DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 7th April 2023

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  • April 7, 2023
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Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: As per recent announcements the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh would soon be notified as a tiger reserve.

About Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary:-

  • Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary is located nearby Anini district, Arunachal Pradesh.
  • It has been named after the Dibang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River.
  • It occupies part of the Eastern Himalayas.
  • Flora: the two main categories of vegetation are temperate broad-leaved forest and temperate conifer forest (Rhododendron, Bamboo, Gregaria, Tsuga etc).
    • Alpine vegetation occurs at higher altitudes with herbs, stunted trees and dwarf bushes.
  • Fauna: Mishmi takin, Asiatic black bear, tigers, gongshan muntjac, red panda, red goral and musk deer. 

About Idu Mishmis:-

  • It is a sub-tribe of the larger Mishmi group in Arunachal Pradesh and neighbouring Tibet.
  • They primarily live in Mishmi Hills, bordering Tibet.
  • They are believed to have migrated from the Mongoloid race.
    • Mongoloid race: belong to the Tibeto-Burman family.
  • Their language (also called Idu Mishmi) is considered endangered by UNESCO.
  • They follow a strict belief system of myths and taboos like ‘iyu-ena’.
    • Iyu-ena: restrict them from hunting many animals, including a complete prohibition on killing tigers.

MUST READ: Wildlife Conservation in Arunachal Pradesh



Q.1) In which one of the following states is Pakhui wildlife sanctuary located? (2018)

  1. Arunachal Pradesh
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Nagaland

Q.2) Consider the following statements? (2018)

  1. The definition of “Critical Wildlife Habitat” is incorporated in the forest rights act 2006
  2. For the first time in India, Baigas have been given habitat rights
  3. Union Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change officially decides and declares Habitat Rights for Primitive and Vulnerable Tribal Groups in any part of India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve


  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, the Kerala High Court ordered the translocation of Arikompan to Parambikulam Tiger Reserve.

About Parambikulam Tiger Reserve:-

IMAGE SOURCE: View of Small carnivores of Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India | Journal of Threatened Taxa

  • Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is located in the Palakkad and Thrissur districts of Kerala, South India.
  •  It includes the former Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, which was established in part in 1973 and 1984.
  • It stood 7th in the country in terms of Management Effectiveness in the 2018 Assessment (among 50 Tiger Reserves in the country).
  • The area was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2010.
  •  A total extent of 643.66 sq km, out of which an extent of 390.89 km2 has been declared as the core or critical tiger habitat and 252.77 km2 as the buffer zone of the Tiger Reserve.
  • Parambikulam is a well-protected part of the Nelliampathy – Anamalai sub-unit of the Western Ghat.
    • Nelliampathy: Anamalai sub-unit of the Western Ghats.
  • Habitat: evergreen forests, moist and dry deciduous forests and grasslands.
    •  Other unique habitats like montane grasslands and marshy grasslands (locally known as ‘vayals’) are extensively found.
  •  Parambikulam has one of the highest densities of the Gaur population in Southern India.
  • It is also home to four different tribes of indigenous peoples, including the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar, and Mala Malasar, settled in six colonies.
  •  The only South Indian wild goat, the Nilgiri Tahr is also found

MUST READ:  Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS)



Q.1) The term M-STrIPES’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of (2017)

  1. Captive breeding of Wild Fauna
  2. Maintenance of Tiger Reservoirs
  3. Indigenous Satellite Navigation System
  4. Security of National Highways

Q.2) Recently, there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites? (2017)

  1. Corbett National Park
  2. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Sariska National Park

Rare earth elements(REE)


  • Prelims –Science and technology

Context: Recently, large deposits of 15 rare earth elements (REE) were recently found in Andhra Pradesh’s Anantapur district.

About Rare earth elements (REE):-

IMAGE SOURCE: imgurl:https://www.insightsonindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Rare_Earth_Elements-300×232.jpg?is-pending-load=1 – Bing

  • Rare earth elements are a set of seventeen metallic elements in the periodic table.
  • The 17 Rare Earths are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y).
  • They are characterized by high density, high melting point, high conductivity, and high thermal conductance.
  • They do not occur in a free state rather are found in mineral oxide ores.
  • They occur abundantly but are often not concentrated enough to undertake viable extraction.

