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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 3rd May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 3, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Basava Jayanti

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – History (Bhakti Movement)
  • Mains- GS 1 (Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times)

In News: Basava Jayanti is being celebrated on birthday of Basavanna, a Hindu Kannada poet of 12th century

  • Basaveshwara was born in Bagevadi, Karnataka during 1131 AD.
  • Basavanna was an Indian 12th-century statesman, philosopher, a poet and Lingayat saint in the Shiva-focused Bhakti movement and a social reformer in Karnataka
  • He was appointed as karanika (Accountant) in the initial stage and later as the Prime minister in the Kalchuri king Bijjala’s (1157-1167, AD) court

Contributions

  • Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas.
  • He rejected gender or social discrimination, superstitions and rituals.
  • He established the Anubhava Mantapa (the “hall of spiritual experience”), which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.
  • It was the first and foremost Parliament of India, where Sharanas (citizens of welfare society) sat together and discussed the socialistic principles of a Democratic set up.
  • He developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas – heroic worshippers of Shiva
  • Basavanna championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship and rituals led by Brahmins and replaced it with personalized direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga.
  • Thus becoming the founding saint of the Lingayat sect
  • This approach brought Shiva’s presence to everyone and at all times, without gender, class or caste discrimination

Sharana movement

  • The Sharana movement he presided over attracted people from all castes, and like most strands of the Bhakti movement, produced a corpus of literature, the vachanas that unveiled the spiritual universe of the Veerashaiva saints.
  • At the Anubhava Mandapa, the Sharanas, drawn from different castes and communities, gathered and engaged in learning and discussions

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following Bhakti Saints: (2013)

  1. Dadu Dayal
  2. Guru Nanak
  3. Tyagaraja

Who among the above was/were preaching when the Lodi dynasty fell and Babur took over?

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. Saint Nimbarka was a contemporary of Akbar.
  2. Saint Kabir was greatly influenced by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Project 75I

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Syllabus

  • Prelims: Important Schemes
  • Mains – GS 3 – Internal Security

In News: French defence major Naval Group announced that it is unable to participate in the P-75 India (P-75I).

What is Project 75I?

  • Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire six diesel-electric submarines, which will also feature advanced Air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems
  • Project 75 (I), approved in 2007, is part of the Indian Navy’s 30 year Plan for indigenous submarine construction.
  • It will be the developed under the strategic partnership model which was promulgated in 2017 to boost indigenous defence manufacturing.
  • The strategic partnership model allows domestic defence manufacturers to join hands with leading foreign defence majors to produce high-end military platforms to reduce import dependence.
  • Acquisitions under the Strategic Partnership model refer to participation of private Indian firms along with foreign OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) in line with AatmaNirbhar Bharat principle.

Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) System:

  • Submarines are essentially of two types: conventional and nuclear.
  • The conventional submarines use diesel-electric engines, which require them to surface almost daily to get atmospheric oxygen for fuel combustion.
  • If fitted with an Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system, the submarine will need to take in oxygen only once a week.

Fuel Cell Based AIP system:

  • In a fuel cell based AIP, electrolytic fuel cell releases energy by combining hydrogen and oxygen, with only water as the waste product ensuring less marine pollution.
  • The cells are highly efficient, and do not have moving parts, thus ensuring that the submarine has a low acoustic emissions of sound.

Why did Naval Group step back?

  • It said it cannot meet conditions of the Request for Proposal (RFP) and will, therefore, not continue with its bid.
  • The present RFP requires that the fuel cell AIP be sea proven, presently there is no such technology with the company

Source: Indian Express


Deemed Forest

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Syllabus

  • Prelims: Environment
  • Mains – GS 3 (Conservation of Environment)

In News: Karnataka Chief Minister has signed cabinet decision to release 6.5 lakh hectares from the deemed forest classification

  • This measure will essentially declassify close to 67 per cent of the land in Karnataka that was otherwise classified as deemed forests
  • There is no comprehensive definition for “forests” in India.
  • The ambiguity around this term was clarified by the Supreme Court in T N Godavarman Thirumulpad case where it defined “forest” to include any piece of land that resembles the dictionary meaning of forest for the purpose of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
  • This case also conceptualized “deemed forests”
  • Deemed forests were conceived as areas those has not been notified under the legislation, but are recorded as forests in government records.
  • These are lands that have characteristics of forests, irrespective of ownership.
  • Once forests are “deemed”, they cannot be de-reserved or utilized for non-forest purposes without prior approval of the Centre.
  • Deemed forests, comprising about 1% of India’s forest land
  • In Godavarman case the Court ordered the setting up of expert committees in each state to identify deemed forests to remove any ambiguities
  • This decision paved the way for the preservation of forest areas in India to be continuously monitored by the Supreme Court, mandating the state governments to obtain clearances for affecting or implementing changes to lands classified as deemed forests.

Source: Indian Express


Disqualification of MLAs and MPs

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains – GS 2 (Salient Features of the Representation of People’s Act)

In News: The Election Commission (EC) has sent a notice to Jharkhand Chief Minister over an office-of-profit charge against him for allotment of a mining lease in his name

  • Under Section 9A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 CM face disqualification for entering into a government contract

Key Provisions of RPA, 1951

  • It regulates the actual conduct of elections and by-elections.
  • It provides administrative machinery for conducting elections.
  • It deals with the registration of political parties.
  • It specifies the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of the Houses.
  • It provides provisions to curb corrupt practices and other offences.
  • It lays down the procedure for settling doubts and disputes arising out of elections.

