Mission for NISHTHA Capacity Building Programme for EMRS Teachers and Principals
- As many as 120 teachers and principals of EMRSs from Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh completed a 40 days’ NISHTHA-National initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement Program, a national flagship program of NCERT on 19th June 2021.
- Ministry of Tribal Affairs and NCERT come together on a joint mission for NISHTHA Capacity Building Program for conducting such programs across 350 functional EMRS schools across the country.
- The participants were capacitated on 18 holistic and comprehensive modules covering different aspects of education such as Learning Outcomes, Assessment Practices, learner-centred pedagogy, Art-Integrated Learning, Gender Equality, Covid Response of Schools, POCSO Act, Pedagogy of Science, Mathematics, Language, Social Science Subjects etc.
- NISHTHA Teachers Training Programme 2020 – NISHTHA means National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement.
- NISHTHA is a capacity building programme for “Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training”.
- It aims to build competencies among all the teachers and school principals at the elementary stage.
- It is expected to fulfil the long-standing vision of Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) to achieve academic excellence in Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs).
- The NISHTHA Training program for EMRS teachers affirms the National Education Policy (NEP-2020) recommendation of “Providing In-service continuous professional development as these will be strengthened and substantially expanded to meet the needs of enriched teaching-learning processes for quality education.”
The objectives of NISHTHA mega-training programme are:
- To equip all the elementary stage teachers on learning outcomes, school-based assessment, learner centred pedagogy, new initiatives in education and addressing diverse needs of children through multiple pedagogies, etc.
- To monitor and provide extensive support to the teachers using multiple modes up to the classroom level, in view of improving learning outcomes of the students.
- To orient state functionaries and school principals on learning outcomes, national achievement survey, learner- centred pedagogy and new initiatives in school education so that they are able to monitor schools and extend support to schools for the implementation of new initiatives.
DBT Issues a Special Call for improving Agriculture Productivity in the North East Region
With the aim to understand the local problems of the NER farmers and provide scientific solutions to those problems, the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has issued a Special Call for North East Region as a part of its Mission Programme “Biotech-Krishi Innovation Science Application Network (Biotech-KISAN)”.
“Biotech-Krishi Innovation Science Application Network (Biotech-KISAN)”
- Biotech-KISAN is a scientist-farmer partnership scheme launched in 2017 for agriculture innovation to ensure biotechnology benefits like sustained and improved income of farmers to farmers.
- This initiative did not merely encompassed Bio technology inputs but improving factors around farming with soil and water being important areas of intervention.
- Thus, the improved productivity is also proposed to be subjected for value addition to ensure local branding with elevated values for better return.
- Biotech Kisan have its unique feature to identify & promote local farm leadership in both genders.
- Under this scheme, so far 146 Biotech-KISAN Hubs have been established covering all 15 agroclimatic zones and110 Aspirational Districts in the country.
- The scheme has benefitted over two lakhs farmers so far by increasing their agriculture output and income. Over 200 entrepreneurships have also been developed in rural areas.
Why DBT Issues a Special Call specifically focusing on the North East Region
- It is predominantly agrarian with70% of its workforce engaged in agriculture and allied sector for livelihood.
- The region produces merely 1.5 per cent of country ‘s food grain and continues to be a net importer of food grains even for its domestic consumption.
- The NE region has untapped potential to enhance the income of the farming population by promotion of location specific crops, horticultural and plantation crops, fisheries and livestock production.
- The Biotech-KISAN will be implemented in the North East Region with objective of linking available innovative agriculture technologies to the farm with the small and marginal farmers, especially women farmers of the region.
National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) celebrates its 18th Foundation Day
- National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) celebrated its 18th Foundation Day on 19th June. For the last 18 years, NIXI has been contributing to Indian Internet Ecosystem.
- On the occasion of completing 18 years, the National Internet Exchange of India hosted a webinar on “Digital Economy – expanding footprints”.
- NIXI is also credited with localizing internet domains and encouraging websites to register with the .in address.
