• IASbaba
  • January 14, 2021
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Important Updates, UPSC MAINS 2020 QUESTION PAPERS
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Dear Aspirants

What do you think real happiness is? For us, it is the sense of achievement which one receives after putting in efforts to get something and then reaping the desired results. Today we would like to share our happiness with you.

For the past 6 years, we have been doing one thing with great passion and dedication. Yes! We love to guide the Civil Service aspirants. We have channelised all our energies and dedicated all our efforts into creating an ecosystem that gives every aspirant a chance to crack the prestigious civil services examination with Rank-1, even if he/she is in the remotest corner of the country. In this process, we have developed, designed, and dedicated a series of initiatives for Civil Services Exam preparation.

The quality of these initiatives has been proven time and again. It has become a norm to have high Hit Ratios in Prelims and Mains from the initiatives of IASbaba, namely Integrated Learning Programme (ILP) and Think Learn and Perform (TLP).

For the last 6 years, we have managed to hit the bull’s eye when it comes to GS Mains papers.

This article is not to boast about the Hit Ratio of our initiatives in any case. It would not be right to say that these many questions, directly or indirectly came from our initiatives just by using keywords of the UPSC questions. In that way, if we frame questions over the year on all keywords in the UPSC syllabus our hit ratio will be 100%. However, you are smart enough to analyse the importance of our initiatives and its very close resemblance to actual UPSC papers.

Rather than focusing on the numbers try to focus on the significance of these initiatives and make them a part of your preparation. Hard work should be done smartly to have a better Input-Output ratio of efforts and results.

Below we have come up with the Analysis and Approach for each question of General Studies (GS) Paper 4 that was asked by UPSC along with the links and references of IASbaba questions/ articles. After going through this article, you will realise that just by sincerely following the initiatives on our platform, your chances of success in the Mains stage would have increased dramatically.


NOTE: PDF of Analysis is provided at the end of the post.




The pattern of the paper remains the same as previous year. Section-A is for 130 marks and Section-B consisting six case studies is for 120 marks.

Regarding Section-A

The marking pattern in Section-A remains the same. Question number 6 has three sub questions which are quotes given by moral philosophers/thinkers which is on similar lines of the previous year question paper. Many of the questions in this section demands only a basic understanding of the terms mentioned in the syllabus. However, many questions have two parts, with the second part generally demanding the application of the understanding.

Regarding Section-B

The case studies were lengthy compared to the previous year. Only in one case study the examiner is asking about the options available.

Most of the case studies demand for mentioning ethical issues and suggesting some measures with respect to the major issue in that particular case. This requires a strong hold on the Syllabus.

For example, if we see the last case study (Q.12), the case mentioned above will not help much in answering the questions given below. In order to answer these questions, we need to know the institutional measures regarding the issues mentioned.

Similarly, Q.10 is asking about the consequences of politicization of bureaucracy. This cannot be answered just by reading the case study. It requires prior knowledge on the same.

Even in Q.8 the second part of the question needs to be answered with prior knowledge. Like measures to be taken to ensure that honest civil servants are not implicated for bonafide mistakes on their part.

To sum up, we can say that UPSC is checking your theoretical knowledge and solution-oriented bureaucratic thinking by explaining the context of the question in the case studies.

Q.1.(a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP)viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies) and social harmony. (150 words)


This is a direct question where a candidate needs to write about how ethics and values can enhance a nation’s Comprehensive National power. This is related to the concept of International ethics from the syllabus. The focus should be based on three key terms mentioned which are 1)Human capital,2) Soft power(culture and policies) and 3) Social harmony.

The Concept of Comprehensive National Power is a term used in International relations that was particularly popularised by China. Here the focus is on the essence of the quote “Peace is not merely an absence of war. It is also a state of mind.” – Jawaharlal Nehru.

