DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 22nd March 2023

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  • March 22, 2023
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Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati


  • Prelims – Art and Culture

Context: Government to celebrate 200th birth anniversary of Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati.

About Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati:-

  • Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati was an Indian philosopher and social leader.
  • He was the founder of the Arya Samaj.
  • Arya Samaj: was a reform movement of the Vedic dharma.
  • He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as “India for Indians” in 1876.
  • Philosophy: Denouncing idolatry and ritualistic worship, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies.
  • He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
  • He advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation.
  • Dayananda’s contributions: promoting equal rights for women, such as the right to education and reading of Indian scriptures.
  • He translated the Vedas and wrote three books :
  • Satyartha Prakash in Hindi,
  • Veda Bhasya Bhumika: an introduction to his Vedic commentary, and
  • Veda Bhashya: a Vedic commentary in Sanskrit on the Yajurveda and the major part of the Rig-Veda.
  • He also established Vedic schools for the education of girls and boys of all castes.
  • The Shuddhi Movement was introduced by Maharishi Dayanand to bring back the individuals to Hinduism who were either voluntarily or involuntarily converted to other religions like Islam or Christianity.

The ten tenets of the Arya Samaj are as follows:

  • God is the efficient cause of all true knowledge.
  • God is existent, intelligent and blissful. He alone is worthy of being worshipped
  • The Vedas are the scriptures of all true knowledge. It is the paramount duty of all Aryas to read, teach, and recite them and to hear them being read.
  • One should always be ready to accept the truth and to renounce untruth
  • All acts should be performed in accordance with Dharma that is, after deliberating on what is right and wrong
  • The prime object of the Arya Samaj is to do good to the world, that is, to promote the physical, spiritual and social good of everyone.
  • Our conduct towards all should be guided by love, righteousness and justice.
  • We should dispel Avidya (ignorance) and promote Vidya (knowledge).
  • One should look for his/her good in promoting the good of all.
  • One should regard oneself under restriction to follow the rules of society calculated to promote the well-being of all, while in following the rules of individual welfare all should be free.

MUST READ: Swami Vivekananda



Q.1) Who among the following was associated as Secretary with Hindu Female School which later came to be known as Bethune Female School? (2022)

  1. Annie Besant
  2. Debandranath Tagore
  3. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  4. Sarojini Naidu

Q.2)   Consider the following freedom fighters(2022)

  1. Barindra Kumar Ghosh
  2. Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee
  3. Rash Behari Bose

Who of the above was/were actively associated with the Ghadar Party?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Bacterial cellulose


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recent researches demonstrate how bacterial cellulose can help develop vegan leather and other environmentally safe material.

About Bacterial cellulose:-

IMAGE SOURCES: Figure – PMC (nih.gov)

  • It is an organic compound produced by certain types of bacteria.
  • It was discovered by J. Brown in 1886.
  • The most used bacteria for producing it is
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC) is recognized as a multifaceted, versatile biomaterial with abundant applications.

Special characteristics:-

  • It is free from impurities such as lignin and wax.
  • It shows water retention capacity and other mechanical properties.


  • It can replace leather in the making of products such as bags.
  • Its polymers can be used in other industries such as biomedicine.
  • It can also be used as a carrier for bioactive compounds such as antibiotics.
  • In developing pure and environmentally safe functional materials.
  • Mechanical properties make it useful in producing green composite and in dealing with tissue engineering, medical implants, and biofilm.


  • Its high cost of production is a challenge in its commercial adoption.

MUST READ: CRISPR biotechnology

SOURCE: Businessline


Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Biofilms can form on medical implants within human tissues.
  2. Biofilms can form on food and food processing surfaces.
  3. Biofilms can exhibit antibiotic resistance.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements in respect of probiotics (2022)

  1. Probiotics are made of both bacteria and yeast.
  2. The organisms in probiotics are found in foods we ingest but they do not naturally occur in our gut.
  3. Probiotics help in the digestion of milk sugars.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 2 and 3

Integrated Mobile Camouflage System


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the Indian Army procures Integrated Mobile Camouflage Systems from a start-up.

