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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 18th November 2022

  • IASbaba
  • November 18, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently an international network under Natural Livestock Farming Foundation (NLF) a non-profit has developed an effective methodology to support farmers in reducing their use of antibiotics and other veterinary drugs in smallholder and large-scale dairy systems.

About Antimicrobials and Anti-microbial resistance:

  • Antimicrobials – including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics – are medicines used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.
  • As a result of drug resistance, antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines become ineffective and infections become increasingly difficult or impossible to treat.

Factors that accelerates the emergence and spread of AMR:

  • AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. Antimicrobial resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment (in water, soil and air).
  • They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin.
  • The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials; lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals; poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms; poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics; lack of awareness and knowledge; and lack of enforcement of legislation.

About Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (GAP):

  • Globally, countries committed to the framework set out in the Global Action Plan1 (GAP) 2015 on AMR during the 2015 World Health Assembly and committed to the development and implementation of multisectoral national action plans.
  • It was subsequently endorsed by the Governing Bodies of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
  • Prior to the endorsement of the GAP in 2015, global efforts to contain AMR included the WHO global strategy for containment of Antimicrobial Resistance developed in 2001 which provides a framework of interventions to slow the emergence and reduce the spread of AMR.

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW):

  • WAAW was previously called World Antibiotic Awareness Week. Since 2020, it has been called World Antimicrobial Awareness Week.
  • Held annually event since 2015, WAAW is a global campaign that aims to raise awareness of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and encourage best practices among the general public, health workers and policy makers to slow the development and spread of drug-resistant infections.
  • The Tripartite Executive Committee decided to set all future WAAW dates as 18 to 24 November. The overarching slogan used for the last 5 years was “Antibiotics: Handle with Care.” This was changed to “Antimicrobials: Handle with Care” in 2020.

The Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS):

  • WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) in 2015 to continue filling knowledge gaps and to inform strategies at all levels.
  • GLASS provides a standardized approach to the collection, analysis, interpretation and sharing of data by countries, territories and areas, and monitors the status of existing and new national surveillance systems, with emphasis on representativeness and quality of data collection.

About the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB):

  • The National Dairy Development Board initially registered as a society under the Societies Act 1860 was merged with the erstwhile Indian Dairy Corporation, a company formed and registered under the Companies Act 1956, by an Act of India’s Parliament – the NDDB Act 1987 with effect from 12 October, 1987.
  • The new body corporate was declared an institution of national importance by the Act.
  • Its head office is in Gujrat.
  • The general superintendence, direction, control and management of NDDB’s affairs and business vests with the Board of Directors.
  • The Dairy Board was created to promote, finance and support producer-owned and controlled organisations.
  • NDDB began its operations with the mission of making dairying a vehicle to a better future for millions of grassroots milk producers.
  • The mission achieved thrust and direction with the launching of “Operation Flood”, a programme extending over 26 years and which used World Bank loan to finance India’s emergence as the world’s largest milk producing nation.
  • As of March 2019, India’s 1,90,500 village dairy cooperatives affiliated to 245 milk unions & marketing dairies and 22 federations & apex bodies procured on an average 508 Lakh kg of milk every day. 16.9 million farmers are currently members of village dairy cooperatives.

Source: DownToEarth

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of probiotics :

  1. Probiotics are made of both bacteria and yeast.
  2. The organisms in probiotics are found in foods we ingest but they do not naturally occur in our gut.
  3. Probiotics help in the digestion of milk sugars.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body? (2022)

  1. They protect the environmental allergens. body
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from the diseases caused by pathogens.

Moscow Format Consultations on Afghanistan

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: Recently India participated in the fourth meeting of the Moscow Format Consultations on Afghanistan 2022 held in Moscow. The meeting saw participation from special envoys and senior officials from Russia, China, Pakistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

About Moscow Format Consultations on Afghanistan:

  • The Moscow Format Consultations on Afghanistan, launched in 2017, is a regional platform on Afghanistan involving the special envoys of Russia, Afghanistan, India, Iran, China, and Pakistan.
  • Its mandate is to facilitate political reconciliation between the then-internationally backed Kabul government and the Taliban, establish peace, and ensure regional security.
  • Moscow assumed the lead in this process based on its national concerns and interests in Afghanistan, most notably on two key issues.
  • The first issue was centred around the potential threats due to the spread of instability, violence, and extremism in Afghanistan and the rest of Central Asia.
  • The second was related to the growing inflow of Afghan heroin to the Russian market. Geopolitical interests related to Moscow’s opposition to any US or Western security presence in Central Asia undergirds Russia’s motives to lead such processes.
  • April 2017 saw the first round of consultations with Russia, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in attendance.
  • Five years later, on November 16, 2022, all of these countries—minus Afghanistan—were invited.