Uses of Rare earth elements:-

  • They are widely used in high technology owing to their luminescent and catalytic properties.
  • Neodymium, is a critical component for permanent.
  • Aerospace and Defence: it is used in precision-guided munitions in missiles, high-power sonar on ships and submarines, stealth helicopters, etc.
  • Health care: are used in medical imaging devices, such as MRIs, and modern surgical machines.
  • Clean Energy: is used in wind turbines, electric car batteries and energy-efficient lights (LEDs and CFLs).
  • Nuclear Energy: these are useful for controlling nuclear reactions and are used in control rods.
  • Electronics: Used as phosphors in cathode ray tubes, fluorescent lamps and X-ray intensifying screens.
  • Chemicals, Oil Refining, and manufacturing: Make the refining of crude oil into gasoline more efficient and are used in many speciality metal alloys.
  • Europium is necessary for LED bulbs and colour television screens.
  •  Samarium is used in optical lasers.

India’s situation:-

  • India is almost 100% import-dependent for most rare earth.
  • However, India possesses the 5th highest reserves of rare earth in the world
  • In India, rare earth minerals like ilmenite, sillimanite, garnet, zircon, monazite, and rutile, collectively are found and these are called Beach Sand Minerals (BSM).
  • Monazite is the principal source.
    • It is mainly found in Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, and Jharkhand.

International situation:-

IMAGE SOURCE: World map showing reserves of rare earth metals, vital to the… | Download Scientific Diagram (researchgate.net)

  • China holds the leading position among producers of rare earth oxides.
  • Other major producers are Myanmar, Australia, the USA, Russia and Malaysia.
  • Concentrated/partially-processed intermediate products are further processed at many locations in Europe, the USA, Japan and China.

MUST READ: Deep-sea Mining for Building EV Batteries



Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Monazite is a source of rare earth.
  2. Monazite contains thorium.
  3. Monazite occurs naturally in the entire Indian coastal sands in India.

In India, Government bodies only can process or export monazite.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) Consider the following minerals: (2020)

  1. Bentonite
  2. Chromite
  3. Kyanite
  4. Sillimanite

In India, which of the above is/are officially designated as major minerals?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 only

National Pension System (NPS)


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Recent reports stated that the total enrolments under various schemes of the National Pension System (NPS) and Atal Pension Yojana (APY) have crossed one crore 35 lakh margin during the Financial Year 2022-23.

About National Pension System (NPS):-

IMAGE SOURCE: NPS: National Pension Schemes Eligibility, Types, Calculator (paisabazaar.com)

  • National Pension System (NPS) is a government-sponsored pension scheme.
  • It was launched in 2004 for government employees.
  •  However, in 2009, it was opened to all sections.
  • Implementation Agency: it is being implemented and regulated by PFRDA.
    • PFRDA (Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority) – a statutory body established by PFRDA Act, 2013.


  • Any Indian citizen (Both Resident and Non-Resident) between 18 and 60 years can join NPS.
  • The only condition is that the person must comply with know your customer (KYC) norms.
  • However, OCI (Overseas Citizens of India) and PIO (Person of Indian Origin) cardholders and Hindu Undivided Family (HUFs) are not eligible for opening of NPS account.