About Integrated Mobile Camouflage System:-

  • Armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) can blend in with their surrounding terrain.
  • It comprises low emissivity and/or CAM-IIR coatings and mobile camouflage system materials that enable armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) to blend in with their terrain background.
  • It achieves a reduction in the detection range of AFVs when viewed through a Hand Held Thermal Imager (HHTI)/Battle Field Surveillance Radar (BFSR) tank-based thermal camera under given environmental and weather conditions.
  • By regulating the object’s visual, thermal, infrared, and radar signatures, it manages signatures.
  • For AFVs, it will significantly improve their stealth capabilities.
  • This is the Indian Army’s first-ever purchase order under the Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) programme.

Project for Defence Excellence (iDEX):-

  • It was introduced under the iDEX project in April 2018.
  • Aim: achieve self-reliance and stimulate innovation and technology development in defence and aerospace by involving industries like MSMEs, start-ups, individual innovators, and R&D institutes.

MUST READ: Chaff technology by DRDO



Q.1) With the present state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following? (2020)

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs
  3. Disease diagnosis
  4. Text-to-speech conversion
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2, 4, and 5 only

Q.2) In the context of wearable technology, which of the following tasks is/are accomplished by wearable devices? (2019)

  1. Location identification of a person
  2. Sleep monitoring of a person
  3. Assisting the hearing-impaired person

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Major tribes in the Nilgiris


  • Prelims –Geography and Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, more than 700 families, including Adivasis, were incentivised to leave the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in the Nilgiris.

About major tribes in the Nilgiris:-

IMAGE SOURCE: The Nilgiris : The Nilgiris (thequeenofhillsnilgiris.blogspot.com)

  • The Nilgiri Hills is a region of mountains, forests and tea plantations located in southern India.
  • The states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka meet here.
  • The Nilgiri Hills are home to some unusual tribal groups including the Toda, Kota, Badaga and Kurumba.


  • The Badaga is a group that lives in the Nilgiri Hills where Kerala and Tamil Nadu come together.
  • Their names mean “northerner,” a reference to the fact that they came from the plains of the Mysore district not too far to the north.
  • The Badaga are Hindus that practice hypergamy, a system in which women can marry into a caste that is higher than the one they were born into, and also marry into of lower caste.


  • The Irula are a Scheduled tribe that lives in northern Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiri Hills.
  • They have many animist beliefs but have had enough contact with Hindus to embrace many orthodox Hindu beliefs.
  • The Irula live in villages with special “pollution huts” for menstruating women, lots of mango and jackfruit trees, and ancestral temples with stones in them that represent the dead.
  • They produce their own flutes and drums.


  • The Kotas are a group thought to be indigenous to the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu.
  • Women have traditionally given birth in special huts.
  • The Kota practice “green” and “dry” funerals.


  • The Kurumbas are another group that lives in the Nilgiri Hills.
  • The Kurumbas have traditionally been hunters and gatherers.
  • The Kurumbas have a reputation for being sorcerers.


  • The Nayaka are another group that lives in the Nilgiri Hills.
  • Traditionally regarded as honey collectors and people of the forest.
  • Nayaka have no formal marriage ceremony.

Hill Pandaram:-

  • Hill Pandaram are a scheduled tribe that lives in rain forests of the Western Ghats in the state of Kerala.
  • They are nomadic foragers who speak dialects of Tamil and Malayalam and practice Hinduism infused with beliefs of hill spirits, ancestral ghosts and other supernatural beings.

Kani and Their Magic Berry:-

  • The Kani people of the rainforest of Kerala.
  • They are poor and live in thatch huts.

MUST READ: Betta-Kuruba tribe



Q.1) If a particular area is brought under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which one of the following statements best reflects the consequence of it? (2022)

  1. This would prevent the transfer of land from tribal people to non-tribal people.
  2. This would create a local self-governing body in that area.
  3. This would convert that area into a Union Territory.
  4. The State having such areas would be declared a Special Category State.

Q.2) At the national level, which ministry is the nodal agency to ensure effective implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006? (2021)

  1. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climatic change.
  2. Ministry of Panchayat Raj
  3. Ministry of Rural Development
  4. Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961)


  • Prelims –Polity and International Relations

Context: Recently, the Ministry of External Affairs invoked the Vienna Convention after vandalism at Indian High Commission in London by pro-Khalistan protestors.

About Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961):-

  • It provides the framework for the establishment, maintenance and termination of diplomatic relations on a basis of consent between independent sovereign States.
  • The term “Vienna Convention” can refer to any of a number of treaties signed in Vienna.
  • Most of these are related to the harmonisation or formalisation of the procedures of international diplomacy.
  • The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) entered into force in  1964.
  • It is nearly universally ratified, with Palau and South Sudan being the exceptions.
  • It codifies the longstanding custom of diplomatic immunity.
  • Under this, diplomatic missions are granted privileges that enable diplomats to perform their functions without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country.

MUST READ: Khalistan threat: Need for Constant vigilance



Q.1) Consider the following pairs (2020)

International agreement/ set-up Subject

  1. Alma-Ata Declaration – Healthcare of the people
  2. Hague Convention – Biological and Chemical Weapons
  3. Talanoa Dialogue – Global Climate Change
  4. Under2 Coalition – Child Rights

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2,3 and 4 only

Q.2) Which of the following adopted a law on data protection and privacy for its citizens known as the ‘General Data Protection Regulation’ in April 2016 and started the implementation of its from 25th May 2018? (2019)

  1. Australia
  2. Canada
  3. The European Union
  4. The United States of America

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)


  • Prelims – Science and Technology and Governance

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi will soon inaugurate the new International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Area office and Innovation Centre in New Delhi.

About International Telecommunication Union (ITU):-

It is the United Nations’ specialized agency for information and communication technologies.

It was founded in 1865.

Objective: to facilitate international connectivity in communications networks.


  • To allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits
  • To develop the technical standards
  • To ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect
  • It strives to improve access to ICTs in underserved communities worldwide.
  • Every time you make a phone call via mobile, access the Internet or send an email, you are benefitting from the work of ITU.
  • ITU is committed to connecting all the world’s people.
  • It protects and supports everyone’s right to communicate.​
  • It currently has a membership of 193 countries and over 900 private-sector entities and academic institutions.
  • The Area Office and Innovation Centre of ITU in New Delhi.
  • It is expected to serve South Asian countries namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka and India.
  • The Host Country Agreement provides the legal and financial framework for the establishment and operations of the Area Office.
  • The WSIS Forum 2023 will be held from 13–17 March 2023 at the ITU Headquarters in Geneva.

MUST READ: India signs Host Country Agreement with the International Telecommunication Union



Q.1) With reference to communication technologies, what is/are the difference/differences between LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and VoLTE (Voice over Long-Term Evolution)? (2019)

  1. LTE is commonly marketed as 3G and VoLTE is commonly marketed as advanced 3G.
  2. LTE is data-only technology and VoLTE is voice-only technology.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Project Loon sometimes seen in the news, is related to (2016)

  1. waste management technology
  2. wireless communication technology
  3. solar power production technology
  4. water conservation technology

City Finance Rankings 2022


  • Prelims – Governance

Context: Recently, the Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry launched the ‘City Finance Rankings 2022’ under which urban local bodies in the country will be evaluated on the basis of their financial health.

About City Finance Rankings 2022:-

  • It is conducted by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs .
  • It aims to evaluate, recognise, and reward urban local bodies on the basis of their strength across key financial parameters.
  • It aim to motivate city and state officials and decision makers, to implement municipal finance reforms.
  • The participating urban local bodies will be evaluated on 15 indicators across three key municipal finance assessment parameters like:-
    • Resource mobilisation
    • Expenditure performance and
    • Fiscal governance.
  • The evaluation will be done on the basis of the quality of current financial health and improvement with time in financial performance.
  • Top 3 cities in each population category will be rewarded.
  • Participation in the City Beauty Competition is


  • It will help ULBs to identify areas in their financial performance where they can make improvements and able to deliver quality infrastructure and services to its citizens.
  • Rankings will motivate city/state officials and decision makers, to implement municipal finance reforms.