- Its efforts have seen fruition as India surpassed 2.7 million registrations of .in domain, making India the third-largest nation in Asia in the country-centric, top-level domain growth. Further, the company has also set out to promote local content with its. भारत initiatives.
National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI)
- NIXI is a not-for-profit Organization was set up on 19th June, 2003 for peering of ISPs among themselves for the purpose of routing the domestic traffic within the country, instead of taking it all the way to US/Abroad, thereby resulting in better quality of service (reduced latency) and reduced bandwidth charges for ISPs by saving on International Bandwidth.
- It is managed and operated on a Neutral basis, in line with the best practices for such initiatives globally.
- .IN is India’s Country Code Top Level domain (ccTLD). The Govt. of India delegated the operations of IN Registry to NIXI in 2004.
Minister for Tribal Affairs launches the tribal livelihoods initiative “Sankalp Se Siddhi – Mission Van Dhan”
- An important initiative, aimed at sustainable livelihoods for our tribal population, Sankalp Se Siddhi – Mission Van Dhan, was launched by Shri Arjun Munda, Hon’ble Minister for Tribal Affairs.
- Seven new Tribes India Outlets inaugurated virtually at Jagdalpur, Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Sarnath.
- inaugurated seven more Tribes India outlets, two in Jagdalpur, three in Ranchi, one in Jamshedpur and another at Sarnath.
- Showcasing tribal products from all over the country, the outlets will have specific GI and Van Dhan corners and will display the large variety of GI tagged and natural products from different parts of the country.
- The Sarnath outlet is the first successful collaboration with the Ministry of Culture at an ASI heritage site. With these outlets, the total number of Tribes India outlets have gone up to 141.
- The event also witnessed the inauguration and launch of several other programmes, including the new premises of the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) headquarters.
- Keeping in line with the Prime Minister’s clarion call ‘Vocal for Local’ and to build an Atmanirbhar Bharat, TRIFED has been coming up with several initiatives, aimed at sustainable livelihoods for our tribal population.
About Sankalp Se Siddhi -Mission Van Dhan
- The most notable initiative unveiled was Sankalp Se Siddhi — Mission Van Dhan. TRIFED has been implementing several noteworthy programmes for the empowerment of the tribals.
- Over the past two years, the ‘Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) and Development of Value Chain for MFP’ has impacted the tribal ecosystem in a major way.
- It has injected `3,000 crores into the tribal economy, even during such difficult times, aided by government push.
- The Van Dhan tribal start-ups, a component of the same scheme, have emerged as a source of employment generation for tribal gatherers and forest dwellers and the home-bound tribal artisans.
- TRIFED now plans to expand its operations through the convergence of various schemes of different ministries and departments to launch various tribal development programmes under the Sankalp Se Siddhi — Mission Van Dhan banner for expediting its implementation in a Mission mode.
- Through this mission, the establishment of 50,000 Van Dhan Vikas Kendras, 3000 Haat Bazaars, 600 godowns, 200 Mini TRIFOOD units, 100 common facility centres, 100 TRIFOOD parks, 100 SFURTI clusters, 200 Tribes India retail stores, e-commerce platforms for TRIFOOD and Tribes India brands is being targeted.
Centre allocates Rs.3,691 Crore grants to Tamil Nadu under Jal Jeevan Mission to make provision of tap water supply to every home
- To translate Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s vision of providing clean tap water to every household, Union government has increased the Central grant to Tamil Nadu under the Jal Jeevan Mission in the year 2021-22 to Rs 3,691.21 Crore, which was Rs 921.99 Crore in 2020-21.
- With four-fold increase in allocation, Central Government pushes for accelerating pace in accomplishing target of ‘Har Ghar Jal’ by the State.
About Jal Jeevan mission:
- Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
- The programme will also implement source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through grey water management, water conservation, rain water harvesting.
- The Jal Jeevan Mission will be based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission.
- JJM looks to create a jan andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.
