DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 8th April 2023

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  • April 8, 2023
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Kaushambi Mahotsav-2023


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Recently, the Union Home Minister inaugurated the Kaushambi Mahotsav-2023 and paid tribute to Durga Bhabhi.

About Kaushambi Mahotsav-2023:-

  • Kaushambi Mahotsav-2023 is a sports festival.
  • It is organized by the Member of Parliament.
  • These Khel Mahotsavs give platforms to young players to showcase their talent
  •  About 16000 youths online applied to participate in the ‘Sansad Khelkood Spardha’
    • Sansad Khelkood Spardha: started by the Members of Parliament.

About Durga Bhabhi:-

  • Durga Devi was a freedom fighter from Kaushambi.
  • She was fondly called ‘Durga Bhabhi’.
  • She was married to Bhagwati Charan Vohra.
  • She had spent her savings ₹5,000 given by her husband on revolutionary works and in support of Indian revolutionaries fighting against British imperialism.
  • She was a woman revolutionary and spy.
  • She gave shelter to Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru after the assassination of  Assistant Superintendent of Police John Saunders and later rescued them out of Lahore by agreeing to introduce herself as Bhagat Singh’s wife to save him from the British police.
  • She met several Bengali revolutionaries and even learned bomb-making.
  • She was an active member of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
  • On 8 October 1930, she fired on a British sergeant and his wife near the police station in South Bombay’s Lamington Road, before escaping.
    • The shooting was to avenge the death sentence awarded to Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.
  • She was finally arrested in September 1932.
  • In 1935, she moved to Ghaziabad and started teaching in a school.
  • Later, she opened a school in Lucknow for poor children.
    • Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru even visited the school once,

About Mahajanpadas:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Formation of States (Mahajanapadas): Republic and Monarchies – SELF STUDY HISTORY

  • The Mahjanapadas were sixteen oligarchic republics or kingdoms that existed in ancient India.
  • It existed from the sixth to the fourth century BCE.
  • There were sixteen of such Mahajanapadas: Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Machcha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja.
  • The strongest and most influential Mahajanapada was Magadha.
  • When the tribes (Janas) of the late Vedic period made the decision to establish their own territorial communities.
  • It resulted, in new and long-lasting regions of settlement known as “states” or “janapadas”
    • Janapadas: small kingdoms known that eventually gave rise to Mahajanapadas.

The 16 Mahajanapadas were:-

Mahajanpadas           Capital

Anga                           Champa

Magadha                    Rajagriha

Kasi                             Kasi

Vatsa                           Kaushambi

Kosala                         Shravasti (northern), Kushavati (southern)

Shurasena                   Mathura

Panchala                     Ahichchhatra and Kampilya

Kuru                            Indraprastha

Matsya                       Viratanagara

Chedi                          Sothivathi

Avanti                         Ujjaini or Mahishmati

Gandhara                   Taxila

Kamboja                     Poonch

Asmaka                       Potali/Podana

Vajji                             Vaishali

Malla                          Kusinara

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Q.1) With reference to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, consider the following statements : (2018)

  1. It is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
  2. It among other things, will also impart training in soft skills, entrepreneurship, financial and digital literacy.
  3. It aims to align the competencies of the unregulated workforce of the country to the National Skill Qualification Framework.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) What is the aim of the programme ‘Unnat Bharat Abhiyan’? (2017)

  1. Achieving 100% literacy by promoting collaboration between voluntary organizations and the government’s education system and local communities.
  2. Connecting institutions of higher education with local communities to address development challenges through appropriate technologies.
  3. Strengthening India’s scientific research institutions in order to make India a scientific and technological power.
  4. Developing human capital by allocating special funds for health care and education of rural and urban poor, and organizing skill development programmes and vocational training for them.

Legal notice


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: Recently, Netflix sent a legal notice regarding the sitcom ‘The Big Bang Theory’s‘ derogatory reference to Madhuri Dixit.