Source: NewsOnAIR

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The term “Levant” often heard in the news roughly corresponds to which of the following regions? (2022)

  1. Region along the eastern Mediterranean shores
  2. Region along North African shores stretching from Egypt to Morocco
  3. Region along Persian Gulf and Horn of Africa
  4. The entire coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea

National Press Day

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Governance

Context: India celebrates 16th November as National Press Day every year.

About National Press Day

  • It is observed in honour of the Press Council of India (PCI).
  • The day is meant to mark the presence of the free and responsible press in India.
  • Evolution of authority of maintaining the ethics of journalism:
    • First Press Commission, 1956: In the year 1956, the First Press Commission decided to form a body bestowed with statutory authority, meant to fulfill the responsibility of maintaining the ethics of journalism.
    • In 1966, on 16the November, the PCI was formed and following this, the National Press Day has been celebrated ever since on 16th November, every year to commemorate the establishment of the council.

About PCI: The PCI was established under the PCI Act of 1978 for the purpose of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of newspapers and news agencies in India.

Chairperson & members:

  • The Press Council of India is traditionally chaired by a retired Supreme Court Judge and 28 additional members of which 20 are members of the media outlets operating in India.
  • Five members are nominated from the Houses of the Parliament and the remaining three represent cultural, legal and literary fields.

Responsibilities:

  • The Press Council of India is responsible for examining the quality of reportage from the Indian media, while also keeping a check on other journalistic activities.

Functions:

  • Helping newspapers maintain their independence;
  • Build a code of conduct for journalists and news agencies;
  • Help maintain “high standards of public taste” and foster responsibility among citizens; and
  • Review developments likely to restrict flow of news.

Source: PIB


26th Exercise Malabar

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

In news: The 26th edition of Exercise Malabar culminated in the seas off the coast of Japan.

  • It was hosted by the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF)
  • 25th edition was hosted by the US Navy in the Western Pacific.

About Exercise Malabar:

  • Malabar series of exercises began in 1992 as a maritime drill between Navies of India and the US.
  • In 2015, the Japan (JMSDF) joined Exercise Malabar as a permanent member. The 2020 edition witnessed the participation of the Royal Australian Navy.
  • The 26th edition is quadrilateral maritime drill among the navies of the Quad countries — India, the United States, Japan and Australia.
  • The exercise aimed at cooperation in the strategically significant Indo-Pacific region, through improved interoperability with the partner navies.
  • In the 26th edition
  • The Indian Navy was represented by Eastern Fleet, led by its Flag Officer Commanding, Rear Admiral Sanjay Bhalla.
  • The Indian contingent was represented by stealth multirole frigate INS Shivalik and anti-submarine corvette INS Kamorta.
  • ‘War at Sea’ exercise
  • Exchange of ‘Sea Riders’
  • Significance: Apart from operational drills and exercises, the bilateral logistics support agreements between the participating countries were validated.

Source: Indian Express


North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: NATO is in the eye of the storm after one of its member nations said that a Russian missile killed two of its citizens.

  • Poland was considering whether it should launch NATO’s Article 4 procedure.
  • Any attack on Poland, a NATO member, could drag the 30-nation strong alliance into the Russia-Ukraine conflict, risking a full-fledged nuclear war.

