In News: The US Food and Drug and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a shortage of Adderall, medication used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Adderall is the brand name for the formulation that consists of a combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine.
- It belongs to the class of drugs known as stimulants and increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
- It is an FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, a sleep condition that causes daytime sleepiness.
- For people diagnosed with ADHD, Adderall can help improve focus, concentration, impulse control and hyperactivity, because of its effects on the central nervous system.
- It can also have the same effects on those who do not have ADHD.
- Adderall is classified as a Schedule II drug in the US, which means that while it has positive medicinal effects, there is a large potential for abuse.
- Over the past decade, there have been many reports about the growing use and misuses of stimulants like Adderall among students and athletes, who might find enhanced cognition or sports performance.
- Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred in many people.
- ADHD is one the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, usually diagnosed at an early age and lasting into adulthood.
- Children with ADHD might have trouble paying attention or controlling impulsive behaviours, and can be overly active.
- Many adults remain undiagnosed, and symptoms can cause difficulty at work, home or relationships. The CDC states that symptoms can appear different at older ages, for example, hyperactivity can appear as extreme restlessness.
- There are three different types of ADHD:
- Predominantly Inattentive Presentation
- Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation
- Combined Presentation
- The causes and risk factors for ADHD are unknown, but current research shows that genetics plays an important role.
- Other possible causes may include brain injury, exposure to environmental risks (e.g., lead) during pregnancy or at a young age, alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy, premature delivery, low birth weight, etc.
Source: Indian Express