MUST READ: Climate Finance



Q.1) Consider the following statements (2016)

  1. The minimum age prescribed for any person to be a member of Panchayat is 25 years.
  2. A Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution continues only for the remainder period.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

(Q.2) What is/are the purpose/purposes of `District Mineral Foundations’ in India?(2016)

  1. Promoting mineral exploration activities in mineral-rich districts
  2. Protecting the interests of the persons affected by mining operations
  3. Authorizing State Governments to issue licences for mineral exploration

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Chaitra Sukladi, Ugadi, Gudi Padwa, Cheti Chand, Navreh and Sajibu Cheiraoba


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently , President Droupadi Murmu greeted citizens on the eve of Chaitra Sukladi, Ugadi, Gudi Padwa, Cheti Chand, Navreh and Sajibu Cheiraoba .

About Chaitra Sukladi:-

  • It marks the beginning of the new year of the Vikram Samvat.
  • Vikram Samvat is based on the day when the emperor Vikramaditya defeated Sakas, invaded Ujjain and called for a new era.
  • Under his supervision, astronomers developed a new calendar based on the lunisolar system, which is still used in northern India.
  • It is the first day of the moon’s waxing phase (when the visible side of the moon grows larger every night) in Chaitra (the first month of the Hindu calendar).

About Ugadi:-

  • The doors in homes are adorned with mango leaf decorations called toranalu or Torana in Kannada.
  • The festivals are celebrated by the people in the Deccan region including Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • The common practice in the celebrations is the festive food that is prepared with a mix of sweet and bitter.
  • The celebrations involve drawing of rangoli, hanging of mango leaf decorations called torana, exchanging of gifts, sharing of food called pachadi, temple visits, etc.
  • The festival is observed in several parts of India under different names: Yugadi in Karnataka, Gudi Padwa in Maharashtra, Ugadi in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Cheti Chand in the Sindhi region, Sajibu Cheiraoba in Manipur, etc.
  • Some parts also celebrate it as Navreh.

About Gudi Padwa:-

  • The festivals are celebrated by the people in the Deccan region including Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • A famous concoction served is jaggery (sweet) and neem (bitter), called bevu-bella in the South, signifying that life brings both happiness and sorrows.
  • Gudi is a doll prepared in Maharashtrian homes.
  • Gudi is the word used to refer to Brahma’s flag (which is hoisted on this day) while Padva is derived from the Sanskrit word Paddava or Paddavo which refers to the first day of the bright phase of the moon.
  • This festival is celebrated on the first day of the month of Chaitra, according to the Hindu calendar, which usually falls during March-April according to the Gregorian calendar.
  • This day is also symbolic of the season of Vasant or spring in India.

 About Cheti Chand:-

  • Sindhis celebrate the new year as Cheti Chand.
  • Chaitra month is called ‘Chet’ in Sindhi.
  • The day commemorates the birth anniversary of Uderolal/Jhulelal, the patron saint of Sindhis.
  • Cheti Chand is deemed to be highly beneficial and promising to start new endeavours.
  • Sindhis conduct various rituals and pray for forty days. This offering is known as Chaliho.
  • After this, they celebrate the grand fest of Cheti Chand.
  • Many of them also conduct fasting on this day and break it once they complete the ceremonial offerings with fruits

About Navreh:-

  • It is the lunar new year that is celebrated in Kashmir.
  • It is the Sanskrit word ‘Nav-Varsha’ from which the word ‘Navreh’ has been derived.
  • It falls on the first day of the Chaitra Navratri.
  • On this day, Kashmiri pandits look at a bowl of rice which is considered as a symbol of riches and fertility.

About Sajibu Cheiraoba:-

  • It is the great ritual festival of Meiteis (an ethnic group in Manipur)
  • It is observed on the first day of Manipur lunar month Shajibu, which falls in the month of April every year.
  • The festival is intended to strengthen the bond of love and brotherhood among family members.
  • People arrange a family feast in which traditional cuisines are offered to local deities on plantain leaf at the entrance gates of the house.
  • After the hearty meal, people climb up the Cheirao Ching Hill in Chingmeirong or atop a nearby hill in the afternoon to offer prayers. The belief is that it will elevate them to greater heights in their worldly life. 