NATO’s article 4:

  • Article 4 of the treaty mandates that the member nations consult each other when faced with threat.
  • Article 5 spells out the ‘one-for-all, all-for-one’ nature of the treaty which says that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.
  • Consequently, each of them, in self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation or NATO:

  • NATO is a Western defensive military alliance led by the United States.
  • It came into being after World War II as a counter to the Soviet Union’s possible expansion attempts in Europe.
  • Then-US President Harry S Truman signed the 12-member treaty on April 4, 1949. After the collapse of USSR in 1991, several eastern European nations previously members of the Soviet Union joined NATO.
  • 30 Members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States, Greece, Turkey, Germany, Spain, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia
  • Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Finland and Sweden applied for NATO membership and were invited to join the collective by 28 of the 30 members, with Turkey and Hungary being notable exceptions. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia have expressed interest in joining the collective as well.
  • Core duties:
  • Collective defense principle and routinely undertakes exercises to strengthen their territorial, naval, and air forces.
  • NATO members also arm themselves to face evolving methods of attacks like cybercrimes, and have participated in military operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosova, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria, among others.

Russia-NATO conflict:

  • When NATO came into existence, Soviet Union sought to counter it with a defence collective of its own and signed the Warsaw Pact with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, and Romania during the Cold War. However, this pact was gradually dissolved after the war ended and its existing member nations eventually joined the NATO.
  • The expansion of NATO from 12 to 30 members has been a source of tension between Russia and the West for years since Russia shares a border with Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Georgia.
  • Of this, apart from Belarus and Ukraine, the others have either joined NATO or are in queue for a membership.
  • Ukraine has warm water ports like the Port of Sevastopol and the Port of Novorossiysk, which remain navigable year-round, unlike the Port of Vladivostok in eastern Russia, are crucial for Russian commerce. If Ukraine were to join the NATO, that would cut of Russia’s access to the Black Sea and the trading opportunities it offers.

Source: Indian Express


Digital Shakti Program

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: National Commission for Women (NCW) launched the latest 4.0 version of ‘Digital Shakti’ programme, which was essentially dedicated to teach women to be safe online.

  • India has the second largest internet-using population and the third highest number of bullying cases (most of which happen online).
  • 98% crimes are committed against women.

About Digital Shakti’ programme:

  • It is a cyber-safety programme, launched by NCW in 2018 essentially to train women fight cyber-crime and to help females use digital space.
  • CyberPeace Foundation is partnering with the NCW and Meta to implement the programme.
  • The 4.0 version aims at accelerating the digital participation of women
  • to train one million women from schools, colleges and universities apart from housewives to use the digital knowledge responsibly and support them if they have any business ideas for example for start-up
  • to upskill and empower women digitally
  • Through this project, over 3 lakh women across India have been made aware of the cyber safety tips and tricks, the reporting and redressal mechanisms, data privacy and the usage of technology, for their benefits.

MUST READ National Commission For Women

Source The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q1.) What is the aim of the programme ‘Unnat Bharat Abhiyan’? (2017)

  1. Achieving 100% literacy by promoting collaboration between voluntary organizations and government’s education system and local communities.
  2. Connecting institutions of higher education with local communities to address development challenges through appropriate technologies.
  3. Strengthening India’s scientific research institutions in order to make India a scientific and technological power.
  4. Developing human capital by allocating special funds for health care and education of rural and urban poor, and organizing skill development programmes and vocational training for them.

COP 27 of UNFCCC

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Environment

In News: In COP 27 of UNFCCC, European Union (EU) has proposed a policy- called the ‘Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism’.

Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism:

  • A carbon border adjustment tax is a duty on imports based on the amount of carbon emissions that result from the production of the products in question. It is imposed to discourage emissions.
  • It aims to tax extremely carbon intensive products like cement and steel with effect from 2026.
  • India, China, Brazil, South Africa, is opposed to this proposal, stating that carbon border taxes could result in market distortion besides aggravating the already widened trust deficit amongst parties.
  • India’s views: All countries are entitled to their fair share of the global carbon budget and must stay within this in their cumulative emission.
  • Green protectionism: If designed unilaterally, carbon tax may become a protectionist device and inspire a few countries to unduly shield local industries from foreign competition.

Other initiatives at COP27:

  • Opening of Biodiversity Day at COP27 on “Connecting Climate and Biodiversity
  • Launch of the ENACT initiative for nature-based solutions, along with Germany and IUCN
  • Red Sea Initiative for Red Sea’s corals was launched by the Egyptian government in partnership with the United States, through USAID, UNDP, and the Global Fund for Coral Reefs .
  • For the Adaptation Fund and the climate-vulnerable developing countries, contributors announced nearly 172 million dollar in new pledges.
  • Africa Just & Affordable Energy Transition Initiative (AJAETI) initiative aims to provide all Africans with access to clean energy, whilst meeting the energy requirements for Africa’s economic development.