Disqualifications

  • Is found guilty of certain election offences or corrupt practices in the elections
  • Is convicted for any offence resulting in imprisonment for two or more years (except for the detention under a preventive detention law)
  • Has failed to lodge an account of his/her election expenses within the time
  • Has any interest in government contracts, works or services.
  • Is a director or managing agent or holds an office of profit in a corporation in which the government has at least 25% share.
  • Has been dismissed from government service for corruption or disloyalty to the State
  • Has been convicted for promoting enmity between different groups or for the offence of bribery
  • Has been punished for preaching and practicing social crimes such as untouchability, dowry and sati.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2020)

  1. According to the Constitution of India, a person who is eligible to vote can be made a minister in a State for six months even if he/she is not a member of the Legislature of that State.
  2. According to the Representation of People Act, 1951, a person convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment for five years is permanently disqualified from contesting an election even after his release from prison.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. The Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959 exempts several posts from disqualification on the grounds of ‘Office of Profit’.
  2. The above-mentioned Act was amended five times.
  3. The term ‘Office of Profit’ is well-defined in the Constitution of India.

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Source: The Hindu


Quasi federalism

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 (Indian Constitution-Features)

Quasi federalism

  • Federal theorist K.C. Wheare has argued that the nature of Indian Constitution is quasi-federal in nature.
  • The SC in Sat Pal v State of Punjab and Ors (1969) held that the Constitution of India is more Quasi-federal than federal or unitary.

What is Quasi-federalism?

  • Quasi-federalism means an intermediate form of state between a unitary state and a federation. It combines the features of a federal government and the features of a unitary government.

Why India opted for Quasi Federalism/centralized federalism

  • First was the partition of India and the immediate concerns.
  • The second reason was the reconstitution of social relations in a highly hierarchical and discriminatory society towards forging a national civic identity
  • The third reason concerns the objective of building a welfare state and
  • The final reason was to alleviate inter-regional economic inequality.

To achieve the above mentioned objectives, centralized federalism was essential

What are the Quasi federal features of Indian State?

  • Article 3 – Destructible nature of states, unlike in other federations, the states in India have no right to territorial integrity. The parliament can change the area, boundaries, or name of any state.
  • Single Constitution, it is applicable to both the Union as a whole and the Stares. In a true federation, there are separate constitutions for the union and the States.
  • In Rajya Sabha, the States do not have equal representation. The populous States have more representatives in the Rajya Sabha than the less populous States.
  • The emergency provisions are contained in Part XVIII of the Constitution of India, from Articles 352 to 360. In the emergency provisions, the central government becomes all-powerful and the states go into total control of the Centre.
  • All India Services violate the principle of federalism under the constitution.
  • The governor is appointed by the president. He also acts as an agent of the Centre. Through him, the Centre exercises control over the states.
  • India has a unified or integrated judicial system. The High Court’s which work in the States are under the Supreme Court of India.
  • Union veto over State Bills: The governor has the authority to hold certain sorts of laws passed by the state legislature for presidential consideration.

Advantages of Quasi Federal System

  • National Integration – With the various provisions like Article 356, separatist tendency can be tackled
  • Cooperation and Coordination: A Quasi Federal structure allows Centre to coordinate National level programmes. For instance, Canter and State collaborated in their against pandemic
  • Resolving Inter State Conflicts: A quasi federal structure allows centre to act as an arbiter in case of Inter State dispute. For example Border dispute and River Water dispute

Challenges

  • Abuse of Power by Centre: The federal provisions of the Constitution can only be amended with consent of the States. But Center often violates this provision. For instance, the recent Farm Laws.
  • Misuse of Governor Office: imposition of constitutional Emergency in a state, reserving bills for President assents etc
  • Other problems: delayed disbursal of resources and tax proceeds, bias towards electorally unfavorable States, evasion of accountability, blurring spheres of authority, weakening institutions etc
  • All these signal towards the diminishing of India’s plurality or regionalization of the nation — a process that is highly antithetical to the forging of a supra-local and secular national identity that preserves and promotes pluralism.

Way Forward

  • Reforms at the institutional and political level can deepen the roots of federalism in India.
  • Democratic Decentralization of administration and strengthening governments at all levels in true spirit.
  • Proper utilization of the institutional mechanism of the Inter-State Council must be ensured to develop political goodwill between the Centre and the states

Source: The Hindu


Stubble Burning

Syllabus

  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation

Why in News: With a large number of farmers continue to set their fields on fire, nearly 1000 wheat straw burning processes were recorded in one day taking the total figure to well over 3000 in the month of April 2022.

What is Stubble?

  • Stubble is called the remaining part of paddy, which has its roots in the earth.
  • After harvesting the paddy crop, the farmers cut off its valuable upper part, and the remaining is left in the field, which is not of any use to the farmer.

Read Complete Details on Stubble Burning – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs


Q.1) With reference to Basavanna, medieval India social reformers consider the following statements

  1. He is the founder of Lingayatism.
  2. He was a contemporary of the Vijayanagar King Krishna Deva Raya.
  3. His literary works are popularly known as Vachanaas

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1 only

Q.2) Which of the following is not the provision of Representation of People’s Act, 1951?

  1. Registration of political parties
  2. Qualifications and disqualifications for membership of the Houses
  3. Qualifications of the Voters
  4. Administrative machinery for conducting elections

Q.3) Consider the following statements about Project 75I

  1. Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire six nuclear-powered submarines
  2. It is being developed under a strategic partnership model to boost indigenous defence manufacturing.

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ANSWERS FOR 3rd MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 c
2 c
3 a

 

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