The Jal Jeevan Mission in Tamil Nadu:
- In Tamil Nadu, out of a total of 1.26 Crore households, 40.36lakh households (31.80%) have been provided with tap water connections.
- On 15th August 2019, at the time of launch of Jal Jeevan Mission, only 21.65 lakh (17.06%) households had tap water supply.
- In 22 months,18.70 lakh (14.74%) households in the State have been provided tap water connections.
Maiden Indian Navy – European Union Naval Force (EUNAVFOR) Exercise in Gulf of Aden
- Indian Naval Ship Trikand, mission deployed for Anti-Piracy Operations, is participating in the maiden IN – EUNAVFOR Joint Naval Exercise in the Gulf of Aden.
- A total of five warships from four navies participated in the exercise. Other warships include Italian Navy Ship ITS Carabinere, Spanish Navy Ship ESPS Navarra, and two French Navy Ship FS Tonnerre and FS Surcouf.
- The two-day exercise will see high tempo-naval operations at sea, including advanced air defence and anti-submarine exercises, cross deck helicopter operations, tactical manoeuvres, boarding operations, underway replenishment, Search & Rescue, Man Overboard drills, and other maritime security operations.
- EUNAVFOR and the Indian Navy converge on multiple issues including counter piracy operations and protection of vessels deployed under the charter of World Food Programme (UN WFP).
- Indian Navy and EUNAVFOR also have regular interaction through SHADE (Shared Awareness and De-confliction) meetings held annually at Bahrain.
- This engagement showcases increased levels of synergy, coordination and inter-operability between IN and EUNAVFOR.
- It also underscores the shared values as partner navies, in ensuring freedom of seas and commitment to an open, inclusive and a rules-based international order.
The Northern Limit of Monsoon (NLM) continues to pass through Diu, Surat, Nandurbar, Bhopal, Nowgong, Hamirpur, Barabanki, Bareilly, Saharanpur, Ambala & Amritsar.
According to the National Weather Forecasting Centre of the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the Northern Limit of Monsoon (NLM) continues to pass through 20.5°N/ Long. 60°E, Diu, Surat, Nandurbar, Bhopal, Nowgong, Hamirpur, Barabanki, Bareilly, Saharanpur, Ambala and Amritsar.
What is the Northern Limit of Monsoon?
- NLM, is the northernmost boundary of India up to which monsoon rains have advanced on any given day.
- The term NLM starts flowing right from the onset to the withdrawal of Monsoon and is directly related to the onset and advance of Monsoon.
- So, it is a way of tracking the progress of monsoon clouds as they move over India’s landmass.
- The India Meteorological Department (IMD) adds that the monsoon “advances northwards, usually in surges, and covers the entire country around July 15″.
PM extends best wishes to people of Odisha on Raja Parba
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has extended his best wishes to the people of Odisha on the auspicious occasion of Raja Parba.
- Raja Parba festival has started being celebrated in Odisha.
- It is a 3-day festival to honour womanhood is celebrated across Odisha.
- Mother earth is believed to be menstruating during this period and preparing herself for the coming agricultural season.
- The term Raja is derived from Rajaswala (meaning a menstruating woman) and during the medieval period, the festival became more popular as an agricultural occasion remarking the worship of Bhudevi, who is the wife of Lord Jagannath.
- A silver idol of Bhudevi is still found in Puri Temple aside from Lord Jagannatha. In this three-day-long festival, the second day signifies the beginning of the solar month of Mithuna, in which the season of rains starts.
- In this, the sun-dried soil is moistened with the first showers of the monsoon in mid-June marking It arrival of the agricultural year in Odisha with the land preparing itself for productivity.
- It is said that the mother earth or the divine wife of Lord Vishnu undergoes menstruation during the first three days and lays the ground for future agricultural activities with the arrival of the monsoon.
- The fourth day marks Vasumati gadhua or the ceremonial bath of Bhudevi.
The First commercial consignment of GI certified Jardalu mangoes from Bihar exported to United Kingdom
(Topic: Geographical indication)
- In a major boost to Agri-exports potential of eastern region, the first commercial consignment of Geographical Indications (GI) certified Jardalu mangoes from Bhagalpur, Bihar was exported to United Kingdom.