About Atal Pension Yojana (APY):-

  • Atal Pension Yojana (APY) is an old-age income security scheme for all savings account holders between the age group 18-40 years.
  • The scheme also addresses the longevity risks among the workers in the unorganized sector and encourages the workers to voluntarily save for their retirement.
  • Under APY, the individual subscribers shall have the option to make the contribution on a monthly basis.
  •  Banks will be collecting  additional amounts for delayed payments, such amount will vary from a minimum of Rs. 1 per month to Rs 10/- per month as shown below:
  • 1 per month for contributions up to Rs. 100 per month.
  • 2 per month for contributions up to Rs. 101 to 500/- per month.
  • 5 per month for contributions between Rs 501/- to 1000/- per month.
  • 10 per month for contributions beyond Rs 1001/- per month.
  • Discontinuation of payments of contribution amount shall lead to the following:-
  • After 6 months account will be frozen.
  • After 12 months account will be deactivated.
  • After 24 months account will be closed.
  • Upon exit on attaining 60 years
  • The subscriber shall receive the following three benefits on attaining the age of 60:
    • Guaranteed minimum pension amount: Each subscriber under APY shall receive a  guaranteed minimum pension of Rs. 1000 per month or Rs. 2000 per month or Rs. 3000 per month or Rs. 4000 per month or Rs. 5000 per month, after the age of 60 years until death.
    • Guaranteed minimum pension amount to the spouse: After the subscriber’s demise, the spouse of the subscriber shall be entitled to receive the same pension amount as that of the subscriber, until the death of the spouse.
    • Return of the pension wealth to the nominee of the subscriber: After the demise of both the subscriber and the spouse, the nominee of the subscriber shall be entitled to receive the pension wealth, as accumulated till age 60 years of the subscriber.
  • The contributions to the Atal Pension Yojana (APY) are eligible for tax benefits similar to the National Pension System (NPS) under section 80CCD(1).
  • Voluntary exit (Exit before 60 Years of age): –
    • The subscriber shall only be refunded the contributions made by him to APY along with the net actual accrued income earned on his contributions (after deducting the account maintenance charges).
    • Exception: In the case of subscribers who joined the scheme before 31st March 2016 and received Government Co-Contribution shall not receive the Government co-contribution and the accrued income earned on the same, if opted for Voluntary exit before 60 years.
  • Age of joining and contribution period
    • The minimum age for joining APY is 18 years and the maximum age is 40 years.
    • The age of exit and start of pension would be 60 years.


  • Tax Payers will not be eligible to join APY from 1 Oct 2022.
  • Members of the statutory social security scheme are not eligible under this scheme.
  • Members enrolled in statutory social security schemes like:-
    • Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952.
    • The Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1948.
    • Assam Tea Plantation Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision, 1955.
    • Seamens’ Provident Fund Act, 1966.
    • Jammu Kashmir Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1961.
    • Any other statutory social security scheme.

MUST READ: National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)



Q.1) Atal Innovation Mission is set up under the (2019)

  1. Department of Science and Technology
  2. Ministry of Labour and Employment
  3. NITI Aayog
  4. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Q.2) Who among the following can join the National Pension System (NPS)? (2017)

  1. Resident Indian citizens only
  2. Persons of age from 21 to 55 only
  3. All State Government employees joining the services after the state of notification by the respective State Governments
  4. All Central Government employees including those of Armed Forces joining the services on or after 1st April 2004

Budget Session


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: The Budget Session, 2023 of Parliament which commenced recently, has been adjourned sine die.

About the sessions of parliament:-

  • A session of the Parliament is the period during which a House meets almost every day uninterruptedly to manage the business.

Summoning of the Parliament:-

  • The President from time to time summons each House of the Parliament to meet as per Article 85.
  •  But the maximum gap between two sessions of the Parliament cannot be more than six months.
  • The Speaker of Lok Sabha or Chairman of Rajya Sabha declares the House adjourned sine die when the business of a session is completed.

Types of sessions:-

  • There are usually three sessions in a year.
    • Budget Session
    • Monsoon Session
    • Winter Session

Budget Session:-

  • The budget session takes place from February to May every year.
  • The Budget is generally presented on the last working day of the month of February.
  • In this session, the Members of the Parliament (MP) discuss the various provisions of the budget and matters concerning taxation, after the Finance Minister presents the budget.
  • The budget session is usually split into two periods with a gap of one month between them.
  • The session starts with the President’s Address to both Houses.

Monsoon Session:-

  • The monsoon session takes place from July to September every year
  • In this session, matters of public interest are to be discussed.

Winter Session:-

  • The winter session takes place from mid-November to mid-December every year.
  • It is the shortest session of all the sessions.
  •  It discusses the matters that could not be considered upon earlier and makes up for the absence of legislative business during the second session of the Parliament.


