DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th July 2023

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  • July 28, 2023
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Namami Gange Programme


  • Prelims –Government Schemes

Context: Recently, the Government said that 254 projects have been completed so far under Namami Gange Programme.

About Namami Gange Programme:-

IMAGE SOURCE: revexpo.com

  • Launched: 2014.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Objectives: to accomplish the objectives of abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of the National River Ganga. (6 Mega development projects inaugurated under Namami Gange Mission)
  • Namami Gange Programme, is an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as a ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014.
  • The program would be implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program Management Groups (SPMGs).

Working Mechanism:-

  • A three-tier mechanism has been proposed for project monitoring comprising of:
    • A high-level task force: chaired by Cabinet Secretary assisted by NMCG at the national level.
    • State-level committee: chaired by Chief Secretary assisted by SPMG at the state level.
    • District level: committee chaired by the District Magistrate.


  • Its implementation has been divided into:-
    • Entry-Level Activities: for immediate visible impact
    • Medium-Term Activities: to be implemented within 5 years of the time frame and
    • Long-Term Activities: to be implemented within 10 years.

Main pillars of the programme:-

  • Sewage Treatment Infrastructure
  • River-Front Development
  • River-Surface Cleaning
  • Biodiversity
  • Afforestation
  • Public Awareness
  • Industrial Effluent Monitoring
  • Ganga Gram

Key achievements under the Namami Gange programme:-

  • Creating Sewerage Treatment Capacity: 48 sewage management projects are under implementation and 99 sewage projects have been completed in the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan.
  • Creating River-Front Development: 71 Ghats/Crematoria projects for construction, modernization, and renovation of 270 Ghats/Crematoria and Kunds/Ponds have been initiated.
  • River Surface Cleaning: River Surface cleaning for collection of floating solid waste from the surface of the Ghats and River and its disposal are afoot and pushed into service at 11 locations.
  • Bio-Diversity Conservation: Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Kolkata & Uttar Pradesh State Forest Department has been awarded projects to develop science-based aquatic species restoration plans for Ganga River by involving multiple stakeholders along with conservation & restoration of aquatic biodiversity.
  • Afforestation: One of the major components of Ganga rejuvenation is ‘forestry interventions’ to enhance the productivity and diversity of the forests in headwater areas and all along the river and its tributaries.
  • Public Awareness: A series of activities such as events, workshops, seminars and conferences were organized to make a strong pitch for public outreach and community participation in the programme.
  • Industrial Effluent Monitoring: Regulation and enforcement through regular and surprise inspections of Grossly Polluting Industries (GPIs) are carried out for compliance verification against stipulated environmental norms.
  • Ganga Gram: 578 Crores has been released to the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS) for the construction of toilets in 1674 Gram Panchayats of 5 Ganga Basin States.

MUST READ: Cleaning of River Ganga



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)


According to the United Nations ‘World Water Development Report,2022’, India extracts more than a quarter of the world’s groundwater withdrawal each year.


India needs to extract more than a quarter of the world’s groundwater each year to satisfy the drinking water and sanitation needs of almost 18% of the world’s population living in its territory.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q.2) Consider the following statements in relation to Janani Suraksha Yojana: (2023)

  1. It is a safe motherhood intervention of the State Health Departments.
  2. Its objective is to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality among poor pregnant women.
  3. It aims to promote institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.
  4. Its objective includes providing public health facilities to sick infants up to one year of age.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: The Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC) was launched recently.


  • RECEIC was launched at the side event during the fourth Environment and Climate Sustainability Working Group and Environment and Climate Ministers meeting in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • It was conceptualized under India’s G20 Presidency.

About Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC):-

  • Launched in:2023.
  • Launched at Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • Launched by: Hon’ Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Shri Bhupender Yadav.
  • It was launched in the presence of the Commissioner on Environment from the European Union and Honorable Ministers from Canada, France, Italy, Denmark, Mauritius, and the United Arab Emirates
  • RECEIC is an industry-driven initiative aimed at promoting resource efficiency and circular economy practices globally.
    • Circular economy: it is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products for as long as possible. Circular economy)
  • The coalition is envisioned to be a self-sustaining entity that will continue to operate beyond India’s G20 Presidency, making a lasting impact on environmental sustainability.
  • Founding members: 39 companies headquartered in 11 different countries have joined the coalition as its founding members.
  • As a collaborative platform, RECEIC aims to facilitate knowledge-sharing, best practice sharing, and sustainable practices among the participating industries.


  • The coalition has three guiding principles –
    • Partnerships for impact
    • Technology Cooperation
    • Finance for scale

MUST READ: G20 Presidency of India



Q.1) Consider the following statements with reference to India: (2023)

  1. According to the ‘Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006’, the ‘medium enterprises’ are those with investments in plant and machinery between (15 crore and 25 crore).
  2. All bank loans to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises qualify under the priority sector.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to Central Bank digital currencies, consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. It is possible to make payments in a digital currency without using the US dollar or SWIFT system.
  2. A digital currency can be distributed with a condition programmed into it such as a timeframe for spending it.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Gulf Stream


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: Recent studies have warned that the Gulf Stream system of warm ocean currents could collapse as early as 2025.


  • The study’s author at the University of Copenhagen said that other scientists had warned about the potential collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
    • AMOC: t is a large system of ocean currents operating In the Atlantic, which circulates the waters between the north and the south.
    • It plays a vital role in redistributing heat around the Earth and regulating global climate patterns.

About Gulf Stream:-

IMAGE SOURCE: scijinks

  • The Gulf Stream is a strong ocean current. ( Ocean Currents)
  • It carries warm water from the Gulf of Mexico into the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Location: It extends all the way up the eastern coast of the United States and Canada.
  • Origin: It originates in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Formation: It is primarily formed by the convergence of warm waters from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. ( Upwelling and Downwelling)
    • It then travels northward along the eastern coast of the United States.
  • The Gulf Stream is several hundred kilometers wide.
  • It can flow at an average speed of about 2.5 meters per second.
  • The Gulf Stream is part of a general clockwise-rotating system of currents in the North Atlantic.
  • It is fed by the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current moving from North Africa to the West Indies.

 Importance of Gulf Stream:-

  • Temperature Regulation: It moderates the temperatures along the eastern coast of North America, keeping the coastal areas warmer in winter and cooler in summer.
  • Maritime Navigation: It provides a fast and efficient route for ships travelling between North America and Europe.
  • Ocean Circulation: The Gulf Stream is an essential part of the larger oceanic circulation system known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

MUST READ: Deep Ocean Mission (DOM)



Q.1) Which one of the lakes of West Africa has become dry and turned into a desert? (2022)

  1. Lake Victoria
  2. Lake Faguibine
  3. Lake Oguta
  4. Lake Volta



  • Prelims –Science and Technology

Context: All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi has been witnessing an increase in conjunctivitis cases recently.

About Conjunctivitis:-

  • Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the transparent membrane that lines the eyelid and eyeball.
    • This membrane is called the conjunctiva.
  • It is also called Pink eye infection. ( Mucormycosis)

Causes of Conjunctivitis:-

  • Viruses.
  • Bacteria.
  • Allergies.
  • A chemical splash in the eye.
  • A foreign object in the eye.
  • In newborns, a blocked tear duct.

Symptoms of Conjunctivitis:-

  • Redness.
  • Itchiness.
  • A gritty feeling in one or both eyes.
  • A discharge in one or both eyes that forms a crust during the night that may prevent your eye or eyes from opening in the morning.
  • Tearing.
  • Sensitivity to light, called photophobia.

Transmission of Conjunctivitis:-

  • Direct transmission: through droplets from the cough or sneeze of an infected person or hand-to-eye contact.
  • Indirect transmission: through shared personal items like towels, makeup, pillows or contact lenses.