- APEDA, in collaboration with Bihar government, Indian High Commission & Invest India, exported juicy & aromatic mangoes which were packed and treated at APEDA pack house in Lucknow with distinct aroma and taste, Jardalu mangoes from Bhagalpur district of Bihar received GI certification in 2018.
- APEDA has been initiating measures to boost mango exports from the non-traditional regions.
- Recently, a week-long Indian mango promotion programme was organized in Bahrain where 16 varieties of the fruit including three GI certified Khirsapati&Lakshmanbhog (West Bengal) and Jardalu (Bihar) were displayed at super stores of importer Al Jazeera group.
- India exported the first commercial consignment of Geographical Indications (GI) certified ‘Jardalu’ mangoes from Bhagalpur, Bihar, to the United Kingdom.
About Jardalu Mangoes:
- ‘Jardalu’ mangoes from Bhagalpur district of Bihar received GI certification in 2018
- Despite its rich fibre and enzymes, these mangoes are famous for its exclusive aroma, sweetness and other nutritional properties.
- Its speciality lies in the fact that it is considered a safe fruit for even those who have been diagnosed with diabetes or have a poor digestive system.
- Mango in India is also referred to as ‘king of fruits’ and referred to as Kalpavriksha (wish granting tree) in ancient scriptures. While most of the states in India have mango plantations, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka have a major share in total production of the fruit.
- Mangoes are processed by the APEDA registered pack house facilities and then exported to various regions and countries including the Middle-east, European Union, USA, Japan and South Korea.
Rs 498.8 crore budgetary support for Defence innovation through iDEX – DIO approved
Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh has approved the budgetary support of Rs 498.8 crore to Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) – Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO) for the next five years.
Objective of the budgetary support:
The budgetary support of Rs 498.8 crore to Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) – Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO) will provide a big boost to the ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’ of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi as iDEX–DIO has the primary objective of self-reliance and indigenisation in defence & aerospace sector of the country.
Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX)
- Launched in 2018, iDEX is an initiative taken by the government to foster innovation & technology development in Defence and Aerospace by engaging innovators & entrepreneurs to deliver technologically advanced solutions for modernizing Indian Military.
- iDEX will engage Industries including MSMEs, start-ups, individual innovators, R& D institutes and academia and provide them grants/funding and other support to carry out R&D development which has good potential for future adoption for Indian defence and aerospace needs.
Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO)
“Defence Innovation Organization (DIO)‟ was formed as a “not for profit‟ company as per Section 8 of the Companies Act 2013 for the purpose of funding and managing iDEX.
Objective of Defence Excellence (iDEX) and Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO):
The Department of Defence Production (DDP) created the iDEX framework and established the DIO in order:
- To create an ecosystem to foster innovation and technology development in defence and aerospace by engaging Industries including MSMES, start-ups, individual innovators, R&D institutes & academia and
- Providing to these industries the grants/funding and other support to carry out R&D development which has good potential for future adoption for Indian defence and aerospace needs.
Mandatory Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery
- From 16 June, hallmarking of gold jewellery has been made mandatory.
- It is initially being implemented across 256 districts.
- The new regulations are expected to build trust among buyers as well as bring in more transparency.
Key features of the new rules: (prelim pointers)
- Hallmarked jewellery can be tested from any of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) recognised assaying and hallmarking centre (AHC) by a consumer on chargeable basis and a complaint can be filed with the BIS in case purity is compromised.
- After testing, if it is found that the hallmarking is fake or gold not of the same purity as mentioned in the hallmark sign, a consumer is entitled to get compensation calculated on two times the shortage in purity for the weight of the article sold.
- BIS has a complaint redressal mechanism under which complaints are recorded centrally at Complaints Management and Enforcement Department (CMED). Complaints can be filed both online as well as offline.
- Online, it can be filed through the app BIS CARE or through the consumer engagement portal on the website.