About legal notice:-

IMAGE SOURCE: What You Need to Know About a Legal Notice? (vakilsearch.com)

  • A legal notice is a formal written communication between the parties.
  • Through a legal notice, the sender notifies the recipient about his intention of undertaking legal proceedings against the latter.
  • A legal notice also helps in making the receiving party aware of the grievances of the sender.
  • It works as a last warning to the receiver to fulfil a certain condition if he does not want a court battle.
  • It is a tool to save time and cost of litigation as it opens the door for the parties to settle the matter through negotiation, mediation or arbitration.
  • It is used in a wide variety of situations:-
    • In Consumer Forums: In case, a faulty product or service is provided to a person he or she can send a legal notice to the concerned person and ask him to rectify the deficiencies.
    • Disputes related to property such as partition, eviction or issues relating to possession of the property.
    • Loan Defaulters: Under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Securities Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act), the debt recovery proceedings begin by sending a legal notice to the defaulters.
    • Cases under the Negotiable Instruments Act: In case of dishonour of cheque, the aggrieved can send a legal notice for recovery of payment.
    • Money Recovery Cases: The first step in money recovery cases is sending a legal notice to the concerned person.
    • Employee and Employer/Company: If the employer in any way deprives the employees of their salary, then the employee can send a legal notice to the employer.

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Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the concerned magistrate and such an accused is locked up in a police station, not in jail.
  2. During judicial custody, the police officer in charge of the case is not allowed to interrogate the suspect without the approval of the court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements (2021)

  1. When a prisoner makes out a sufficient case, parole cannot be denied to a such prisoner because it becomes a matter of his/her right.
  2. State Governments have their own Prisoners Release on Parole Rules.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Natural Justice


  • Prelims –Polity

Context: A recent ruling of the Supreme Court brought out the issues of Natural Justice and Proportionality to the surface.

About Natural Justice:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Principle of natural justice (slideshare.net)

  • Natural justice is also known as universal justice, substantial justice, or fair play in action.
  •  It is an essential concept of divine law, which is based on the law of equity.

Principles of Natural Justice:-

The main principles of natural justice are based on these two legal maxims:

  • Nemo judex in causa sua – It means no one shall be a judge in his own case.
  • Audi alteram partem – It means both parties/sides must be heard. No man should be condemned unheard.

Prerequisites of Natural Justice:-

  • Absence of bias, interest, or prejudice: the judge should be neutral, impartial, and free from bias is the first and foremost prerequisite of natural justice.
  • Types of Bias:
    • Pecuniary bias – It concerns a financial interest in the subject matter.
    • Personal bias – A judge may be a relative, friend, or associate of a party.
    • Official bias – When a judge has a general interest in the subject matter.

Maneka Gandhi vs Union of India, 1978

  • It is well established in the case that even when there is no specific law or provision in a statute or rules made for showing cause against the action made, which affects the right of any individual, the duty to give a reasonable opportunity to be heard will be implied from nature.
  • The principles of natural justice are not only binding on all courts but also on judicial bodies and quasi-judicial authorities.

Exceptions to the Principle of Natural Justice:-

  • Where a statute or act expressly excludes or a particular provision of it excludes the applicability of the rule.
  • Where the action is legislative in nature.
  • Where the doctrine of necessity applies.
    • Doctrine of necessity applies: If a decision is to be made urgently on shorter notice, then the rule may be excluded.
  • Where facts are admitted or undisputed, then there is no need to call the party again for readmitting the admitted facts. The court can proceed further with admissions made.
  • Where an enquiry is confidential, then there can be ignorance of the principles of natural justice.
  • Where preventive action is to be taken.
    • For example section 144 CrPC, where immediate action is required, and no reasonable or due time can be given to the other party.
  • Where urgent action is necessary for a government policy decision.

Principals of Proportionality:-

  • The principle requires that the decision or action must be proportionate to the objective it seeks to achieve.
  • It means employed to achieve the objective must be no more than necessary to achieve it, and the harm caused by the decision or action must not be excessive in relation to the benefit gained.
  • The validity of the claim of involvement of national security considerations must be assessed on the test of whether there is material to conclude that the non-disclosure of information is in the interest of national security.
  • Courts can assess the validity of public interest immunity claims based on the “structured proportionality standard”, said the SC.

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Q.1) Which Article of the Constitution of India safeguards one’s right to marry the person of one’s choice? (2019)

  1. Article 19
  2. Article 21
  3. Article 25
  4. Article 29

Q.2) Which of the following are regarded as the main features of the “Rule of Law”?(2018)

  1. Limitation of powers
  2. Equality before the law
  3. People’s responsibility to the Government
  4. Liberty and civil rights

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Extended Range Anti Submarine Rocket (ER-ASR)


  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the Extended Range Anti Submarine Rocket (ER-ASR) was successfully test-fired for the first time.