Source: NewsOnAir

Previous Year Question

Q.1) The ‘Common Carbon Metric’, supported by UNEP, has been developed for (2021)

  1. assessing the carbon footprint of building operations around the world.
  2. enabling commercial farming entities around the world to enter carbon emission trading.
  3. enabling governments to assess the overall carbon footprint caused by their countries.
  4. assessing the overall carbon footprint caused by the use of fossil fuels by the world in a unit time.

India’s foreign policy

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: In recent years, there has been an unprecedented change in India’s foreign policy. The issues of Masood Azhar, the surgical strike, or the Indo-China tension all involved India’s foreign policy holders executing their work effectively.

  • India is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world and from ancient times, India’s foreign policy remained independent whether it was the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta Empire or the Mughal Empire.
  • The British were the determinants of India’s foreign policy during the colonial period, who used India for their benefit. But after independence, India’s foreign policy is again fulfilling Indian interests.
  • Today, India is in selected countries of the world in military field, space, religious culture etc. and India has used them better in its foreign policy formulationDeterminants of India’s foreign policy:

Geographical factors: –

  • India occupies a central position in Asia and occupies the largest area in South Asia. In such a situation, any big incident in the whole of Asia affects India.
  • The Himalayas are like sentinels of India which play an important role in determining relations with other Himalayan countries such as Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar.
    • But the desire of China to maintain its dominance in the region continuously since 1962 has a clear impact on India’s foreign policy, which has recently shown a change in relations with Nepal.
  • Along with this, India has a natural edge in the Indian Ocean. India’s dominance over the Indian Ocean is necessary to become an important power of the Indian-Pacific region.

Government System:

  • India has a democratic governance system that inspires many countries of the world to accept Indian ideology.
    • for example, ASEAN countries plagued by China look towards India because India’s democracy follows the principle of peaceful coexistence.
    • But many times, in the parliamentary system, the role of state governments is also important in determining foreign policy, it becomes more important if there is a coalition government at the centre, as was shown in the Tamil issue in Sri Lanka and the 2005 US Nuclear Deal.

Economic Development:

  • Economic sovereignty is of utmost importance in determining foreign policy. Like its policy, India had to open its markets in 1991, but after that India has become very strong financially.
  • India’s economic growth has attracted many countries. Today, India is an important energy consumer, with countries like Turkmenistan, Iran Russia having economic alliances with India. But still the negative trade balance with China remains India’s main problem.

Military power:

  • Today India is the third most powerful country in the Army, fourth in the Air Force and sixth in the Navy.
  • At the same time, India is rich in nuclear power. Everyone knows India dominance in space. In such a situation, they play an important role in the foreign policy making of India.

Population:

  • India is currently the second most populous and youngest country in the world, so India is becoming a consumption-oriented country, in such a situation it will fulfil the need of a big market for all the producing nations, which is the determinant of foreign policy. But with such a large population, problems like hunger, poverty are evident on India’s foreign policy.
  • Many times, there has been a dispute in the World Trade Union between India and America about the government’s intervention in agricultural subsidies.

Culture:

  • History and culture can be seen as important in the formulation of India’s foreign policy. Kautilya’s theory of a powerful kingdom with the ideals of Buddha and Gandhi shows the path of India.
  • India’s civil-civilian religious relationship is well established from many countries of the world where there are Hindu, Islam, Christian, Buddhist majorities.

Regional Environment:

  • Regional events are also important in determining foreign policy. For example, in 1971, the alliance of China, US and Pakistan brought a crisis situation for India, then India got inclined towards Russia.
  • At present, the increasing dominance of China is also a reason for intensification of India-US relations. India has increased India’s capacity and power with Look East to Act East policies and China’s rise in ASEAN.

Global environment:

  • After globalization, when the whole world connected with each other, global factors also became important in determining foreign policy. India may oppose the move to withdraw from the Paris Agreement on environment issues, even if there is cooperation between India and America.
  • After the Second World War, the world order has changed in many ways, keeping in mind that India tries to reform the UN Security Council.