Thus in international relations, a country is not only recognized by its military might but also other essential attributes of the national power, which includes :

  • Human capital – which means the skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country. Ethical values linked to this are scientific temper, achievement-oriented society, competitive spirit, and essential focus on humans through gender equality, lack of discrimination in health and education.
  • Soft power – This term was Coined by Joseph Nye in the late 1980s, the term “soft power” means the ability of a country to persuade others to do what it wants without force or coercion. This will include how the culture and policies which are adopted by a country work towards enhancing it. Ethical values linked to this are emphasis on cooperation, growth of culture, focus on ideas like Panchasheel rather than real politicking in international affairs.
  • Social harmony – This a necessary attribute for a nation as a nation mired by lack of social harmony lacks effective international say. For example, countries like Pakistan and Sudan have less power to influence other nations as compared to countries like Japan, India, and USA. Ethical values linked to are Empathy, compassion, tolerance.

In short contextualize these terms to India and the world for value addition.


Q.1.(b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy,2020(NEP,2020)in light of the above statement.(150 words)


This question needs one to have a hold over the concept from GS paper 2 which is the topic of education. The basic demand of the question is to explain how the role of education is not injunction (education through authorities orders) but rather it needs to focus on a person’s all-round development which will lead to individual and social transformation simultaneously. The candidate needs to analyze this statement in light of the important attributes of the New Education Policy (2020).

Here the candidate first can explain the basic meaning of injunction and the need for better learning for enabling a student to achieve his/her own potential rather than forceful or coercive teaching.

Then Link the attributes of New Education Policy (2020) to individual and social transformation.

  • Transformation in the examination system by focusing on learning outcomes rather than rote learning and objective-based questions.
  • Education in mother tongue will enable better understanding and exploration of ideas by students from all sections of society
  • Inclusive education with concepts like three-language formula, support for weaker sections, and use of digital technology to reach the untouched areas.
  • Multidisciplinary in nature by allowing flexibility in choosing subjects and setting up a multidisciplinary college in every district.
  • Focus on imparting critical thinking.

Thus, link all these features to how it can transform the individual and society of India in near future. While doing so add values an ethical term in arguments.


Q.2. (a) ‘ Hatred is destructive of a person‘s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words)


This is a very direct question and there is nothing here to disagree with the statement given as hatred is a strong negative emotion that can be destructive of both Individual wisdom and a nation’s spirit.

Here first one needs to describe how hatred is a negative emotion that is irrational, subjective, and far beyond a normal dislike of a thing or subject. Further explain with examples of how this is a threat to a person’s wisdom and conscience, here you can use examples such as infamous figures like Hitler and Mussolini where both had a strong hatred towards certain communities and institutions.

Further, you can write that, when this hatred becomes all-pervasive in a society it can destroy a nation’s spirit and could further hurt social capital and cooperation among citizens. This can be explained as to how the hatred of Hitler for Jews led to the corruption of the majority of German citizens which had devastating effects on the German nation and its conscience.

This statement needs to be contextualized to present the Indian context and how the hatred on social media, on roads, and mob behavior on incidents such as lynching is ethically wrong and in long run can affect both the Individual and nation.


Think Learn Perform (TLP) Plus Test-6 Synopsis Question 1.(b)(2020)

Q.2. (b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI)? Can they be learned? discuss. (150 words)


This is a basic question that is based directly on the point mentioned in the syllabus that is Emotional intelligence. The candidate needs to explain here what are the different components of Emotional Intelligence and can these components be learned.

Here the candidate can start by definition of Emotional intelligence given by David Goleman that Emotional intelligence is a person’s ability to manage his feelings so that those feelings are expressed appropriately and effectively.

According to Goleman, emotional intelligence is the largest single predictor of success in the workplace.

Components of Emotional intelligence:

  • Self-awareness – A person has a healthy sense of emotional intelligence self-awareness if they understand their own strengths and weaknesses, as well as how their actions affect others. A person with emotional self-awareness is usually receptive to, and able to learn from, constructive criticism more than one who doesn’t have emotional self-awareness.
  • Self-regulation – A person with high emotional intelligence has the ability to exercise restraint and control when expressing their emotions.
  • Motivation -People with high emotional intelligence are self-motivated, resilient, and driven by an inner ambition rather than being influenced by outside forces, such as money or prestige.
  • Empathy– An empathetic person has compassion and is able to connect with other people on an emotional level, helping them respond genuinely to other people’s concerns.
  • Social skill – People who are emotionally intelligent are able to build trust with other people, and are able to quickly gain respect from the people they meet.

After explaining the components of E.I., you can take any of the three stands related to the second demand of the question.