MUST READ: Goa’s Sao Joao festival



Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2018)

Tradition                        State

  1. Chapchar Kut festival — Mizoram
  2. Khongjom Parba ballad — Manipur
  3. Thang-Ta dance — Sikkim

Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2017)

Traditions                                    Communities

  1. Chaliha Sahib Festival            Sindhis
  2. Nanda Raj Jaat Yatra              Gonds
  3. Wari-Warkari                          Santhals

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. (c)1 and 3 only
  4. None of the above

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report was released.

About Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report:

Source:       Hindustan times

  • The Report is the culmination of a cycle of reports (the Sixth Assessment) that have been published over the past five years.
  • The report finds that it is likely that warming will exceed 1.5°C during the 21st century, despite progress in climate mitigation policies and legislation.
  • The report also highlights the economic imperative for taking action, finding that the global economic benefit of limiting global warming to 2°C exceeds the cost of mitigation in most assessed literature.
  • The report demonstrates an undeniable scientific consensus about the urgency of the climate crisis, and the irreversible harm that will occur if warming surpasses 1.5°C, even temporarily.
  • The report evaluates the physical science basis of climate change, impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • It says the GreenHouse Gas(GHG) emissions will lead to increasing global warming in the near term, and it’s likely this will reach 5°C between 2030 and 2035.
  • The world is currently at around 1.1°C of warming, and current climate policies are projected to increase global warming by 3.2°C by 2100.
  • To keep within the 1.5°C limit, emissions need to be reduced by at least 43% by 2030 compared to 2019 levels and at least 60% by 2035.

About adaptation gap report:-

  • It is released by the United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP).
  • The report found some progress on adaptation plans from national governments, but they are not backed by finance.
  • A third of the 197 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have incorporated quantified and time-bound targets on adaptation.
  • 90% of them have considered gender and disadvantaged groups.
  • International adaptation finance flows are 5-10 times lower than required and this gap continues to grow.
  • Finance for adaptation increased to USD 29 billion in 2020, a 4% increase over 2019.

MUST READ: Climate Finance



Q.1) Consider the following statements (2022)

  1. The Climate Group is an international non-profit organisation that drives climate action by building large networks and runs them.
  2. The International Energy Agency in partnership with the Climate Group launched a global initiative “EP100”.
  3. EP100 brings together leading companies committed to driving innovation in energy efficiency and increasing competitiveness while delivering on emission reduction goals.
  4. Some Indian companies are members of EP100.
  5. The International Energy Agency is the Secretariat to the “Under2 Coalition”.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1,2, 4 and 5
  2. 1,3 and 4 only
  3. 2,3 and 5 only
  4. 1,2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) The “Common Carbon Metric” supported by UNEP, has been developed for (2021)

  1. Assessing the carbon footprint of building operations around the world
  2. Enabling commercial farming entities around the world to enter carbon emission trading
  3. Enabling governments to assess the overall carbon footprint caused by their countries
  4. Assessing the overall carbon foot-print caused by the use of fossil fuels by the world in a unit time

One Rank One Pension (OROP) Scheme


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: The Supreme Court recently asked the government to clear One Rank One Pension (OROP) dues of 10-11 lakh pensioners by February end of next year in three equal instalments.

About OROP scheme:

Source: Indian Express

  • OROP means that any two military personnel retiring at the same rank, with the same years of service, must get an equal pension.
  • Military personnel across the three services fall under two categories, the officers and the other ranks.
  • The other ranks, which are soldiers, usually retire at age 35.
  • Unlike government employees who retire close to 60, soldiers can thus miss out on the benefits from subsequent pay commissions.
  • Armed Forces Personnel who had retired till 30th June 2014 are covered under it.
  • The implementation of the scheme was based on recommendation of the Koshiyari committee.

Arguments in favour of OROP:

  • The difference between the pensions of present and past pensioners has grown wide with every pay commission.
    • Veterans argue this is an issue of justice, equity, honor and national security.
  • A lower pay status as compared to their civilian counterparts leads to the military personnel having lower morale.
    • This will also affect the serving officers and soldiers.
  • Armed forces personnel typically have shorter careers since about 80% of the soldiers compulsorily retire between the ages of 35 and 37.
    • About 12% of soldiers retire between 40 and 54 years.
    • This means they retire at far younger ages when compared to the usual 60 years in case of civilians.
    • Therefore, adequate support is required for military personnel to sustain a dignified life.