Prevention of Conjunctivitis:-

  • Practice good hygiene to control the spread of pink eye. Some of these include:-
    • Not touching one’s eyes with your hands.
    • Washing hands often.
    • Using a clean towel and washcloth daily

Treatment of Conjunctivitis:-

  • Virus caused: Pinkeye caused by the herpes virus can be very serious and may need prescription antiviral eye drops, ointment, or pills.
  • Bacteria caused: If bacteria, including those related to STDs, caused the pinkeye, one may need antibiotics along with eye drops or ointments.
  • Irritants caused: For pinkeye caused by an irritating substance, one may use water to wash the substance from the eye for 5 minutes.
  • A warm or cold compress will also help in giving relief from inflammation and swelling.

MUST READ: Shigella infection



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)


India’s public sector health care system largely focuses on curative care with limited preventive, promotive and rehabilitative care.


Under India’s decentralized approach to healthcare delivery, the States are primarily responsible for organizing health services.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q.2) ‘Wolbachia method’ is sometimes talked about with reference to which one of the following? (2023)

  1. Controlling the viral diseases spread by mosquitoes
  2. Converting crop residues into packing material
  3. Producing biodegradable plastics
  4. Producing biochar from thermos chemical conversion of biomass

Batagaika Crater


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology/Geography

Context: Recent studies show that the Batagaika Crater can be a warning sign for the Earth.


  • As per the study, the soil beneath the slump contains dangerous amounts of organic carbon that will be released into the atmosphere as the permafrost thaws, further fueling the planet’s warming.

About Batagaika Crater:-

IMAGE SOURCE: copernicus.eu

  • The Batagaika crater, the world’s largest permafrost crater.
  • It is one kilometer long.
  • Location: Sakha Republic, Russia.
  • Depth: It reaches depths of up to 100 meters.
  • In the 1960s, after deforestation led to the melting of the underground permafrost, it caused the land to sink. Over the years, the crater has only expanded and is locally called ‘the cave-in’ or ‘mega-slump’.
  • Formation: Scientists believe that the crater is the result of a melting permafrost land, which was frozen during the Quaternary Ice Age 2.58 million years ago.
  • The locals in Russia’s Sakha Republic call it the “gateway to the underworld.”
    • The term reflects the crater’s vastness and the fact that it seems to offer a glimpse into the Earth’s past.
  • Significance of Batagaika crater: Scientists believe that the crater is the result of a melting permafrost land, which was frozen during the Quaternary Ice Age 2.58 million years ago.
  • It has been observed in recent times that the Batagaika crater has been expanding.

Cause of Batagaika Crater’s Expansion:-

  • The expansion of the Batagaika crater can be attributed to the melting of permafrost, a phenomenon triggered by global warming.
    • Permafrost: a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains below freezing point throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions. ( Permafrost)

Causes of Permafrost Thawing:-

  • Rise in global temperatures due to climate change.
    • Human activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, have released vast amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
    • These gases trap heat and result in a warming climate, which directly affects regions like Siberia with large permafrost areas.
  • Deforestation: It exposed the permafrost to sunlight, accelerating its melting.
  • Other human activities: Infrastructure development, and industrial activities, can further disturb the delicate balance of these frozen landscapes.

Implications of the expansion on the environment:-

  • As the permafrost thaws, enormous quantities of organic carbon are released into the atmosphere.
  • This further contributes to the intensification of global warming.
  • It will pose a significant challenge to climate change mitigation efforts.
  • The thawing permafrost has had severe consequences on northern and northeastern Russia, leading to infrastructure damage.
    • These include: Buckling roadways, splitting houses, and disrupting pipelines.

MUST READ: Permafrost and Pandemic



Q.1) With reference to the Earth’s atmosphere, which one of the following statements is correct? (2023)

  1. The total amount of insolation received at the equator is roughly about 10 times that received at the poles.
  2. Infrared rays constitute roughly two-thirds of insolation.
  3. Infrared waves are largely absorbed by water vapour that is concentrated in the lower atmosphere.
  4. Infrared waves are a part of the visible spectrum of electromagnetic waves of solar radiation.