  • Emotional intelligence can be learned and write how it can be learned like there are training and courses for a child in school and officers in the academy.
  • Emotional intelligence cannot be learned as it is a predisposition in the attitude of a person to act in a certain manner and it is not possible to inculcate these components.
  • A balanced view after taking both in consideration for a middle path.

Add examples on some officers of how they need and have used Emotional intelligence in past and current context for value addition.


Q.3. (a) What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss.(150 words)


This question is based on the moral philosophers. Here the candidate needs to know what are the basic teachings of Buddha which are most relevant today. This further needs to be answered as to why these teachings are relevant today with help of relevant examples.

Gautam Buddha was a moral thinker who lived in the 6th century B.C in ancient India. He after attaining enlightenment at Bodhgaya propounded his vision. This includes the concepts or teachings which are relevant even today That are :

  • Equality – In today’s world where there discrimination based on class, caste, and creed this value remains essential for Humanity even today.
  • Detachment – According to Buddha attachment which leads to desire is the basic reason for suffer therefore a person should not be attached to things that are purely material and ephemeral in nature. This can help in the current context to fight climate change which is a direct outcome of a materialistic and consumeristic society. Also, it can help in controlling suicides by youngsters due to failure in relationships.
  • Rationality – This value imbibes scientific temper and in the current context can overcome hate and bigotry in general and communalism in particular. Also, it can lead to the growth of the nation.
  • Middle path (Madhyam Marg) – This concept can help individuals, communities, or nations to a valid extreme end of arguments and accommodate diverse views for a better society.

A candidate can refer to some specific issues of India for value addition such as communalism, lack of scientific temper, violence on migrants (Son of soil theory), climate issues.


 Q.3. (b) ‘The will to power exits, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.’ Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words)


This question is again related to ethics in international relations. Here the candidate needs to write how each and every nation wants to exercise power but this exercise of power to be ethical should be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.

Here one needs to write, how power is not exercised in isolation but rather it also has a moral duty attached to it. Therefore the exercise of power should be :

Rational – It cannot be whimsical or arbitrary in use rather power needs to be exercised based on sound cognition and empirical evidence. For example, in international relations, there are conventions, treaties, and customary rules which guide the actions of a nation and these principles are based on rationality. Thus a nation does not just explode a nuclear bomb based on irrationality or subjective disposition but rather is guided by the overall rationality of the action.

Moral duty – The exercise of power needs to attain the basic ethical principles of equality, integrity, empathy, and compassion. For example, there are conventions like the Geneva Convention for avoiding bombing of cities during war or, a nation cannot exit a treaty whenever it wants. Like when the USA exited the Paris climate treaty it came into force a year later to make it accountable and answerable to people.


Think Learn Perform (TLP) Plus Test-6 Synopsis, Question no. 8

Q.4.(a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them. (150 words).


Here, one needs to define what rules and laws are.

Also, differences need to be written in a manner like laws are codified with the power of enforcement.

Important demand here is how ethics help them. So, ethics provides it the fixed framework of wrong and right to rules and laws.

Q.4.(b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes a positive attitude in person.? (150 words).


Here one needs to write how a positive attitude is helpful for a civil servant. Because civil servant has to work under pressure/ stress. They are accountable to people, political executives/ seniors, etc. Family and work balance has to be taken care of, and likewise.  The next part is what contributes positive attitude – meditation, good value system motivation, etc.

The conclusion can be how to inculcate it.


 Q.5.(a) What are the main factors responsible for gender responsibility in India? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words).


Here you need to apply basic knowledge about factors responsible for gender inequality. Factors mainly related to ethics are stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes. Values system of patriarchy, male dominance. Further to it education, family teaching, etc.

And in addressing it how Savitribai Phule worked. She led by example. The courage of conviction she had shown.

Q.5.(b) The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are in conflict with traditional values. Discuss. (150 words).


It is an application-based question. Internet penetration and therefore social media brings values like individualism, materialism, consumerism, the attitude of consumerism, quietly narcissism. They are in opposition to collectivism, the cosmopolitan culture of Indian traditional values.


Q.6.  What do each of the following quotations mean to you?

Q.6.(a) “Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand do so. If not fold your hands, bless your brothers and let them go their own way.” – Swami Vivekanand (150 words).


