indian engagement with Iran as well as defence purchases from Russia pose a looming challenge.
  • For Japan too, U.S. trade tariffs are a concern and Washington’s exit from the Trans-Pacific Partnership is corralling Southeast Asian countries into a free trade regime under Chinese domination.
  • The U.S.’s on and off nuclear negotiations with North Korea is cause of concern for Japan.
  • The other common concern is managing an increasingly influential China.

To resolve multilateral issues

  • India and Japan must closely cooperate on how to manage these challenges while maintaining their growing security ties with U.S., as members of the trilateral and quadrilateral formations in the Indo-Pacific.
  • India and China had decided to compare notes on the way forward with their common neighbour, especially on building and financing alternatives to China’s Belt and Road projects for countries along the “Asia-Africa growth corridor”.

Bilateral negotiations

  • The Shinkansen bullet train project (Bullet train between Mumbai and Ahmadabad) has gathered speed with respect to finances but it could still run into delays over land acquisition issues.
  • India and Japan have stepped up military exchanges, and will begin negotiations on a landmark acquisition and cross-servicing logistics agreement.
  • The purchase of ShinMaywa US-2 amphibian aircraft proceedings are still pending.
  • In bilateral trade, level of trade between both the countries has declined as compared to what was there five years ago.

Conclusion

  • India and Japan are facing many similar challenges but none of these issues is insurmountable.
  • The larger concerns of how to navigate uncharted and stormy geopolitical terrain, while maintaining strong positions on the international rules-based order, are likely to dominate this annual summit.

(This news is in early stages, larger picture will be clear after the conclusion of summit.)

Connecting the dots:

  • In the changing world order, India and Japan has a bigger role to play for sustaining rule based global order. Discuss.

(MAINS FOCUS)


HEALTH/POLLUTION

TOPIC:General studies 2 & 3

  • Health and public services
  • Local governance and administration
  • Infrastructure
  • Environment and pollution

Think small

Introduction

Bad sanitation is India’s worst-kept secret, but recent data from Uttar Pradesh show that in spite of working in mission mode to expand sanitation, 87% of faecal sludge expelled from toilets in urban areas is untreated.

Study conducted by Centre for Science and Environment

  • The study in U.P. conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment has now exposed the grim situation.
  • Viewed against the 2030 goal to achieve clean water and sanitation for all under the UN Sustainable Development Agenda, this depressing statistic shows how much work remains to be done.

Pic: https://d39gegkjaqduz9.cloudfront.net/TH/2018/10/23/DEL/Delhi/TH/5_07/d2b1bef2_2476469_101_mr.jpg

Steps taken by state and their effects

  • State support for improved housing and planned development has never been strong, and the National Urban Sanitation Policy of 2008 has not changed that significantly.
  • At the national scale, a United Nations report of 2015 estimates that 65,000 tonnes of untreated faeces is introduced into the environment in India annually.
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan promised a major shift, but it has focussed more on the basic requirement of household and community toilets in rural and urban areas.
  • The study The study by CSE has exposed broken links, of faecal sludge and septage being collected from household tanks and simply discharged into drains, open land and wetlands.
  • The problem of the waste not being contained collected without manual labour, transported and treated safely is becoming graver.

Need of new approach

  • The CSE study is being followed up with a mapping exercise on the flow of faecal waste streams in individual cities.
  • The collection efficiency for sludge in Varanasi, Allahabad and Aligarh and such cities ranges from just 10% to 30%.
  • It is now time for a new approach. This has to be decentralised and different from the strategy being used to clean the Ganga.
  • Clean Ganga strategy relies on large sewage treatment plants for riverside cities and towns.
  • Immediate investments in decentralised sludge management systems would bring twin benefits: of improving the environment and reducing the disease burden imposed by insanitary conditions.

Way forward

  • One immediate intervention needed is the creation of an inter-departmental task force to identify land to build small treatment systems for sludge, and to provide easily accessible solutions to houses that are currently discharging waste into open drains.
  • The business of emptying faecal material using tanker trucks needs to be professionalised and de-stigmatised.
  • It is unacceptable that manual scavengers continue to be employed in violation of the law to clean septic tanks in some places, and caste factors play out in the recruitment of workers even in the mechanised operations.
  • All aspects of the business of sanitation need reform if India is to meet Goal Number 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals with egalitarian policies.
  • A large State such as Uttar Pradesh provides the opportunity to demonstrate commitment to policy. Success here can transform lives.

Connecting the dots:

  • Decentralised sludge management systems are vital to achieve clean water goals of SDG by 2030. Elucidate.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)

Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note:

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by IASbaba are the “correct answers”.
  • IASbaba App users – Team IASbaba will provide correct answers in comment section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.

Q.1) Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up on the recommendation of:

  1. Santhanam Committee
  2. Administrative Reforms Commission of India
  3. Gorwala Report
  4. Ashok Mehta Committee

Q.2) Consider the following about Central Vigilance Commission

  1. The Central vigilance Commission is an apex body setup by Parliament on the recommendations of Santhanam committee report.
  2. The jurisdiction of the Commission extends only over Central government agencies.
  3. It also exercises superintendence over the functioning of the Delhi Special Police Establishment.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 2 and 3
  4. All of the above

Q.3) Consider the following statements about CVC and CBI:

  1. Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) was established by an executive resolution of the Central government.
  2. CVC establishment was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption.
  3. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  4. The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption.

Which of the above given statements are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. All of the above

Q.4) The Asia-Africa Growth Corridor or AAGC is an economic cooperation agreement between the governments of

  1. India and Russia
  2. Japan and Russia
  3. India and Japan
  4. USA and Japan

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