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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 10th April 2021

  • IASbaba
  • April 10, 2021
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(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


India -Netherlands Virtual Summit

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – International Relations 

In news

  • Indian Prime Minister and Prime Minister of the Netherlands held a Virtual Summit.

Key takeaways

  • It was the first high level Summit attended by Netherlands’ PM Mark Rutte after the general elections held in March 2021. 
  • During the Summit, the two leaders exchanged views on further expanding the relationship in trade and economy, water management, agriculture sector, smart cities, science & technology, healthcare and space.
  • The two Prime Ministers also agreed on instituting a ‘Strategic Partnership on Water’ to further deepen the Indo-Dutch cooperation in the water related sector, and upgrading the Joint Working Group on water to Ministerial-level.
  • Netherlands’ Indo-Pacific Policy was also welcomed.

Launch of NanoSniffer

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – III – Security; Sci & tech

In news

  • Union Education Minister launched NanoSniffer.
  • It is the world’s first Microsensor based Explosive Trace Detector (ETD).
  • Developed by: NanoSniff Technologies, an IIT Bombay incubated startup 
  • Marketed by: Vehant Technologies, a spin-off from a former IIT Delhi incubated startup Kritikal Solutions.

Key takeaways

  • This home-grown Explosive trace detector device (ETD) – NanoSniffer can detect explosives in less than 10 seconds. 
  • It also identifies and categorizes explosives into different classes.
  • It detects all classes of military, conventional and homemade explosives. 
  • It gives visible & audible alerts with sunlight-readable color display.
  • NanoSniffer is a 100% Made in India product in terms of R&D and manufacturing. 
  • This affordable device will reduce India’s dependence on imported explosive trace detector devices.

INS Sarvekshak on a deployment to Mauritius

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – International Relations 

In news

  • INS Sarvekshak, a hydrographic survey ship, is on a deployment to Mauritius for undertaking joint hydrographic surveys along with their Mauritian counterparts.

Key takeaways 

  • During the deployment, training of Mauritian personnel on advanced hydrographic equipment and practices will also be undertaken. 
  • The ship commenced the hydrographic survey of ‘Deep sea area off Port Louis’.
  • INS Sarvekshak, a specialised survey ship is fitted with state-of-the-art survey equipment like Deep Sea Multi-Beam Echo Sounder, Side Scan Sonars and a fully automated digital surveying and processing system.
  • In addition, the ship carries an integral Chetak helicopter, which would be extensively deployed during the survey.
  • INS Sarvekshak has undertaken various foreign cooperation surveys over the last few years in Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania and Kenya.

E9 Partnership meeting

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – Education; International Relations 

In news

Important value additions 

  • Spearheaded by the United Nations (UN), the E9 Partnership was first established in 1993.
  • E9 Countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan.
  • Aim: To advance the SDG 4 agenda by driving rapid change in education systems in three of the 2020 Global Education Meeting priorities: (i) support to teachers; (ii) investment in skills; and (iii) narrowing of the digital divide.

The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2021

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – Policies and interventions 

In news

  • Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2021 has been passed. 
  • It seeks to put seven castes under one nomenclature of “Devendrakula Vellalars” with some exceptions for some of the castes in certain districts of Tamil Nadu.

Key takeaways 

  • The castes include Devendrakulathan, Kadaiyan, Kalladi, Kudumban, Pallan, Pannadi and Vathiriyan.
  • The change in nomenclature was a long pending demand of the community and did not involve either the deletion or addition of any community in its ambit.

Miscellaneous

Whitsun Reef

  • Whitsun Reef, also known as Whitson Reef, Whitsum Reef, and Julian Felipe Reef 
  • It is a reef at the northeast extreme limit of the Union Banks in the Spratly Islands of the West Philippine Sea. 
  • It is the largest reef of the Union Banks.

(Mains Focus)


POLITY/ GOVERNANCE

Topic:

  • GS-2: Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. 
  • GS-2: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 

Lok Adalats

About

  • Access to justice for the poor is a constitutional mandate to ensure fair treatment under our legal system. 
  • Hence, Lok Adalats (literally, ‘People’s Court’) were established to make justice accessible and affordable to all. 
  • It was a forum to address the problems of crowded case dockets outside the formal adjudicatory system.
  • The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976, inserted Article 39A to ensure “equal justice and free legal aid”. 
  • To this end, the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, was enacted by Parliament and it came into force in 1995 “to provide free and competent legal services to weaker sections of the society” and to “organise Lok Adalats to secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity”.
  • As an alternative dispute resolution tool, Lok Adalats are regularly organised to help parties reach a compromise. 
  • Motor-accident claims, disputes related to public-utility services, cases related to dishonour of cheques, and land, labour and matrimonial disputes (except divorce) are usually taken up by Lok Adalats.
  • The State Legal Services Authorities (SLSAs) have been organising Lok Adalats on a daily, fortnightly and monthly basis.
  • Litigants are forced to approach Lok Adalats mainly because it is a party-driven process, allowing them to reach an amicable settlement. 
  • Lok Adalats offer parties speed of settlement, as cases are disposed of in a single day; procedural flexibility, as there is no strict application of procedural laws such as the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872; economic affordability, as there are no court fees for placing matters before the Lok Adalat; finality of awards, as no further appeal is allowed.
  • Supreme Court, in State of Punjab vs Jalour Singh (2008), held that a Lok Adalat is purely conciliatory and it has no adjudicatory or judicial function.

Data

  • Lok Adalats organised across the country from 2016 to 2020 disposed of 52,46,415 cases. 
  • National Lok Adalats (NLAs) organised under the aegis of NALSA settle a huge number of cases across the country in a single day.
  • For instance, NLAs conducted on February 8, 2020, disposed of 11,99,575 cases. From 2016 to 2020, NLAs have disposed of a total of 2,93,19,675 cases.

Concerns

  • As compromise is its central idea, there is a concern, and perhaps a valid one, that in the endeavour for speedy disposal of cases, it undermines the idea of justice.
  • In many cases, compromises are imposed on the poor who often have no choice but to accept them. 
  • In most cases, such litigants have to accept discounted future values of their claims instead of their just entitlements, or small compensations, just to bring a long-pending legal process to an end. 
  • Similarly, poor women under the so-called ‘harmony ideology’ of the state are virtually dictated by family courts to compromise matrimonial disputes under a romanticised view of marriage.

Way Ahead

  • Besides efficiency and speed, Lok Adalats both online and offline should focus on the quality of justice delivered.
  • A just outcome of a legal process is far more important than expeditious disposal.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note:

  • Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.
  • Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.

Q.1 Consider the following statements regarding Nanosniffer:

  1. It also identifies and categorizes explosives into different classes.
  2. It detects all classes of military, conventional and homemade explosives. 

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only 
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 

Q.2 Whitsun Reef is located in which of the following sea?

  1. Bering Sea
  2. Red Sea
  3. Caribbean Sea
  4. Philippine Sea

ANSWERS FOR 9th April 2021 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)

1 D
2 A
3 A

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