About Extended Range Anti Submarine Rocket:-

  • The ER-ASR was designed by the Pune-based Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) of the DRDO.
  • It is designed to intercept submarines at specific depths.
  • Its rocket system will be deployed in anti-submarine operations.
    • It will be fired from an indigenised rocket launcher mounted onboard various Indian naval ships.
  • ER-ASR can be fired in single or in salvo mode depending on the tactical mission requirements.
  • The maiden successful test from the ship is a step towards enhancing the capability of the Indian Navy in anti-submarine warfare and towards achieving ‘Atma Nirbharta’ in defence.
  • ER-ASR has been designed to replace the existing Russian-origin Rocket Guided Bombs (RGBs) which are already fitted in ships.
    • While the RGB has a range of five kilometres, the ER-ASR can achieve a range of over eight kilometres.

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Q.1) Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea behind the “Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” often talked about in media? (2022)

  1. A hypersonic missile is launched into space to counter the asteroid approaching the Earth and explode it in space.
  2. A spacecraft lands on another planet after making several orbital motions
  3. A missile is put into a stable orbit around the Earth and deorbits over a target on the Earth.
  4. A spacecraft moves along a comet with the same surface. speed and places a probe on its

Q.2) With reference to India’s satellite launch  vehicles, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. PSLVs launch satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
  2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth.
  3. GSLV Mk III is a four-stage launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors, and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct.?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 3 only

Application Supported by Blocked Amount (ASBA)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently SEBI approved a framework for an Application Supported by a Blocked Amount (ASBA) like facility for trading in the secondary market.

About Application Supported by Blocked Amount (ASBA):-

  • Application Supported by Blocked Amount, or ASBA, is a SEBI-developed IPO (Initial Public Offering) application process.
  • It aims to facilitate a smooth transition in the market, the framework will be implemented in a phased manner.
  • It is a process providing authorization to block money in a bank account to subscribe to an IPO issue.
  • Applying through ASBA as an investor enables the money to be deducted from the bank account only if your application is chosen for allotment.
  • This blocking is carried out by Self-Certified Syndicate Banks (SCSB).
    • Self-Certified Syndicate Banks (SCSBs): are SEBI-authorized banks that conform to the conditions laid by SEBI to accept the applications, verify and block the amount to the extent of what the application requires, upload the details to the web and stay updated with the process until the shares are allotted.
  • Eligibility: The investor needs to be an Indian resident to avail of ASBA.
  • If the money has been blocked in an interest-bearing ASBA account then the amount will continue to earn interest during the time it takes to get the allotment of the share.
  • The facility will be optional for investors and stock brokers.




Q.1) Convertible Bonds, consider the following statements (2022)

  1. As there is an option to exchange the bond for equity, Convertible Bonds pay a lower rate of interest.
  2. The option to convert to equity affords the bondholder a degree of indexation to rising consumer prices.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Retail investors through Demat account can invest in Treasury Bills and Government of India Debt Bonds in the primary market
  2. The “Negotiated Dealing System-Ordering Matching” is a government securities trading platform of the Reserve Bank of India.
  3. The “Central Depository Services Ltd” is jointly promoted by the Reserve Bank of India and the Bombay Stock Exchange.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: Recent reports stated that more than 40 crores 82 lakh loans amounting to over 23 lakh crore rupees have been sanctioned under Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana to date.

About Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana:-

  • MUDRA, which stands for Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency Ltd.
    • It is a financial institution set up by the Government.
  • Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) scheme was launched in 2015.
  • It is under the Ministry Of Finance.
  • Under this yojana, the government provides financial assistance of Rs 10 lakh to non-corporate, non-farm small/micro enterprises to promote startups.
  • Commercial Banks, RRBs, Small Finance Banks, MFIs and NBFCs provide this loan facility to the right beneficiaries.
  • It does not lend directly to micro-entrepreneurs/individuals.
  • The loans under this scheme are collateral-free loans.
  • Three Products:
    • Shishu: Covering loans up to Rs. 50,000.
    • Kishore: Covering loans above Rs. 50,000 and up to Rs. 5 lakh.
    • Tarun: Covering loans above Rs. 5 lakh and up to Rs. 10 lakh.
  • The scheme aims to promote entrepreneurship among the youth, generate employment and enhance income.
  • The yojana develops and improves entrepreneurial culture in the country.