  • Adjournment terminates the sitting of the House which meets again at the time appointed for the next sitting.
  • The postponement may be for a specified time such as hours, days or weeks.
  •  If the meeting is terminated without any definite time/ date fixed for the next meeting, it is called Adjournment sine die.


  • Prorogation is the end of a session.
  •  The time between the Prorogation and reassembly is called Recess.
  •  Prorogation is the end of the session and not the dissolution of the house.


  • Quorum refers to the minimum number of members required to be present for conducting a meeting of the house.
  • The Constitution has fixed one-tenth strength as a quorum for both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  •  Thus, to conduct a sitting of Lok Sabha, there should be at least 55 members present while to conduct a sitting of Rajya Sabha, there should be at least 25 members present.

Joint Session/Sitting of Parliament:-

  • Article 108 of the Constitution of India deals with the joint sitting of the Parliament to resolve a deadlock between the two Houses i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha over the passage of a bill.
  • A deadlock is could have taken place under any one of the following three:
    • if the bill is rejected other House
    • if the Houses finally disagreed on the amendments made to the bill
    • if more than 6 months have elapsed from the date of the receipt of the bill by the other House without the bill being passed by it
  • In order to break any deadlock, the President can summon both Houses to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the bill.
    • Such session is presided over by the Speaker, and in his/her absence, by the Deputy Speaker.
    •  If both Speaker and Deputy Speaker are absent then, it is presided over by the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
    • If any of the above is not present, any other member of the Parliament can preside by consensus of both Houses.
  • Money Bill and Constitution Amendment Bill are the exceptions to Joint Sittings because there are no provisions for Joint Sittings of Parliament for these bills.

MUST READ: Parliamentary Committees and Joint Parliamentary Committee



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. A bill amending the Constitution requires a prior recommendation of the President of India.
  2. When a Constitution Amendment Bill is presented to the President of India, it is obligatory for the President of India to give his/her assent.
  3. A Constitution Amendment Bill must be passed by both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha by a special majority and there is no provision for joint sitting.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Which of the following is/are the exclusive power(s) of Lok Sabha? (2022)

  1. To ratify the declaration of Emergency
  2. To pass a motion of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers
  3. To impeach the President of India

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)


  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: Recently, Finland joined North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).

About North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO):-

IMAGE SOURCE: NATO members – Answers (mapsofworld.com)

  • NATO is a Western defensive military alliance led by the United States.
  • The NATO headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium.
    • The headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.
    • India is not a member.


  • It came into being after World War II as a counter to the Soviet Union’s possible expansion attempts in Europe.
  • Then-US President Harry S Truman signed the 12-member treaty on April 4, 1949.
  • After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, several eastern European nations previously members of the Soviet Union joined NATO.
  • It has 30 Members:-
    •  Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States, Greece, Turkey, Germany, Spain, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia

Core duties:-

  • It follows the collective defence principles and routinely undertakes exercises to strengthen its territorial, naval, and air forces.
  • NATO members also arm themselves to face evolving methods of attacks like cybercrimes.
  • They also have participated in military operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosova, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria, among others.

MUST READ: India’s NATO Engagement



Q.1) What is/are the consequence /consequences of a country becoming a member of the ‘Nuclear Suppliers Group’?(2018)

  1. It will have access to the latest and most efficient nuclear technologies.
  2. It automatically becomes a member of “The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following countries: (2014)

  1. Denmark
  2. Japan
  3. Russian Federation
  4. United Kingdom
  5. United States of America

Which of the above are the members of the ‘Arctic Council ‘?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1, 4 and 5
  4. 1, 3 and 5

UN Statistical Commission


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: Recently, India has been elected to the UN Statistical Commission for a four-year term.

About UN Statistical Commission:-

  • The United Nations Statistical Commission was established in 1947.
  • Headquarters: New York
  • It is the highest body of the global statistical system bringing together the Chief Statisticians from member states from around the world.
  • It is the highest decision-making body for international statistical activities, responsible for setting statistical standards and the development of concepts and methods, including their implementation at the national and international levels.
  • The Statistical Commission oversees the work of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and it is a Functional Commission of the UN Economic and Social Council.
  • Sessions: The 54th session of the United Nations Statistical Commission was held on 28 February – 3 March 2023.