This quotation-based question is about not opposing, disturbing anyone if we can’t uplift / help them. Examples are must here. Let’s consider women empowerment, LGBTQ rights movement, helping differently abled persons etc.


 Q.6.(b) “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in service of others.” Mahatma Gandhi (150 words).


The famous quotation of Gandhiji which is much relevant in civil servants’ life. The Second Administrative Reforms Commission also emphasizes the value of dedication to duty. It looks for selflessness, devotion to duty. Here examples are must for illustration – IAS in Tripura built road with public cooperation., K.Balaji IAS working for manual scavengers are good examples among others.


Q.6.(c) “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates. (150 words).


A very good question which demands interlinking of concepts like emotional intelligence and morality. It’s says morality full of emotions would not always be helpful. Morality should be rational, logical. Example from administration, leaders, social reformers life are must to illustrate.


Question 2.A and 2.B can be linked to the quotation in question:

                                                               Section B

Q.7) Rajesh Kumar is a senior public servant, with a reputation of honesty and forthrightness, currently posted in the Finance Ministry as the Head of the Budget Division. His department is presently busy in organizing budgetary support to the states, four of which are due to polls within the financial year.

This year’s annual budget had allotted Rs 8300 crores for the National Housing Scheme (NHS), a centrally sponsored social housing scheme for the weaker sections of society. Rs 775 crores have been drawn for the NHS till June.

The Ministry of Commerce had long been pursuing a case for setting up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in a southern state to boost exports. After two years of detailed discussion between the centre and state, the Union Cabinet approved the project in August. Process was initiated to acquire the necessary land.

Eighteen months ago a leading Public Sector Unit (PSU) had projected the need for setting up a large natural gas processing plant in a northern state for the regional gas grid. The land is already in possession of the PSU. The gas grid is an essential component of the national energy security strategy. After three rounds of global bidding the project was allotted to an MNC, M/sXYZ Hydrocarbons. The first tranche of payment to the MNC is scheduled to be made in December.

Finance Ministry was asked for a timely allocation of an additional Rs 6000 crores for these two developmental projects. It was decided to recommend re-appropriation of this entire amount from NHS allocation. The file was forwarded to the Budget Department for their comments and further processing. On studying the case file, Rajesh Kumar realized that this re-appropriation may cause inordinate delay in the execution of NHS, a project much publicized in the rallies of senior politicians. Correspondingly, non-availability of finances would cause financial loss in the SEZ and national embarrassment due to delayed payment in the international project.

Rajesh Kumar discussed the matter with seniors. He was conveyed that this politically sensitive situation needs to be processed immediately. Rajesh Kumar realized that diversion of funds from the NHS could raise difficult questions for the government in the Parliament.

Discuss the following with reference to this case:

a) Ethical issues involved in re-appropriation of funds from a welfare project to the development projects.

b) Given the need for proper utilization of public funds, discuss the options available to Rajesh Kumar. Is resigning a worthy option? (250 words)


We can introduce the case study with the stakeholders and the ethical issues involved;

Here the ethical issues bog down to – priority between housing to the poor and economic development of the nation; socialism versus capitalism;

In the philosophical part we can include “rising tide lifts all boats” John F Kennedy, “Trickledown effect”, etc.

In the action part we can – strike a balance like:

  • Using CSR of the companies for the housing project.
  • Can allocate a part of profit the SEZ makes to building the houses.
  • Extra budgetary support can be solicited

For the Solution part – A deeper analysis of the question can lead to some practical solutions like – a contract for the SEZ is already made and for the NHS land acquisition is just initiated. As the land acquisition takes time, the officer can allocate the fund for the SEZ. The funds for NHS can be catered later.

In the resignation part – it is a clear ‘no’ because “winners won’t quit and quitters won’t win”


Case regarding Resignation:

IASbaba TLP PLUS Test 19

You are heading the operations division in a big pharmaceutical company. Your boss regards you for your hard work and dedication and there are high chances of you getting promoted in a couple of months. You have an outstanding team of employees who are equally passionate for their work. But, the standout start the performer in your team is Rashmi. She has been serving the company for the past three years and her outstanding contribution has ensured great rise to the organization. You know that without Rashmi, your team won’t have performed so well. However, one day, a teary-eyed Rashmi comes to you and gives her resignation letter. You are surprised by her sudden decision to quit the organization. Upon probing, she tells you that your boss had made unwelcome sexual advances towards her last week.