Q.1) Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana is aimed at (2016)

  1. bringing small entrepreneurs into the formal financial system
  2. providing loans to poor farmers for cultivating particular crops
  3. providing pensions to old and destitute persons
  4. funding the voluntary organizations involved in the promotion of skill development and employment generation

Q.2) With reference to the ‘stand up India scheme’, which of the following statement is/are correct? (2016)

  1. Its purpose is to promote entrepreneurship among SC/ST and women entrepreneurs.
  2. It provides for refinancing through SIDBI.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Bidri Crafts


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently, Karnataka’s veteran Bidri Crafts artist, Shah Rasheed Ahmed Quadri personally thanked the Prime Minister after being conferred the Padma Shri.

About Bidri Crafts:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Bidri Art Research Work on Behance

  • Bidri ware is a traditional form of handicraft that originated in Bidar, Karnataka.
  • It involves the crafting of metal wares using a unique technique that incorporates.
  • It is known for its intricate designs and motifs, which are often inspired by nature, Islamic art, and Persian calligraphy.
  • It also includes common motifs including flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns.
  • Many pieces also feature verses from the Quran or other Islamic texts.
  • Bidri ware has received several awards and recognition for its craftsmanship and cultural significance.
  • In 2006, it was awarded the Geographical Indication status by the Indian government, which recognizes its unique origin and traditional crafting techniques.
  • Bidriware has also been recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

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Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2019)

Crafts                                Heritage of

  1. Puthukkuli Shawls      Tamil Nadu
  2. Sujni Embroidery        Maharashtra
  3. Uppada Jamdani saris Karnataka

Which of the pairs given above is /are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) Kalamkari painting refers to (2015)

  1. a hand-painted cotton textile in South India
  2. a handmade drawing on bamboo handicrafts in Northeast India.
  3. a block-painted woollen cloth in the Western Himalayan region of India
  4. a hand-painted decorative silk cloth in North-Western India

Indian Space Policy 2023


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: The Union Cabinet has approved the Indian Space Policy, 2023 to enhance the role of the Department of Space, boost activities of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) missions and give a larger participation of research, academia, startups and industry.

About Indian Space Policy 2023:

  • It seeks to institutionalise the private sector participation in the space sector, with ISRO focusing on research and development of advanced space technologies.
    • The policy will allow the private sector to take part in end-to-end space activities that include building satellites, rockets and launch vehicles, data collection and dissemination.
  • The Indian Space Policy-2023, also delineated the roles and responsibilities of ISRO, space sector PSU NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) and Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe).
    • Strategic activities related to the space sector will be carried out by NSIL, a public sector undertaking under the Department of Space, which will work in a demand-driven mode.
  • The INSPACe, created recently, will be the interface between Indian Space Research Organisation and non-governmental entities.
  • The policy also spells out the framework for the private sector to use ISRO facilities for a small charge and encourages them to invest in creating new infrastructure for the sector.
    • ISRO will not do any operational and production work for the space sector and focus its energies on developing new technologies, new systems and research and development.
  • The operational part of ISRO’s missions will be moved to the NewSpace India Limited, a public sector undertaking under the Department of Space.

Significance of the Space industry

Assessing & recording weather information:

  • Satellites provide more accurate information on weather forecasts.
  • It can also assess (and record) long-term trends in the climate and habitability of a region.
    • For example, by monitoring the long-term impact of climate change at regional, territorial, and national scales, governments would be able to devise more pragmatic and combative plans of action for farmers and dependent industries.

Real-time tracking:

  • Satellites can serve as real-time monitoring and early-warning solutions against natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, wildfires, mining etc.
  • Real-time tracking can also serve multiple purposes in defence.

Communication and connectivity:

  • As for connectivity, satellite communication can reach more remote areas where conventional networks would require heavy complimenting infrastructure.
  • Additionally, as to the reliability, the World Economic Forum(WEF) stated that satellite communication can help connect 49% of the world’s unconnected population.
  • In this light, it must be noted that satellite communications, which are used to facilitate telecommunication services, are among the major categories for investment in the space technology sector.
  • Other prominent categories include spacecraft and equipment manufacturing.