  • The Statistical Commission was established by the Economic and Social Council.
  • Commission shall assist the Council:-
    • In promoting the development of national statistics and the improvement of their comparability;
    • In the coordination of the statistical work of specialized agencies;
    • In the development of the central statistical services of the Secretariat


  • The Commission consists of 24 member countries of the United Nations elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council on the basis of an equitable geographical distribution according to the following pattern:
    • Five members from African States
    • Four members from Asia-Pacific States
    • Four members from Eastern European States
    • Four members from Latin American and Caribbean States
    • Seven members from Western European and other States
  • The term of office of members is four years.
  • India is a member.

MUST READ: U.N. Peacekeeping Forces



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) has a ‘Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air’.
  2. The UNCAC is the ever-first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument.
  3. A highlight of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is the inclusion of a specific chapter aimed at returning assets to their rightful owners from whom they had been taken illicitly.
  4. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is mandated by its member states to assist in the implementation of both UNCAC and UNTOC.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) In the Indian context, what is the implication of ratifying the ‘Additional Protocol’ with the ‘International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)’? (2018)

  1. The civilian nuclear reactors come under IAEA safeguards.
  2. The military nuclear installations come under the inspection of IAEA
  3. The country will have the privilege to buy uranium from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).
  4. The country automatically becomes a member of the NSG.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the US Centers for Disease Control flagged Indian eye drop for death, and blindness caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

About Pseudomonas aeruginosa:-

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an aerobic microorganism.
  • It is a motile, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria distributed throughout different habitats in the world.
  • Industrial applications:-
    • The bacterium also has several industrial applications where it is cultivated for the production of primary and secondary metabolites.
    • These are also used as agents of biosurfactants for environmental cleanup, restoration, and remediation.

Disease caused by P. aeruginosa:-

  • Pneumonia
    • Pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa is often hospital-acquired with the common source being contaminated bronchoscopes.
    • The common clinical symptoms associated with this infection include fever and chills and difficulty in breathing.
  • Sepsis/ Bacteremia:-
    • The Sepsis is indicated by irregular alterations of the cardiac dynamics, which ultimately leads to decreased cardiac output, metabolic acidosis, and even multiorgan failure.
  • Urinary tract infection
    • Urinary tract infection by P. aeruginosa has also been observed in some patients that use external medical devices or during dialysis.
    • The source of urinary tract infection by P. aeruginosa is the entry of the organism from the skin.

MUST READ: Zombie Virus



Q.1) In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of the egg.
  2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from the mother and not from the father.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Adenoviruses have single-stranded DNA genomes whereas retroviruses have double-stranded DNA genomes.
  2. Common cold is sometimes caused by an adenovirus whereas AIDS is caused by a retrovirus.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Judicial pendency in India


  • Mains – GS 2 (Polity and Governance)

Context: As per the India Justice Report 2022, as of December 2022, against a sanctioned strength of 1,108 judges, the High Courts were functioning with only 778 judges leading to huge pending of cases in the judiciary.

Statistics related to pendency in Indian Judiciary:

Source:           National Judicial Data Grid

Reasons for judicial pendency:

  • Government – the biggest litigant: The Centre and state governments are party to 46% of the pending cases.
    • Thus, a simple negative list which identifies instances in which government and its agencies are barred from going to court would be helpful to avoid futile litigation.
  • Judge strength: As of 2021, India had 21.03 judges per million people compared to the UK with 51 and the US with 107 judges per million. Hence India needs more judges for speedy justice delivery.
    • The 120th Law Commission of India report has suggested a judge strength fixation formula.
    • India should utilize its most experienced judges since present retirement age (62 for HC judges and 65 for SC judges in contrast with 75 in UK or Canada) was fixed when life expectancy was lower.
  • Judicial appointments: The tussle between the executive and the judiciary over judicial appointments must be resolved on a war footing.
    • The collegium system of judges appointing other judges should be replaced with a more viable scheme.
    • The Constitution of the All-India Judicial Services can also help India establish a better judicial system.
  • Administrative burden: The Indian judges spend majority time in scheduling hearings, deciding admission, etc., unlike in developed countries where administrative tasks of courts are supported by an external agency.
    • India can emulate the same with a separate professional agency with administrative expertise, specialization, and modern management practices and technologies.
    • The Union government had suggested Indian Courts and Tribunal Services (ICTS) – an authority charged with supervising and fulfilling the administrative requirements of the courts.
  • Frivolous litigation: Certain categories of cases such as dishonouring of cheques or landlord-tenant disputes are voluminous and clog the system.
    • Thus, rules should be established for disincentivizing such litigations by imposing exceptionally heavy costs on losing party.
    • This would lead to several frivolous disputes settled out of court.
  • Poor judicial infrastructure: For example, many court complexes operate from rented premises.
    • Ex CJI N V Ramana has remarked that a National Judicial Infrastructure Corporation (NJIC) should be created for the standardization and improvement of judicial infrastructure.
  • Technology constraints: Certain categories of cases can be moved permanently to an online disposal system, similar to online hearings during Covid-19 lockdown.
    • The computer algorithms could also be used to manage the roster, thus eliminating bias.
  • Issue of undertrials: Around 76% of prisoners in Indian jails are undertrials, i.e., three out of four prisoners are not even convicted.
    • The SC recently directed the government to consider the introduction of Indian Bail Act to streamline the grant of bails, as done in various other countries like the UK.
  • Frequent adjournments: A norm needs to be formed that once a date is fixed no adjournment should be possible unless the side that requests it is willing to pay the other side’s legal costs along with a substantial penalty.
  • Poor management practices: The system of long vacations for courts is a colonial practice that should be done away for optimum justice delivery owing high pendency in courts today.
    • Former CJI Lodha has recommended that instead of all the judges going on vacation at one time, individual judges should take their leave at different times through the year.
    • It will ensure that the courts are constantly open and there are always benches present to hear cases.
  • Low number of Special courts: Special Courts can be established on specialised areas such as commercial cases can be transferred to the commercial division and the commercial appellate division of High Courts.
    • Similarly, Special Courts within High Courts can be set up to address litigations pertaining to land, crime, traffic challans etc., in order to reduce the burden on main courts.
  • Less budgetary allocation: The budget allocated to the judiciary is between 0.08 and 0.09 per cent of the GDP. Only four countries — Japan, Norway, Australia and Iceland — have a lesser budget allocation and they do not have problems of pendency like India.

Suggestive measures:

  • Speedy appointment of judges: By not appointing judges, the government is depriving common persons of justice. Justice delayed is justice denied.
    • There is urgent need to improve the judge-to-population ratio to reduce the workload of judges.
  • Guidelines by Union government: Centre had suggested measures like increasing the number of working days of courts, establishment of fast track courts and Indian Courts and Tribunal Services (ICTs) to increase the productivity of the court system.
  • E-platforms: Improve judicial infrastructure through the use of e-platforms and setting up of more courts.
    • India has launched the e-Courts National portal ecourts.gov.in of the eCourts Project.
  • Strengthen the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanism: It uses the modes like Arbitration, Mediation and Conciliation.
    • It uses a neutral third party who helps the parties to communicate, discuss the differences and resolve the dispute.
    • It offers to resolve all types of matters related to civil disputes, as explicitly provided by the law.
  • Counselling: Disputes can be settled at the pre-litigation stage through counselling.
  • Lok Adalat: Voluntary agencies like Lok Adalats (People’s Courts) are an interesting feature of the Indian legal system.
    • It is one of the alternative dispute redressal mechanisms.

Source:    The Hindu

Need for robust Cybersecurity in India


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Internal Security)

Context: The spyware maker Cognyte, often billed as an alternative to Pegasus, has been selling tech gear to the Signal Intelligence Directorate which comes under the Ministry of Defence.

  • The firm in question is Cognyte Software Ltd, which faces a class action lawsuit in the U.S. from investors.

About Cybersecurity:

  • Cybersecurity or information technology security are the techniques of protecting computers, networks, programs, and data from unauthorized access or attacks that are aimed for exploitation.
  • Cyber security is concerned with making cyberspace safe from threats, namely cyber-threats.