What are the options available with you in this situation? If Rashmi leaves the company, your team will underperform and your chances of promotion will become bleak. If she stays, your boss will take it as an acceptance of his behavior. What will you do? Discuss. (250 words) (20)

Political and Social Pressure:

IASbaba TLP PLUS Test 6

You are serving as the secretary in the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of the Government. Your office has been receiving many complaints against the online streaming platforms for showing abusive, violent and sexual content. The parents are concerned that the shows being streamed are having a bad influence on the impressionable minds of their children. While there are safeguards available in the form of parental control of the content that kids can watch, they aren’t effective. Kids do find a way to watch the content of their liking by using proxies or even stealing the login credentials. Pressure is mounting on you to regulate the content and put a ban on shows streaming adult content. However, the proponents of the rights of the entertainment industry are quite vociferous about the creative freedom of directors/ producers of online shows. They are in complete opposition to any regulation of the content being streamed. They give examples of many western countries where censorship of content is hardly done. As a senior servant and policymaker, what decision would you take and why? Substantiate your views. (250 words) (20)

Q.8) The Chairman of Bharat Missiles Ltd (BML) was watching a program on TV wherein the Prime Minister was addressing the nation on the necessity of developing a self-reliant India. He subconsciously nodded in agreement and smiled to himself as he mentally reviewed BML’s journey in the past two decades. BML had admirably progressed from producing first generation anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) to designing and producing state of the art ATGM weapon systems that would be the envy of any army. He sighed in reconciliation with his assumptions that the government would probably not alter the status quo of a ban on export of military weaponry.

To his surprise, the very next day he got a telephone call from the Director General, Ministry of Defence, asking him to discuss the modalities of increasing BML production of ATGMs as there is a probability of exporting the same to a friendly country. The Director General wanted the Chairman to discuss the details with his staff in Delhi next week.

Two days later, at a press conference, the Defence Minister stated that he aims to double the current weapons export levels within five years. This would give an impetus to financing the development and manufacturing of indigenous weapons in the country. He also stated that all indigenous arms manufacturing nations have a very good record of international arms trade.

As the Chairman of BML, what are your views on the following points?

a) As an arms exporter of a responsible nation like India, what are the ethical issues involved in the arms trade?

b) List five ethical factors that would influence the decision to sell arms to foreign governments. (250 words)


We can introduce the case with stakeholders and the ethical issues involved; the ethical issues here include;

violence versus peace, debate between armament and disarmament, and the economic and strategic power of the nation versus Indian philosophy of Ahimsa.

Here we can also include Bharatha and Bahubali, Ahoka’s Dhamma Yuddha, Gandhiji’s Truth and Ahimsa – 5th dimension of warfare, etc.

In the 2nd sub question we can include deterrence, world’s armament race, unequal treatment between veto and non-vote regarding the nuclear armament in the UN, etc.

Solution part- we can mention that we sell the armaments as per international convention, adherence to no first use policies, condition of not using it on its own public, and condition of using it as a last resort.

However it is better to conclude, by arguing in favour of world peace and tranquility – “Peace cannot be kept by force, it can only be achieved by understanding” Albert Einstein.


Q.9) Rampura, a remote district inhabited by a tribal population, is marked by extreme backwardness and abject poverty. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local population, though it is subsistence due to the very small landholdings. There is insignificant industrial or mining activity. Even the targeted welfare programs have inadequately benefited the tribal population. In this restrictive scenario, the youth has begun to migrate to other states to supplement the family income. Plight of minor girls is that their parents are persuaded by labour contractors to send them to work in the Bt Cotton farms of a nearby state. The soft fingers of the minor girls are well suited for plucking the cotton. The inadequate living and working conditions in these farms have caused serious health issues for the minor girls. NGOs in the districts of domicile and the cotton farms appear to be compromised and have not effectively espoused the twin issues of child labour and development of the area.

You are appointed as the District Collector of Rampura. Identify the ethical issues involved. Which specific steps will you initiate to ameliorate the conditions of minor girls of your district and to improve the overall economic scenario in the district (250 words)


Introducing the question with the stakeholders involved; we can bring in various ethical issues here like – empathy, concerns towards undeveloped masses, gender bias, ethicality of NGOs, stone hearted cotton farm managers, etc.