Benefits to other sectors:

  • The space avenue is an integration of the aerospace, IT hardware and telecom sectors.
  • It is thus argued that investment in this arena would foster positive carryover effects to other sectors as well.

Challenges For India’s Space Sector:

  • Lower Spending: The funds allocated to the space sector are very less in comparison to other countries.
    • The US spent 10 times and China 6 times more than India in the space sector in 2019-20.
  • Absence of a Clear Legislative Framework: The draft Space Activities bill was introduced way back in 2017 but hasn’t been passed yet.
  • Lack of robust Dispute Settlement Mechanism: This discourages private investment in the space sector. The void was seen in Antrix – Devas cancelled satellite deal.
    • The Government of India owes nearly $1.2 billion to Devas Multimedia as per an order of a tribunal of the International Chamber of Commerce.
  • Brain Drain: India produces the best brains in the world but is unable to retain them.
    • People emigrate from the country for better opportunities and careers that might hamper the development of the space sector.
  • Managing big constellations of satellites: Although India has a good potential to launch satellites, managing a huge number of satellites in space could be a challenging task in the future.
    • This should be done keeping in mind the possibilities of a future space war.

Way Forward:

Over the past two decades, private enterprises such as Virgin Galactic, SpaceX, Blue Origin and Arianespace have revolutionized the space sector by reducing costs and turnaround time in other spacefaring countries.

However, in India, private enterprises have been limited to being merely suppliers to the government’s space programme. Private sector’s involvement in the long term, as with other commercial sectors, is believed to help spur investment and expertise in the realm which is capital-intensive and demands high technology.

Source:  The Hindu

India-Bhutan Relationship


  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: India recently announced a number of measures to support Bhutan’s development plans during Bhutanese King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck’s visit.

About India-Bhutan Bilateral Relations:


  • India and Bhutan share unique and exemplary bilateral relations, which are based on mutual trust, goodwill and understanding.
  • Formal diplomatic relations between India and Bhutan were established in 1968.
  • The basic framework of India-Bhutan relations is the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation signed in 1949 between the two countries, which was renewed in February 2007.
  • The new treaty replaced the provision requiring Bhutan to take India’s guidance on foreign policy with broader sovereignty and not require Bhutan to obtain India’s permission over arms imports.

Strategic Importance of Bhutan

  • Bhutan is important to India as a buffer state as it acts as a defence against China by protecting the chicken neck corridor.
  • The Siliguri Corridor, or Chicken’s Neck, is a narrow stretch of land of about 22 kilometres.
  • It is located in the Indian state of West Bengal, which connects India’s north-eastern states to the rest of India, with the countries of Nepal and Bangladesh lying on either side of the corridor.
  • The Doklam stand-off re-established the strategic significance of Bhutan for India.

Trade and Economic Ties:

  • India is Bhutan’s largest trading partner.
  • In 2020, bilateral trade accounted for 6% of Bhutan’s total trade.
  • Imports from India accounting for more than 77.1% of Bhutan’s total imports.
  • Bhutan’s exports to India constituted 90.2 % of its total exports.
  • The revised Bilateral Agreement on Trade, Commerce and Transit between India and Bhutan came into effect in 2017, and would be valid for ten years.
  • In line with our ‘Neighbourhood First Policy’, new market access has been opened for five Agri-commodities from Bhutan to India (Areca nut, Mandarin, Apple, Potato, and Ginger), and three commodities from India to Bhutan (Tomato, Onion, and Okra).
  • India allows 16 entry and exit points for Bhutanese trade with other countries (the only exception being China) and has agreed to develop and import a minimum of 10,000 megawatts of electricity from Bhutan by 2021.

Hydel Power Cooperation:

  • Government of India has constructed three Hydroelectric Projects (HEPs) in Bhutan totalling 1416 MW, which are operational and exporting surplus power to India.
    • Hydropower exports provide more than 40% of Bhutan’s domestic revenues and constitute 25% of its GDP.
  • The ongoing cooperation between India and Bhutan in the Hydropower sector is covered under the 2006 Agreement on Cooperation in Hydropower and the Protocol to the 2006 agreement signed in March, 2009.
    • Under this Protocol, Government of India has agreed to assist Royal Government of Bhutan in developing a minimum of 10,000 MW of hydropower and import the surplus electricity from this to India by the year 2020.
  • In April 2014, an Inter-Governmental Agreement was signed between India and Bhutan for development of four more HEP’s of capacity 2120 MW.
  • India has constructed three Hydroelectric Projects (HEPs) in Bhutan:
    • Chukha HEP,
    • Kurichhu HEP
    • Tala HEP which is operational and exporting surplus power to India.
  • Recently, India completed a 720 MW Mangdechhu Hydroelectric Power Project and both sides are in process of expediting the completion of other ongoing projects including the 1200MW Punatsangchhu-1 & 1020MW Punatsangchhu-2.