Panchsheel Principles:

The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence are principles first mentioned in the Sino-Indian Agreement, 1954 and publicly formulated by Zhou Enlai.

  • These principles would later become the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • The Panchsheel Agreement was signed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Premier Zhou Enlai.
  • These principles, also known as Panchsheel, are listed as
    • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty,
    • Mutual non-aggression,
    • Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs,
    • Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit, and
    • Peaceful co-existence.

Recent Developments in India’s foreign policy:

Key Turning Points in Foreign Policy

  • The Pokhran nuclear tests, the India-China war, and the Galwan Valley clashes were perceived as key turning points in India’s foreign policy.

Biggest Inter-state Foreign Policy Challenge

  • Border conflicts with China were seen as India’s biggest inter-state foreign policy challenge – even surpassing conflicts with Pakistan.
  • Terrorism and border conflicts with Pakistan remained important challenges for India’s foreign policy.
  • The majority of respondents also indicated that India’s foreign policy of not engaging with Pakistan benefited regional peace and stability.

India-USA Relationship:

  • The USA was seen as the second-most trusted partner since its Independence,
  • 85% of respondents thought the USA will be India’s leading partner in the next 10 years;
  • 83% of respondents also agreed that the USA support will be crucial to India’s rise.

Russia-India Relationship:

  • Many respondents indicated optimism for Russia, despite its invasion of Ukraine; 43% saw Russia as India’s most reliable partner since Independence.
  • But many showed their awareness of broader geopolitical changes.
  • For instance, an overwhelming majority agreed that India’s economic ties with Russia are limited and expressed concerns about strengthening Russia-China ties, and India and Russia drifting away from one another.
  • When it came to India’s leading partner in the next 10 years, Russia was ranked third, behind the US and Australia.

Indian interests as the driver of foreign policy:

  • Indian interests remained the driver for such a perception.
  • For instance, Indian youth preferred non-alignment and neutrality if US-China tensions increase.
  • But responses changed when Indian interests were at stake: 73% said that India should align with the US to countervail China.

Importance of Regional Power:

  • In a multipolar, more uncertain world order, regional powers are growing in importance.
  • Quad found limited enthusiasm among respondents but some members such as Australia and Japan enjoyed a significant positive perception.
  • Japan was seen as the most important Indo-Pacific partner in the future, followed by Australia.

Strategic Importance to India’s neighbourhood:

  • Despite India’s rising stakes in the new world order, young people attached strategic importance to India’s neighbourhood.
  • Respondents believed India defined its neighbourhood efficiently and followed an adequate foreign policy across all the sectors – security, trade, and culture.

Way Forward:

  • Investing in the South Asia and Indian Ocean Region: There is a need to increase political engagements and infrastructure and connectivity projects across the region. So, India needs to continue investing in South Asia and the Indian Ocean region.
  • Multilateralism: It should be India’s preferred mode of engagement with other countries. There is a strong urge for multilateral reforms – 91% of respondents supported India’s bid for a permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council.

The foreign policy of a country is often driven by popular perception. It is, therefore, important to understand how young people perceive foreign policy goals as they are important stakeholders, an even more critical process in a young nation such as India.

Source:  Indian Express


Need for safety on Digital Space

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: India has one of the youngest youth demographics in the world and is among the most active online.

Key facts:

  • As online interactions increase, more and more content is created and shared among people, helping them form new and wonderful connections. Sometimes, however, these interactions also make them vulnerable to harm.
  • As per the NCRB Data, A total of 50,035 cases in 2020 were registered under cybercrimes, showing an increase of 11.8 per cent in registration over 2019 (44,735 cases).
  • In India, an estimated 71 million children aged between 5 to 11 years access the Internet on the devices of their family members, constituting about 14 percent of the country’s active Internet user base of over 500 million.
  • It should also be noted that two-thirds of internet users in India are in the age group of 12-29 years.