Socio-ethical issues like – migration, agriculture the only means of livelihood, landless labor, unreached welfare programs, poor working conditions, ill health, etc.

We can bring in examples of immigration of  people from Bihar to Maharashtra.

Also examples of child laborers working in brick kilns of Odisha. Saying an outright no to child labor;

We can bring in steps like

  • Gender bias -a suspicion that why only minor girls are required, why not minor boys who also have soft hands – Ex: Anything like Bihar shelter house scandal being suspected.
  • Action on NGOs under FCRA act.
  • Corporate social responsibility of Cotton firms.
  • Wielding Prevention of Child labor act – pressurizing the Cotton farms to employee adult workers.
  • Better implementation of schemes like – Sarva Shiksha ABhiyan, Kasturba Balika Vidyalay, Poshan Abhiyan, MGNREGA, One ration One ration card for the migrants etc.


Case related to Gender Bias: 

IASbaba TLP PLUS Test 6

You are posted as the block development officer in a district. Menstruation is a taboo in one of the villages of the district and people hardly talk about it. In fact, menstruating women aren’t even allowed to enter temples and are forced to sleep on the floor. Women use clothes as they can’t afford sanitary napkins or are too shy to buy it from the general store. When a renowned NGO attempted to spread awareness towards hygiene during menstruation by talking to the local women, the villagers created a ruckus and forced the representatives of the NGO to leave. Further attempts by the NGO to approach the women was thwarted by the Gram Panchayat. The women of the village have been warned by their family members to stay away from such discussions and maintain their dignity.

The NGO brings the issue to your notice and asks for your support. Now answer the following questions:

What in your opinion is the main reason behind villagers protesting?

What steps would you take to address the issue? (250 words) (20)

Q.10) You are a municipal commissioner of a large city, having the reputation of a very honest and upright officer. A huge multipurpose mall is under construction in your city in which a large number of daily wage earners are employed. One night, during monsoons, a big chunk of the roof collapsed causing instant death of four labourers including two minors. Many more were seriously injured requiring immediate medical attention. The mishap resulted in a big hue and cry, forcing the government to institute an enquiry.

Your preliminary enquiry has revealed a series of anomalies. The material used for the construction was of poor quality. Despite the approved building plans permitting only one basement, an additional basement has been constructed. This was overlooked during the periodic inspections by the building inspector of the municipal corporation. In your enquiry, you noticed that the construction of the mall was given the green signal despite encroaching on areas earmarked for a green belt and a slip road in the Zonal Master Plan of the city. The permission to construct the mall was accorded by the previous Municipal Commissioner who is not only your senior and well known to you professionally, but also a good friend.

Prima facie, the case appears to be of a widespread nexus between officials of the Municipal Corporation and the builders. Your colleagues are putting pressure on you to go slow in the enquiry. The builder, who is rich and influential, happens to be a close relative of a powerful minister in the state cabinet. The builder is persuading you to hush up the matter, promising you a fortune to do so. He also hinted that if this matter is not resolved at the earliest in his favour there is somebody in his office who is waiting to file a case against you under the POSH act.

Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. What are the options available to you in this situation? Explain your selected course of action. (250 words)


Ethical Issues involved are:

  1. Corruption
  2. Public Trust on authority
  3. Institutional Morality
  4. Courage and Fortitude
  5. Probity and Incorruptibility

The builder is both persuading with fortune and threatening with the POSH Act.

Accepting the fortunes offered by builder is ethically wrong and practically dangerous (sooner or later your wrong actions will be caught)

About threatening with POSH Act– Maybe it is an empty threat. Also since I already have a reputation of being an honest and upright officer, nobody in the office would believe such fake cases. Even if the case is filed, I would not worry about such accusations and will fight it in Court of Law

My selected course of actions

  1. Inform the higher-ups about the situation as it allegedly involves political leaders
  2. Give the previous Municipal Commissioner who is a good friend a benefit of the doubt and talk to him. If he has committed the mistake deliberately, then he will seize to be a friend and appropriate action will be taken.
  3. Complete the inquiry
  4. Let higher authorities take the decision in consultation with me.