Q.2) Climate Action Tracker” which monitors the emission reduction pledges of different countries is a: (2022)

  1. Database created by a coalition of research organizations
  2. Wing of “International Panel of Climate Change
  3. Committee under “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”
  4. Agency promoted and financed by United Nations Environment Programme and World Bank

Scorpene-class submarine


  • Prelims –Defense

Context: Contract for three additional Scorpene-class submarines is expected to be concluded by end-2024.


  • The first submarine will be delivered in 2031.
  • Naval Group and the Mazagon Dock Limited, Mumbai signed a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation on three additional Scorpenes on July 6.

About Scorpene-class submarine:-

  • Scorpene-class submarines have advanced stealth features.
  • These are equipped with both long-range guided torpedoes as well as anti-ship missiles.
  • These have a state-of-the-art SONAR and sensor suite permitting outstanding operational capabilities.
  • Historical Background:-
    • Under Project 75, six Scorpene-class submarines are to be constructed for the Indian Navy by the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL)
    • India and France signed the deal in 2005.
    • Under this they were to be manufactured by the MDL under technology transfer.
  • INS Kalvari: it was the first submarine in the Scorpene-class submarines series. ( Kalvari-Class Submarine INS Vagir)
    • It was commissioned in
  • INS Khanderi: it was the second submarine.
    • It was commissioned in
  • INS Karanj: it was the third submarine.
    • It was commissioned in
  • INS Vela: it was the fourth
    • It was commissioned in
  • INS Vagir: it was the fifth submarine.
    • It was commissioned in
  • INS Vagsheer: it is the 6th submarine.
    • It is undergoing trial phases and is expected to be delivered to the Navy in early 2024.

Significance of the Project:-

  • Promoting Atmanirbhar Bharat: These Submarines are to be constructed under technology transfer from and in collaboration with the Naval Group of France.
  • This project envisages the indigenous construction of submarines equipped with the state-of-the-art Air Independent Propulsion system.
  • It will ensure Self-Reliance.
  • It will ensure the protection of the Indo-Pacific region.

MUST READ: Submarine Vagir



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Ballistic missiles are jet-propelled at subsonic speeds throughout their flights, while cruise missiles are rocket-powered only in the initial phase of flight.
  2. Agni-V is a medium-range supersonic cruise missile, while BrahMos is a solid-fuelled intercontinental ballistic missile.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to Home Guards, consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. Home Guards are raised under the Home Guards Act and Rules of the Central Government.
  2. The role of the Home Guards is to serve as an auxiliary force to the police in the maintenance of internal security.
  3. To prevent infiltration on the international border/ coastal areas, the Border Wing Home Guards Battalions have been raised in some states.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None




  • Mains – GS 1 (Geography) and GS 3 (Environment and Ecology)

Context:  Baltic Sea Seagrass Initiative helps train local citizens to restore seagrass meadows in the Baltic Sea, which can help, tackle Climate Change.

About Seagrasses:

  • Seagrasses are flowering plants that grow submerged in shallow marine waters like bays and lagoons.
  • Like terrestrial plants, seagrass also photosynthesizes and manufactures their own food and releases oxygen.
  • They evolved around 100 million years ago, and there are approximately 72 different seagrass species that belong to four major groups.
  • Some of the important seagrasses are Sea Cow Grass (Cymodocea serrulata), Thready Seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata), Needle Seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium), Flat-tipped Seagrass (Halodule uninervis), Spoon Seagrass (Halophila ovalis) and Ribbon Grass (Enhalus acoroides).
  • Distribution:
    • They are found on all continents except Antarctica.
    • The tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific hold the highest diversity of seagrasses in the world.
  • Seagrass distribution in India:
    • They occur all along the coastal areas of India.
    • They are abundant in the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu.