Multilateral Partnership and Defence:

  • Both India and Bhutan are founding members of SAARC that deals with economic, social and cultural development of South Asian Region.
  • Both of them also share other multilateral forums such as BBIN(Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal), BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation)
  • Apart from defence ties governed through Friendship Treaty, the Eastern Army Command and the Eastern Air Command both have integrated protection of Bhutan into their role.
  • The Indian Military Training Team (IMTRAT), headed by a Major General, plays a critical role in training Bhutanese security personnel.

Implications of China –Bhutan relations on India:

  • Strategic implications: China’s increasing influence in Bhutan could pose a threat to India’s security and strategic interests.
    • It could potentially give China a strategic advantage in the region by encircling India from all sides.
  • Economic implications: China’s growing economic influence in Bhutan could impact India’s trade and economic interests in the region.
    • It could also lead to China gaining access to Bhutan’s natural resources, which could pose a challenge to India’s energy security.
  • Regional implications: China’s increasing influence in Bhutan could impact the balance of power in the region.
    • It could lead to a shift in the regional power dynamics and potentially impact India’s role in the region.
  • Diplomatic implications: China’s growing influence in Bhutan could impact Bhutan’s traditional pro-India foreign policy.
    • This could lead to Bhutan distancing itself from India and aligning more closely with China, which could have diplomatic implications for India in the region.

Recent developments in India-Bhutan Relations:

  • Maitri Initiative: Bhutan is the first country to receive the Covishield vaccines under India’s Vaccine Maitri Initiative.
  • STEM: Two countries are collaborating closely on STEM through regular placement of Bhutanese youth in our IITs.
  • Financial connectivity: It has touched new heights through the launch of the RuPay card and the BHIM app.
  • Start-Up ecosystem: Both nations successfully linked up the Start-Up systems of our two countries via structured workshops; through the National Knowledge Network & the Druk-REN connection.
  • E-Library project: It has opened up new vistas of education and knowledge sharing between two countries.
  • Scholarships: There are many scholarships available for undergraduate and postgraduate studies for Bhutanese students by India, namely Nehru-Wangchuck Scholarships, Ambassador’s Scholarship etc.

Way Forward:

The Road ahead for India-Bhutan ties is one of tremendous potential and opportunities. Both the countries must enhance connectivity which is a central pillar of India’s ‘Neighbourhood First’ and ‘Act East’ policies.

The relationship has helped Bhutan shape a unique developmental trajectory based on Gross National Happiness and unbeatable model of sustainable development by being Carbon Negative overall. The Indian prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, on his visit to Bhutan has rightly named the blending of diplomacy and economy when he explained the idea of B2B as Bharat to Bhutan.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding the Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana:

  1. The scheme was launched in 2015 to promote entrepreneurship among the youth, generate employment and enhance income
  2. The loans under this scheme are collateral-free loans
  3. It is under the Ministry Of MSME

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements and identify the freedom fighter:

  1. She was a freedom fighter from Kaushambi.
  2. She had spent her savings on revolutionary works fighting against British imperialism.
  3. She gave shelter to Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru after the assassination of Assistant Superintendent of Police John Saunders and later rescued them out of Lahore.
  4. She was an active member of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha.

Select the correct answer code using the code given below:

  1. Lakshmi Sahgal
  2. Usha Mehta
  3. Durga Bhabhi
  4. Rani Gaidinliu

Q.3) Consider the following pairs:

Mahajanpadas                            Capital

  1. Vatsa                               Kaushambi
  2. Magadha                        Shravasti
  3. Avanti                             Ujjaini or Mahishmati
  4. Kosala                             Rajgriha

How many pair/s given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. One pair only
  2. Two pairs only
  3. Three pairs only
  4. All four pairs

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 8th April 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 7th April – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d

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