- Only BIS-registered jewellers can sell hallmarked jewellery. Consumer can ask the jeweller to show their BIS registration or licence number.
- While buying jewellery, consumer should check the hallmark sign and can even ask for a magnifying glass in case it is not visible.
- Old jewellery can be got hallmarked as it is, if feasible by the jeweller or after melting and making new jewellery.
- A committee constituting of representatives of all stake holders, revenue officials and legal experts will.be formed to look into the issues that may possibly emerge during the implementation of the scheme.
- The process of certifying the purity and fineness of gold is called hallmarking.
- If you see BIS hallmark on the gold jewellery/gold coin, it means it conforms to a set of standards laid by the BIS.
- Hallmarking gives consumers an assurance regarding the purity of the gold they bought.
Significance of the new rules:
- According to World Gold Council, India has around 4 lakh jewellers, out of this only 35879 have been BIS certified.
- The Hallmarking of jewellery/artefacts is required to enhance the credibility of gold Jewellery and Customer satisfaction through third party assurance for the marked purity/fineness of gold, consumer protection.
- This step will also help to develop India as a leading gold market centre in the World.
UN ‘High-Level Dialogue on Desertification, Land degradation and Drought’
The Prime Minister spoke at the Opening Segment in his capacity as the President of the 14th Session of the Conference of Parties of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
Important takeaway from key note address
- In last 10 years, around 3 million hectares of forest cover added in India, enhancing the combined forest cover to almost one-fourth of the country’s total area.
- India is on track to achieve its national commitment of Land degradation neutrality.
Restoration of 26 million hectares of degraded land aimed by 2030 to achieve an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
Centre of Excellence is being set up in India to promote a scientific approach towards land degradation issues.
It is our sacred duty to leave a healthy planet for our future generations.
- In Banni region, land restoration was done by developing grasslands, which helped in starting virtuous cycle of good soil health, increased land productivity, food security and improved livelihoods. It also supports pastoral activities and livelihood by promoting animal husbandry.
- In the spirit of South-South cooperation, India is assisting fellow developing countries to develop land restoration strategies. A Centre of Excellence is being set up in India to promote a scientific approach towards land degradation issues.
High-level dialogue on desertification, land degradation and drought
- Our planet is ailing, land degradation affects some 3.2 billion people, 70% of the world’s land has been transformed by human activity.
- We can scale up land restoration and nature-based solutions for climate action and the benefit of future generations.
- Land degradation currently undermines well-being of 3.2 billion people, more than 40 per cent of the entire world population.
- The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) estimates that over 70 per cent of all natural, ice-free land has been transformed by human activity, devastating global biodiversity.
- Climate change further exacerbates, and is worsened by, unsustainable land use, with many regions suffering more frequent and prolonged droughts.
- In addition, climate-induced land degradation and water stress are expected to deplete more arable land in the coming years, plunging millions of farmers into poverty and contributing to forced migration and conflict.
- By 2025, two-thirds of the world could be living under water-stressed conditions, with 1.8 billion people experiencing absolute water scarcity.
- Similarly, migration is likely to increase as a result of desertification, with estimates that it will be responsible for the displacement of some 135 million people by 2045.
PM’s Keynote address at the 5th edition of VivaTech
- Mr. Narendra Modi delivered the keynote address at the 5th edition of VivaTech (2021).
- the Prime Minister said that India and France have been working closely on a wide range of subjects including the technology and digital which are emerging areas of cooperation.
- Such cooperation continuous growth will not only help our nations but also the world at large.
- Mr. Modi mentioned Infosys providing tech support for the French Open tournament and collaboration involving French companies like Atos, Capgemini and India’s TCS and Wipro as examples of IT talent of the two countries serving companies and citizens all over the world.
- VivaTech is one of the largest digital and start-up events in Europe, held in Paris every year since 2016.
- It is jointly organized by Publicis Groupe – a prominent advertising and marketing conglomerate and Les Echos – a leading French media group.