  • Seagrasses are considered ‘Ecosystem Engineers’ as they are known for providing many ecosystem services and are also called ‘the lungs of the sea’ as they release oxygen into the water through photosynthesis.
  • Maintain water quality: Seagrasses help maintain water quality. They trap fine sediments and suspended particles in the water column and increase water clarity.
    • In the absence of seagrass communities, the sediments are stirred by wind and waves, decreasing water quality.
    • This reduced water clarity affects marine animal behaviour besides decreasing the recreational quality of coastal zones.
  • Filter nutrients: They filter nutrients released from land-based industries before they reach sensitive habitats like coral reefs.
  • Stabilises the sea bottom: Ocean bottoms without seagrasses are prone to intense wave action from currents and storms.
    • The extensive vertical and horizontal root systems of seagrasses stabilise the sea bottom similar to land grasses that prevent soil erosion.
  • Provide food and habitat: Seagrasses provide food as well as habitat for fishes, octopuses, shrimp, blue crabs, oysters, sponges, sea urchins, clams, etc. They are called ‘the lungs of the sea’ as they release oxygen into the water through photosynthesis.
  • Protect small beings: Seagrass habitats protect juvenile and small adult fish from large predators and strong currents.
    • Marine animals that live in soft sea bottom sediments also take shelter in seagrass meadows.
    • Seahorses and lizardfish are found living in seagrass meadows almost throughout the year.
  • Releases nutrients after decomposition: When it is further decomposed, it releases nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous. The dissolved nutrients in the water are absorbed by seagrasses and phytoplankton.
  • Absorbs CO2: Even though seagrasses occupy only 0.1 per cent of the ocean floor; they sequester up to 11 per cent of the organic carbon buried in the ocean.
    • Seagrasses absorb 83 million tonnes of carbon from the atmosphere annually.

Threat to Seagrass

  • Seagrass beds are facing decline all over the world at the rate of 2-5 per cent annually.
    • Some 30,000 square kilometers of seagrass has been lost during recent decades at a global level.
  • Europe lost one-third of its seagrass areas between 1860 and 2016(due to which carbon released into the atmosphere and enhanced Global Warming).
  • Seagrasses face natural disturbances like grazing, storms, ice scouring and desiccation.
  • Human disturbances like eutrophication, mechanical destruction of habitat, overfishing and release of nutrients play havoc on seagrasses.
    • Siltation, trawling, coastal engineering construction, pollution, etc, are considered significant causes for the deterioration of seagrasses.

Measures taken for the protection of Seagrasses:


  • The Virginia Institute of Marine Science in the eastern United States seeded 456 acres of the Chesapeake Bay with 7.65 million seagrass seeds
  • One of the most famous initiatives is the Sea Store Seagrass Restoration Project in Keil (Germany) by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research.

In India:

  • Institutions of higher learning and research have been heavily involved in studies on seagrass mapping, species diversity, and transplanting.
  • The Government has also initiated a project across the States of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Odisha on enhancing climate resilience of India’s coastal communities, which includes a grant by Global Climate Fund (GCF) covering 24 ecosystems in these selected States.

Way Forward

If seagrass habitats are lost, the marine organisms that depend on them for their survival may also face extinction, resulting in the loss of marine ecosystem productivity. Protection and restoration should be attempted at a global level as it can play a significant role in mitigating climate change.

Source:    The Print

About Baltic Sea:

  • It is part of the North Atlantic Ocean, situated in Northern Europe.
  • It extends northward from the latitude of southern Denmark almost to the Arctic Circle and separates the Scandinavian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe.
  • The Baltic Sea connects to the Atlantic Ocean through the Danish Straits.
  • It is the largest expanse of brackish water in the world.
  • Surrounding Countries: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Finland and Sweden.
  • The Baltic Sea contains three major gulfs: the Gulf of Bothnia to the north, the Gulf of Finland to the east, and the Gulf of Riga slightly to the south of that.
  • Baltic Nations:
    • Baltic Nations are Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
    • They are bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea, on the east by Russia, on the southeast by Belarus, and on the southwest by Poland and an exclave of Russia.

Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Environment)

Context: The Lok Sabha recently passed the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021 that aims to amend the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

Objectives of the Bill:

  • Benefitting tribes and vulnerable communities: The main objective of the amendment is to ensure that tribes and vulnerable communities derive benefits from the proceeds of medicinal forest products.
  • Encouraging ayurveda and ease of doing business: The amendment decriminalizes certain activities, encouraging the practice of Ayurveda and promoting ease of doing business in the Ayurveda sector.
  • Simplifying patent application processes: The amendment aims to simplify patent application processes for traditional Indian medicine practitioners, researchers, and industry players, facilitating collaborative research and investments.
  • Widening scope of access and benefit sharing: The bill also proposes to widen the scope of levying access and benefit sharing with local communities to further conserve biological resources.

Salient Features of the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021

  • Exemption for AYUSH practitioners: The Bill exempted registered AYUSH medical practitioners from the requirement of giving prior intimation to State Biodiversity Boards for accessing biological resources purposes.
    • This exemption aimed to facilitate easier access for traditional medicine practitioners to biological resources for medicinal purposes.
  • Exemption for cultivated medicinal plants: The Bill excluded cultivated medicinal plants from the purview of the Biological Diversity Act.
    • This meant that access to cultivated medicinal plants for various purposes would not be subject to the regulations and requirements of the Act.
  • Fast tracking of research and patent application: The Bill proposed to fast track the process of research and patent applications related to biological resources.
    • This provision aimed to encourage and expedite research and innovation in the field of biodiversity and its applications.
  • Change in offences classification: The Bill proposed to change the nature of violations of the law related to access to biological resources and benefit sharing with communities.
    • Currently treated as criminal offences that are non-bailable, the Bill sought to make these violations civil offences.
  • Foreign Investment in biodiversity research: The Bill allowed foreign investment in research related to biodiversity.
    • However, it stipulated that such investment should be made through Indian companies involved in biodiversity research exclusively.
  • Introduction of member-secretary post: The Bill introduced the post of ‘Member-Secretary’ to be appointed by the Central Government.
  • The Member-Secretary would serve as the chief coordinating officer and convener of the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) and assist the Authority in discharging its functions under the Biological Diversity Act.

Criticism of the Bill

  • Risk of biopiracy: One of the main concerns is that easing the norms and giving exemptions could open the door to biopiracy.
    • Biopiracy refers to the unauthorized commercial exploitation of biological resources or traditional knowledge belonging to indigenous and local communities.
  • Exemption of AYUSH companies: This exemption is seen as a violation of a 2018 judgement by the Uttarakhand High Court that mandated all companies, both foreign and Indian, to seek prior consent and approval for access and benefit-sharing with local communities.
  • Violation of forest rights act: The Bill is seen to be in violation of the Forest Rights Act, 2006, which recognizes and authorizes the Gram Sabha (village council) for prior permission and approval in case of any access to forests.
  • Dilution of penal provisions: The Bill has been criticized for diluting the penalty provisions.

Way Forward:

The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021, aims to address concerns related to the existing Act and promote the benefits of medicinal forest products to tribes and vulnerable communities. While the government states that the amendment will encourage Ayurveda and ease of doing business, environmentalists raise concerns about the potential for “bio-piracy” and lack of clarity on benefit sharing. Striking a balance between promoting traditional knowledge and protecting biodiversity will be crucial for the effective implementation of the amendment.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following pairs:

Name of the Ocean Current Type of Ocean Current
1.Alaskan Current Cold water current
2.Falkland Current Cold water current
3.Gulf Stream Warm water current

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q2) Consider the following statements


INS Kalvari was the first submarine in the Scorpene-class submarines series.


INS Vagsheer is the 5th submarine in the series.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following statements


Conjunctivitis can be caused due to allergies.


It is also called pink eye.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Assess the implications of the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021, on the conservation of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. Evaluate the government’s rationale behind the amendments and propose strategies to ensure effective implementation while safeguarding the interests of tribes, vulnerable communities, and the environment. (250 Words)

Q.2) Given the significant threat to Seagrasses, there is an urgent need to take earnest measures to conserve seagrasses and their habitats. Discuss (250 words)

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 28th  July 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 27th July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d

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