About The Information Technology Act, 2000:

  • It came into force on October 17, 2000, and contains cyber laws in India.
  • The main objective of the Act is to provide legal recognition to electronic commerce and to facilitate the filing of electronic records with the government.
  • Important Sections:
    • Section 66E – Publishing obscene images
    • Section 67 – Publishes or transmits unsolicited material
    • Section 67A – Publishes or transmits explicit sex
    • Section 67B – Abusing children online

About the New Information Technology (IT) Rules:

  • The New Information Technology (IT) Rules ensure the online safety and dignity of women users and give a framework to deal with content, including fake content, which results in heinous crimes. Features includes the following:
  • Imposes several obligations on online entities including appointing grievance redressal officers and assisting in investigations.
  • Provides a set of checks and balances for the removal of unlawful content and information on the internet.
  • Empower the ordinary users of social media digital platforms and make intermediaries, including the social media intermediaries, accountable.
  • Intermediaries shall remove or disable access within 24 hours of receipt of complaints of contents that exposes the private areas of individuals, show such individuals in full or partial nudity or a sexual act or is in the nature of impersonation including morphed images, etc.

Challenges in the Digital Space:

  • Circulation of Private Pics and Videos: Private pictures of young women are leaked online. Sometimes it is from a hacked account, other times because of a soured relationship.
    • It should be no surprise that young men and women are exploring new ways to express their sexuality through sharing intimate images.
    • These new social norms have created new forms of abuse where women are usually the victims.
  • Anonymity: Digital social spaces provide anonymity, which is great for free speech but can be stifling for nuanced debate and dialogue.
    • They fuel the polarization of ideas while providing a free run for peddlers of misinformation.
  • Cyberbullying: The impact of online sexual harassment could have long-term negative impacts on their mental health and well-being.

Suggestive measures:

  • Platforms need to design choices that help women stay in control of who they engage with.
  • They should leverage open-source technology that detects and blurs lewd images so that women don’t need to see unsolicited pictures.
  • There is a need to upgrade the existing cyber cells by setting up dark web monitoring cells and social media monitoring cells to tackle different types of cyber along with traditional police recruitments, there is a need to induct technical experts into the police force.
  • The States should map the cybercrime hotspots which will help in the quick detection of crimes and taking proactive measures to prevent cybercrimes.
  • We need to focus on safety tools and features across the spectrum of websites and apps.
  • Public discourse around technology-facilitated abuse has to be elevated.
  • There’s a need for new codes of ethics that define how tech and society interact to promote societal well-being.
  • Users need to go beyond protecting their log-in details and one-time-passwords (OTPs) and enable safety measures such as two-factor authentication.
  • This feature can be an effective safeguard against unauthorized access to online accounts; however, very few use it.

A Comprehensive solutions require a multi-stakeholder approach – tech developers should create responsible products that enable safety and privacy by design, and governments can enact regulations and policies that protect users’ rights while promoting healthy competition.


India-ASEAN relations

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 International Relations

In News: India and ASEAN countries gave a new vigour to their ties by establishing a comprehensive strategic partnership at the 19th ASEAN-India Summit in Cambodia. This year also marks the 30th anniversary of ASEAN-India relations and is, therefore, being celebrated as the ASEAN-India Friendship Year.

Context:

  • India places ASEAN as an important pillar of regional, multilateral global order and supports ASEAN centrality in the evolving architecture in the Indo-Pacific.
  • The India-ASEAN joint statement acknowledges deep civilisational linkages, maritime connectivity, and cross-cultural exchanges between the two geographies
  • The current focus is on enhancing cooperation in the digital economy, smart agriculture, city-to-city partnerships and strengthening healthcare by increasing collaboration in public health, including in areas of research and development and public health emergency.

Political cooperation:

  • Act East Policy 2014 has ASEAN as its core focus and India became a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992.
  • Mission to ASEAN 2015 with a dedicated Ambassador to strengthen engagement with ASEAN and ASEAN-centric processes
  • Delhi Dialogue hosted by India annually, traditionally inaugurated jointly by India and ASEAN at the Foreign Minister’s level, serves as the main Track 1.5 mechanism for our engagement. 12th edition is planned for 2022.
  • ASEAN-India Cooperation Fund of $50 million to support implementation of the ASEAN-India Plans of Action for capacity building initiatives.

Economic cooperation:

  • ASEAN is India’s fourth largest trading partner
  • India’s trade with ASEAN stands at US$ 81.33 billion, which is approx. 10.6% of India’s overall trade.
  • India’s export to ASEAN stands at 11.28% of our total exports
  • ASEAN accounting for approximately 18.28% of investment flows into India since 2000.
  • The ASEAN-India Free Trade Area has been completed in 2015
  • ASEAN India Business Council (AIBC) was set up in 2003 for private sector engagement.