Significance of Cybersecurity: The concept of cybersecurity can be applied in various contexts, from general business operations to firewall technologies, but it can be divided into a few general categories.

  • Information security – to protect and secure the privacy and integrity of data at rest or at movement.
  • Network security – to secure a computer network from bad actors that might be a targeted attack or malicious malware.
  • Operational security – to create and maintain the processes, procedures and decision making for treatment and protecting data assets.
  • Application security – to concentrate on maintaining the safety of software and devices clear of threats.
  • Business continuity and disaster recovery – to decide how an organization responds to a cybersecurity incident or breach of data.
    • These are the policies and procedures that dictate how the organization re-establishes control of its operations and information to the same level prior to the event because resources may be lacking post event.
  • Risk Management – to manage organizational risk in the company’s information security program itself, which offers an operative framework for setting the risk appetite and security controls for systems.
  • Security Awareness training – to address the education of people who often cause security vulnerabilities based on their actions or lack thereof.
    • People can unintentionally introduce a virus or malware to an otherwise secure system if they are not knowledgeable of security best practices, such as deleting suspicious attachments in emails, refrain from inserting unidentified USB drives, etc.

Reasons for increasing cyber-attacks:

  • Increasing dependency on technology: As we grow faster, more and more systems are being shifted to virtual space to promote access and ease of use.
  • Lack of robust law enforcement mechanisms: India’s approach to cyber security has so far been ad hoc and unsystematic.
  • Lack of International Coordination: International cooperation and consensus is missing in this field.
  • Adverse relations with China: China is considered one of the world leaders in information technology.
    • Therefore, it is expected to have capabilities to disable or partially interrupt the information technology services in another country.

Challenges in Ensuring Cyber Security:

  • Widespread digital illiteracy
  • Use of Substandard devices
  • Rampant use of unlicensed software and underpaid licenses also make them vulnerable.
  • Lack of adoption of new technology
  • Lack of uniform standards
  • Import dependence
  • Lack of adequate infrastructure and trained staff
  • Anonymity
  • Lack of coordination among various agencies working for cyber security

Government of India Initiatives:

  • The Government of India (GoI) has taken several technical, institutional, and legislative steps to tackle issues related to cybersecurity, including the National Cyber Security Policy (2013) and enactment of the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000.
  • The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) was founded by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) as the national bureau for event response, including evaluation, prediction and alerts for cybersecurity breaches.
  • The Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) (CSK), a constituent of the Digital India initiative of the GoI under MeitY, works to create a secure cyberspace by identifying botnets.
  • Cyber and Information Security (C&IS) division of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) deals with issues relating to Cyber Crime, Cyber Security, National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and National Information Security Policy & Guidelines (NISPG).
  • Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children (CCPWC) Scheme is established by MHA to give the states/UTs financial support of USD 11.99 million for the establishment of cyber forensic-cum-training laboratories.
  • National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) and National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) are some other initiatives undertaken by the government concerning cybersecurity.

Way Forward:

Thus, the governments, both at the state and central level as well as policymakers need to play an active role in spreading awareness and training individuals. A large part of India’s population is digitally literate but unaware about basic security measures.

With the introduction of 5G and the arrival of quantum computing, the potency of malicious software, and avenues for digital security breaches would only increase. India’s cybersecurity strategy would do well not to overlook these actualities and trends.

The G-20 summit this year in India is a rare opportunity to bring together domestic and international engagement groups across the spectrum, and steer the direction of these consultations.

Source: The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding the UN Statistical Commission:

  1. It is the highest body of the global statistical system bringing together the Chief Statisticians from member states from around the world.
  2. It is headquartered at London
  3. India is a member of the commission

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following countries:

  1. The United Kingdom
  2. Russia
  3. Ukraine
  4. France
  5. Finland

Which of the above are members of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)?

  1. 1 3 and 4 only
  2. 1 4 and 5 only
  3. 2 3 and 5 only
  4. 1 2 and 5 only

Q.3) Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is in

  1. Karnataka
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Goa
  4. Kerala

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 7th April 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 6th April – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – a

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