- It brings together stakeholders in technology innovation and the startup ecosystem and includes exhibitions, awards, panel discussions and startup contests.
- The 5th edition of VivaTech is scheduled to be held between 16-19 June 2021.
- The event brings together stakeholders in technology innovation and the start-up ecosystem and includes exhibitions, awards, panel discussions and start-up contests.
Cold desert Ladakh was actively flooding during the post-glacial warming: Study
- Scientists travelled through the Zanskar and Indus River along the Himalayas to look into geological signatures of past floods in the Ladakh region that date between 15-3 thousand years before present.
- Amid the growing fears of desertification across the world, this study claims that the cold deserts of Ladakh once experienced large floods that rose up to 30 meters above the current river levels, and that there are chances of severe flooding in the region owing to global warming.
- The study conducted by a team of students and scientists from the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology states that “in the scenario of global warming when the higher Himalaya regions are expected to respond dramatically, flood frequency in Ladakh may increase.”
- The scientists reiterated that these floods are unpredictable due to their different forcing factors and frequencies and a record of just over 100 years is not enough to understand the natural ramp of flood occurrences in the region.
- The large floods in the Himalayan regions normally occur due to glacial or landslide lake outbursts, cloud bursts, excessively strong monsoon during summer and affect the lives of people and the property.
- The flood leaves a stack of fine sand and silts at places along its channel where the flood energy drastically reduces, these are called slack water deposits, which have been found at several locations along the Zanskar and Indus rivers.
- The flood deposits were also analysed for their source.
- This analysis showed that the cold desert once experienced a large flood that rose to more than 30 m above the present-day river level.
- The active flood plains nearer to river were also utilized by Humans, possibly as camping sites and cooking as indicated by presence of hearths at several locations and levels of flood deposits.
- Scientists concluded that the flood deposits pointed towards three phases of increased flooding in the region between 14,000- 11,000 years, 10,0008,000 years, and 70004000 years ago.
- These were times when due to warming, the Indian summer monsoon was active in Ladakh as well.
- Further, the rocks of Higher Himalayan Crystalline and Tethyan sequences equally act as hotspots of erosion in the regions during the flood phases.
- Scientists also found evidence in the form of hearths, a brick or stone-lined fireplace used to heat or cook, about people migrating along the mountain corridors of Ladakh during these periods following the glacial floods in the region.
- According to the WIHG team, a detailed genomic and isotopic-based study of these anthropogenic relics may further help understand the geographical antiquity of migrating humans and the kind of food and vegetation they were living on.
- It implies that in the scenario of global warming, when the higher Himalaya regions are expected to respond dramatically, flood frequency in Ladakh may increase, which may call for serious urban and rural planning.
GI certified Jalgaon banana exported to Dubai
(Topic: Geographical Indication)
- In a major boost to exports of Geographical Indications (GI) certified agricultural produce, a consignment of fibre and mineral rich ‘Jalgaon banana’ has been exported to Dubai.
- The twenty-two metric tonnes of GI certified Jalgaon banana were sourced from progressive farmers of Tandalwadi village, part of Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, a banana cluster identified under Agri Export Policy.
- In 2016, Jalgaon Banana got GI certification which was registered with Nisargraja Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Jalgaon. India’s banana export has been rising sharply because of adoption of farm practices as per the global standards.
- India is the world’s leading producer of bananas with a share of around 25% in total output. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh contribute more than 70% of the country’s banana production.
What is a geographical indication?
- The basic concept underlying GIs is simple, and familiar to any shopper who chooses Roquefort over “blue” cheese or Darjeeling over “black” tea.
- “Cognac”, “Scotch”, “Porto”, “Havana”, “Tequila” and “Darjeeling” are some well-known examples of names associated throughout the world with products of a certain nature and quality, known for their geographical origin and for having characteristics linked to that origin.
- A geographical indication is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
- Moreover, in order to work as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place. In addition, the qualities or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of origin.
- Since the qualities depend on the geographical place of production, there is a link between the product and its original place of production.