Socio-cultural cooperation:

  • Students Exchange Programme, Special Training Course for ASEAN diplomats, Exchange of Parliamentarians, Participation of ASEAN students in the National Children’s Science Congress, ASEAN-India Network of Think Tanks, ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Lecture Series, etc
  • 2nd edition of the ASEAN-India Workshop on Blue Economy, jointly hosted with the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, was held on 18 July 2018 in New Delhi.

Challenges to the partnership:

  • Russia-Ukraine war has aggravated the tension between China and US with China as primary economic partner and the US as the primary security guarantor.
  • A divided house:
  • ASEAN grouping remains fractured in its response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, on managing the US-China contestation, and in dealing with the military junta in Myanmar and China’s aggression in the South China Sea.
  • ASEAN will lose its relevance if it continues to be a divided house, unable to forge consensus on critical regional and global issues.
  • Threat to ASEAN’s centrality:
  • In order to isolate and put pressure on the Myanmarese junta, Washington has placed sanctions on the on the regime as well reached out to the opposition National Unity Government.
  • Russia and China have been trying to do the opposite and even supplying weapons to the junta.
  • In the midst of this, ASEAN’s response has been confusing and muddled.
  • The initiative it seems is with outsiders rather than with the region and that is not a great message about ASEAN centrality.
  • Chinese dominance:
  • China’s massive economic footprint in the region gives Beijing a distinct advantage.
  • China’s is the primary trading partner of the region with bilateral trade of around $880 billion.
  • With the US-China confrontation and setback of Covid-19 pandemic, China is now seeking to revive the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and has announced several new infrastructures projects in Southeast Asia.
  • Beijing has also announced negotiations on ASEAN-China Free Trade Area “Version 3.0.”

Suggestions:

  • India will have to up its game significantly in order to remain relevant in a part of the world that is viewed as critical to the future stability and prosperity of the Indo-Pacific.
  • Trade and connectivity will be critical in order to enhance its profile in the ASEAN region.
  • PM Modi announced the Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) in 2019, aimed at forging partnerships to create a safe, secure, stable, prosperous and sustainable maritime domain with maritime ecology; maritime security; marine resources; capacity building and resource sharing.
  • India has also hosted the Special ASEAN-India Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (SAIFMM)2 in June 2022.

Way forward:

  • ASEAN centrality will have no meaning with a fractured region unable to come to terms with the changing realities around its periphery.
  • With a fragmented ASEAN, Indo-Pacific will continue to exude the instability and tensions that the world is trying to come to grips with now.
  • This is the age of minilaterals and India should not be shy of exploring them even In Southeast Asia as ASEAN will continue to struggle with its internal cohesion for the foreseeable future.

Source: Orf Online


Baba’s Explainer – Operation Barkhane: France’s military operations in Sahel

Operation Barkhane: France’s military operations in Sahel

Syllabus

  • GS-1: Modern World History
  • GS-2: International Affairs
  • GS-2: Democratic & military rule; Human Rights

Context: On November 9, French President Emmanuel Macron announced the end of the decade-long Operation Barkhane in Africa.

  • France President Mr. Macron said that, “Our military support for African countries will continue, but according to new principles that France have define with them.”

Read Complete Details on Operation Barkhane: France’s military operations in Sahel


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to the ‘Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism’ at the UNFCCC Meeting in Sharm el-Sheikh in 2022, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The initiative was jointly proposed by the United States and France.
  2. India, Brazil, and South Africa opposed the initiative, while China supported it.
  3. The initiative aimed to tax extremely carbon intensive products like cement and steel with effect from 2026.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 3 only

Q.2) What is the aim of the programme ‘Digital Shakti Program 4.0’?

  1. To train women to use digital knowledge and support their business ideas
  2. To protect women from cybercrimes and maintain online safety
  3. To create digital assets like CCTV systems to enable women safety
  4. To increase women participation in STEM courses in higher education.

Q.3) Consider the following statements in respect of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR):

  1. It occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections.
  2. World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAMRW) is celebrated as an annual event in last week of October.
  3. They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin.
  4. Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (GAPAMR) was endorsed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’18th November 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st


ANSWERS FOR 17th November – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – d

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