Q.11) Parmal is a small but underdeveloped district. It has a rocky terrain that is not suitable for agriculture, though some subsistence agriculture is being done on small plots of land. The area receives adequate rainfall and has an irrigation canal flowing through it. Amria, its administrative centre, is a medium sized town. It houses a large district hospital, an Industrial Training Institute and some privately owned skill training centres. It has all the facilities of a district headquarters. A trunk railway line passes approximately 50 kilometers from Amria. Its poor connectivity is a major reason for the absence of any major industry therein. The state government offers a 10 year tax holiday as an incentive to new industry.

In 2010 Anil, an industrialist, decided to take benefits to set up Amria Plastic Works (APW) in Noora village, about 20km from Amria. While the factory was being built, Anil hired the required key labour and got them trained at the skill training centres at Amria. This act of his made the key personnel very loyal to APW.

APW started production in 2011 with the labour drawn fully from Noora village. The villagers were very happy to get employment near their homes and were motivated by the key personnel to meet the production targets with high quality. APW started making large profits, a sizeable portion of which was used to improve the quality of life in Noora. By 2016, Noora could boast of a greener village and a renovated village temple. Anil liaised with the local MLA to increase the frequency of the bus services to Amria. The government also opened a primary health care centre and primary school at Noora in buildings constructed by APW. APW used its CSR funds to set up women’s self-help groups, subsidize primary education to the village children and procure an ambulance for use by its employees and the needy.

In 2019, there was a minor fire in APW. It was quickly extinguished as fire safety protocols were in place in the factory. Investigations revealed that the factory had been using electricity in excess of its authorized capacity. This was soon rectified. The next year, due to nationwide lockdown, the requirement of production fell for four months. Anil decided that all employees would be paid regularly. He employed them to plant trees and improve the village habitat.

APW had developed a reputation of high quality production and a motivated workforce.

Critically analyse the story of APW and state the ethical issues involved. Do you consider APW as a role model for development of backward areas? Give reasons. (250 words)


Ethical issues

  1. Corporate Governance/ Corporate social responsibility
  2. Sustainable Development: Environmental Concerns is taken care of company
  3. Local Culture is taken care of by company (Temple construction)
  4. Compassion for the Locals: Coordinating with Local authorities to set up Healthcare and Education (which is not his work)
  5. Accident is not an ethical issue as fire protocols were in place and was immediately rectified
  6. Emotional Intelligence as even during tough times (lockdown), employees were taken care of.

Yes, APW can be considered as a role model for the development of backward areas. There is nothing wrong both ethically and legally with Industry-led welfare and growth.

Q.12) Migrant workers have always remained at the socio-economic margins of our society, silently serving as the instrumental labour force of urban economics. The pandemic has brought them into national focus.

On announcement of a countrywide lockdown, a very large number of migrant workers decided to move back from their places of employment to their native villages. The non-availability of transport created its own problems. Added to this was the fear of starvation and inconvenience to their families. This caused, the migrant workers to demand wages and transport facilities for returning to their villages. Their mental agony was accentuated by multiple factors such as a sudden loss of livelihood, possibility of lack of food and inability to assist in harvesting their rabi crop due to not being able to reach home in time. Reports of inadequate response of some districts in providing the essential boarding and lodging arrangements along the way multiplied their fears.

You have learnt many lessons from this situation when you were tasked to oversee the functioning of the District Disaster Relief Force in your district. In your opinion what ethical issues arose in the current migrant crisis? What do you understand by an ethical care giving state? What assistance can the civil society render to mitigate the sufferings of migrants in similar situations? (250 words)


Ethical Issues

  1. No empathy and compassion towards the weaker section of the society as nobody realized that they would be impacted by lockdown. (they weren’t visible until pandemic brought them into national focus)
  2. Duty of the State towards the citizen

Ethical Caregiving State means

  1. Care to All without discrimination
  2. Care in time
  3. Care that is adequate
  4. Care that comes without asking

Role of Civil Society (NGOs, Community based Organisations, Private sector and people in general) on how they can help hand in hand with government to provide the following:

  1. Some kind of temporary shelters along the way
  2. Food and drinking water facilities at regular intervals
  3. Medical facilities at regular intervals
  4. Toilet facilities at regular intervals


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