Arguments against OROP:

  • The implementation of this scheme will increase annual financial burden between 8,000 to 10,000 crore.
  • Some argue that the comparison with civilians is not correct as the armed forces receive many other allowances that are not given to civilians.
    • They get dedicated army schools, colleges, hospitals, subsidized food and beverages, quotas for children in universities and schools, etc. the equivalents of which are not accorded to civilians anywhere.
  • Similar demands can also be made by the other paramilitary forces like the CAPF, Assam Rifles, SSB, etc.
    • The police forces have also started making similar demands as even their conditions of service are often tough.
  • The implementation of this scheme can also be an administrative challenge due to the lack of records going back decades.

Way Forward:

  • There is a need for implementation of Supreme Court of India’s suggestion either the inclusion of representation of armed forces in the central pay commission or to constitute separate armed forces pay commission.
  • The government should resolve the issue of civil-military disparity as well as the combat, non-combat officers’ disparity in time bound manner.
    • This is necessary to honor the military and give them what is rightfully theirs.

Source: Indian Express

India Bangladesh Relations


  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: Prime Ministers of India and Bangladesh recently inaugurated the first cross-border energy pipeline called India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline (IBFPL).

About the India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline (IBFPL)

  • The pipeline runs from the Siliguri-based marketing terminal of the Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL) to the Parbatipur depot of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC).
  • The construction of the project started in 2018 with the help of India’s grant funding.
  • It will be used to supply diesel from India to Bangladesh.
  • The pipeline will transport 1 million metric ton of high-speed diesel every year to seven districts of North Bangladesh.
  • The fuel transport deal will be effective for 15 years with an option for further extension.


  • The operation of India- Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline will put in place a sustainable, reliable, cost-effective and environment friendly mode of transporting HSD (High-speed diesel) from India to Bangladesh and will further enhance cooperation in energy security between the two countries.

India Bangladesh Relations


  • India was one of the first countries to recognize Bangladesh and establish diplomatic relations immediately after its independence in December 1971.
  • Bangladesh occupies a key place in India’s Neighbourhood First policy.
  • There is much that unites the two countries- a shared history and common heritage, linguistic and cultural ties, passion for music, literature and the arts.
  • Rabindranath Tagore, created the National Anthems of both India and Bangladesh.
  • Internationally both the nations share the following platforms: SAARC, BIMSTEC, Indian Ocean Coastal Regional Cooperation Association, and Commonwealth.

Security and Border Control

  • The 2011 agreement on a coordinated Border Management plan to effectively control cross-border illegal activities and crimes by coordinating the efforts of both border guards.
  • Following the exchange of ratification documents during the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s visit to Bangladesh in June 2015, the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh entered into force.
    • Strip maps were signed and the Indian and Bangladeshi enclaves in each other’s countries were exchanged as part of this agreement.
    • The understanding will assist with bettering the executives and controlling the issue of dealing, unlawful development, and so on.
  • According to the award made by UNCLOS on July 7, 2014, the settlement of the maritime boundary arbitration between India and Bangladesh paved the way for the economic development of this region of the Bay of Bengal and will be beneficial to both nations.
  • An annual Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT) between the two Navies was established by India and Bangladesh.
    • It is a significant step toward enhancing the operational ties that exist between the two Navies.

River Water Sharing

  • India and Bangladesh share 54 rivers, with Bangladesh being the lower riparian nation.
  • As a lower riparian country, Bangladesh stays in danger from the effects of streams from India.
  • However, India does provide Bangladesh with flood forecasting assistance by sharing seasonal data on water flow and rainfall.
  • Since November 1972, a bilateral Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) has been in place to maintain communication between the two nations and maximize the benefits of their shared river systems.
  • The Ganges Waters Treaty, which was signed in 1996 to share Ganges River waters during the dry season, has also worked well.

Trade and Investment: 

  • Bangladesh is India’s biggest trade partner in South Asia.
  • India’s exports to Bangladesh during 2021 was US$14.09 Billion.
  • Bangladesh may become India’s fourth-largest export destination in FY22, jumping five places in two years.
  • Bangladesh’s growth stems largely from its success as an exporter of garments, which account for around 80 percent of its total exports.

Exchange and Obligation Concessions

  • India’s commodities to Bangladesh in 2017-18 were around US $ 8.4 billion, and imports from Bangladesh during a similar period were around US $ 900 million.
  • Under SAFTA, SAPTA, and APTA, substantial duty concessions have been granted to Bangladesh.
  • Bangladesh and other SAARC LDCs have had quota-free, duty-free access to India on all tariff lines since 2011, with the exception of tobacco and alcohol, which are on the sensitive list under SAFTA.
  • For the benefit of communities along the border, four Border Haats have been established—two in Tripura and two in Meghalaya.
  • The total amount of Indian investments in Bangladesh is $3.11 billion, and this number is rising.

Multimodal Connectivity:

  • The passenger trains between India and Bangladesh:

Bandhan Express:

  • starting from Kolkata for Khulna – Since 2017
  • It covers the distance via Petrapole and Benapole border route to cater to the demands of the people from both countries.

Maitree Express:

  • Starting from Dhaka for Kolkata – since 2008
  • The tri-weekly service between Kolkata and Dhaka used to run with 90 percent occupancy.

Mitali Express:

  • Starting from New Jalpaiguri in North Bengal to Dhaka.

Bus Service:

  • Both the governments decided to commence: Dhaka-Siliguri-Gangtok-Dhaka and Dhaka Siliguri-Darjeeling-Dhaka bus service to enhance people to people contacts between both the countries and the trail run of Dhaka-Siliguri-Gangtok-Dhaka was also held in December 2019.

Cultural Exchange

  • For the past 43 years, the Bengali literary monthly magazine “Bharat Bichitra” has been published in print and online by the High Commission of India.
  • The magazine is viewed as truly outstanding of its sort in Bangladesh and has a wide readership among all segments of society.
  • Yoga, Hindi, Hindustani Classical Music, Manipuri Dance, Kathak, and Painting are some of the regularly offered training courses at the Indira Gandhi Cultural Centre. Students from Bangladesh enjoy the courses.

Areas of Concerns:

Citizenship Amendment Act:

  • There has been a concern in Bangladesh about the CAA and the proposed National Register of Citizens in India.
  • The concern is as much about laws as the anti-Bangladeshi rhetoric from the highest political echelons in Delhi.
  • It is a testament to the abiding relationship that such politics has not upset the relationship with Dhaka. But that doesn’t mean that India should take things for granted.

Teesta River Water Dispute:

  • The long-pending issue of sharing Teesta waters – a major concern for Dhaka – continues to be unresolved, partly due to the Government of West Bengal.
  • No treaty has been signed yet to resolve the Teesta water-sharing dispute between the two nations.

Regional geopolitics:

  • Chinese inroads into the neighbourhood have been a cause of worry for India.
  • Bangladesh had successfully approached China for a mega project to enhance the Teesta River water flow.
  • Bangladesh also requires China’s support in resolving the Rohingya refugee crisis. Bangladesh is the second biggest arms market for China after Pakistan.
  • At present, Bangladesh is an active partner in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

Way Forward:

  • India needs to look at more ways to deepen its ties with Bangladesh, especially keeping in mind the shifting nature of geopolitics and geoeconomics in South Asia.
  • India and Bangladesh have more or less agreed on most issues and this stability must be maintained.
  • India needs to find a fine balance in respecting Bangladesh’s economic growth while maintaining its economic progress.

Source:   Hindustan Times

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) The Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report is often mentioned in the news released by

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  2. World Bank
  3. United Nations Environment Programme
  4. Global Green Climate Fund

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding International Telecommunication Union (ITU):

  1. It is the United Nations’ specialized agency for information and communication technologies.
  2. It currently has a membership of 200 countries.
  3. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements regarding Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati:

  1. He was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj.
  2. He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
  3. He introduced the Shuddhi Movement to bring back the individuals to Hinduism who were either voluntarily or involuntarily converted to other religions like Islam or Christianity.
  4. He was against the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 4 only
  4. 3 and 4 only

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 22nd March 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 21st March – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – b

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