Mains 2018: General Studies Paper: How IASbaba was Helpful in Answering More than 85 Percent of UPSC GS Mains Papers!

  • IASbaba
  • October 8, 2018
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UPSC Mains Question Papers 2018
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Mains 2018: General Studies Paper: How IASbaba was Helpful in Answering More than 85 Percent of UPSC GS Mains Papers!

Dear Friends,

2018 year has been really kind for IASbaba and its followers.

Firstly, when UPSC tumbled the whos who in Prelims – 2018, it was IASbaba and its ILP (Integrated Learning Program) that stood tall.

The increasing popularity of ILP over the years bears testimony to ILP’s success.

For us  the Mains -2018 was very much on the above lines and we are extremely happy that we were able to equip our ILP, TLP and C2C followers to perform exceedingly well.

We at IASbaba are expecting bigger and better results this year!!

We write this post with great happiness to show how IASBaba helped its followers in answering the questions posed by IASbaba.

A Note: Our programs are extremely focused and integrated.We have very minimal input.

The high quality synopsis not only gives the solutions but also the approach to generate points for any question.

You can see that from hardly 300 TLP questions we helped you hit close to 60% of the Mains questions with other programs such as C2C and ILP adding to the rest 85%.

GS – 4

In GS-4, we never thought of being this close :). Haven’t included case studies but our students both online and offline have done really well because of the guidance on dealing with case studies.

1(a) State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance. (150 words)

  • Differentiate between the terms ‘impartiality’, ‘non-partisanship’ and ‘objectivity’. Why these attributes are necessary for a civil servant. TLP
  • Why compassion and tolerance are considered to be imperative traits for a good civil servant? Elucidate. TLP
  • C2C Phase II, Test 8: Civil servants must have an objective and non-partisan approach towards work. Aren’t these qualities enough for smooth functioning of a bureaucracy? Why compassion and tolerance towards the weaker sections considered equally important? Analyse.

1(b) Distinguish between “Code of ethics” and “Code of conduct” with suitable examples. (150 words)

  • What is code of ethics? Isn’t it a blunt tool? Discuss. TLP
  • C2C Phase II, Test 12: Differentiate between code of ethics and code of conduct

2 (a) What is mean by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest? (150 words)            

  • Explain detail, the concept of public service in the Indian context. Has there been a decline in the spirit of ‘service’? Examine. TLP
  • What do you understand by ‘utilitarianism’? Is is the right end of life for a civil servant? Examine. TLP
  • C2C Phase I, Test 13: Public service must be more than doing a job efficiently and honestly. It must be a complete dedication to the people and to the nation. Comment.

2 (b) “The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens’ empowerment alone, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability. Discuss. (150 words)

  • What positive transformations has the Right to Information (RTI) brought since its inception? Illustrate by taking suitable examples. TLP
  • C2C Phase I, Test 13: Can transparency curb corruption? Critically analyse. In this light, examine the efficacy of the Right to Information (RTI) in bringing down corrupt in India.  

3 (a) What is mean by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (150 words)  

  • What do you understand by ‘conflict of interest’? How do India’s public institutions get affected by it? Is judiciary untouched by it? Examine. TLP

3 (b) “In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” – Warren Buffett

What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain. (150 words)     

  • “The greatness of a man is not in how much wealth he acquires, but in his integrity and his ability to affect those around him positively”. Comment. TLP

4 (a) “In doing a good thing, everything is permitted which is not prohibited expressly or by clear implication”. Examine the statement with suitable examples in the context of a public servant discharging his/her duties. (150 words)  

  • C2C Phase II, Test 8: What does the following statement mean to you in the present context: Sometimes, in order to follow our moral compass and/or our hearts, we have to make unpopular decisions or stand up for what we believe in.

4 (b) With regard to the morality of actions, one view is that means is of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer. (150 words)  

  • C2C Phase II, Test 4: Ethics are less a goal than a pathway, less a destination than a trip, less an inoculation than a process. Comment.
  • C2C Phase II, Full Mock Test: What is more important to you- ‘purpose’ or ‘means’ of an action? Substantiate.
  • C2C Phase I, Test 4: What is of more importance to a public servant- means or end of an action? Give your views

5 (a) Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bond by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies (150 words)    

  • Social influence and persuasion have become imperative measures to ensure behavioural change through public policy. Elucidate. TLP
  • C2C Phase II, Test 4: Are social influence and persuasion more potent tools to bring about behavioural change? Examine with the help of suitable examples.

5 (b) Explain the process of resolving ethical dilemmas in Public Administration. (150 words)                             

  • C2C Phase II, Test 12: Does taking recourse to laws, rules and regulations while facing ethical dilemmas in government ensure ethical decision making? Illustrate by taking suitable examples.
  • What tools do administrators have in their hands to address ethical dilemmas in public life? Illustrate. TLP
  • Why do civil servants face ethical dilemmas while discharging their duties? Examine by taking suitable examples. TLP

6 (a) “The true rule, in determining to embrace, or reject anything, is not whether it has any evil in it; but whether it has more evil than good. There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost everything, especially of governmental policy, is an inseparable compound of the two; so that our best judgement of the preponderance between them is continually demanded. ”Abraham Lincoln ( 150 words)                

  • C2C Phase II, Test 4: Can values be classified as ‘good’ or ‘bad’? Critically examine.

6 (b) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding. “ _ Mahatma Gandhi (150 words) 

  • C2C Phase II, Test 8: A person’s ability to perceive, identify and manage emotions allows him to develop the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important for success in almost any job. Elucidate.

6 (c) “Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.” – Tirukkural (150 words)     

  • Truth can be stated in a thousand different ways, yet each one can be true. TLP

GS 3

Q.1) “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is a sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs).” Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.

  • ILP 2018 Human and Sustainable Development in India-VAN

Q.2) Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gain Tax – (LTCG) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.

Q.3) What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low-income traps?

  • Do you think increasing the MSPs provide a sustainable solution to address agrarian distress in India? Critically examine. TLP
  • ILP 2018- VAN-Agriculture Issues

Q.4) Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate the number of intermediaries?

  • Examine the case to strengthen food supply chain management in India. Also suggest measures to address the associated challenges. (TLP)
  • Examine the bottlenecks in the supply chain of food processing industry of India. Also suggest ways to address them. (TLP)

Q.5) Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of physics.

Q.6) What are the impediments in disposing of the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?

  • How are lacunas in Solid waste management responsible for underground water pollution? What are ill effects of underground water pollution? TLP
  • E-waste management: Generating jobs- DNA
  • Reducing GHGs emissions from Solid waste management-DNA

Q.7) What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

  • ILP 2018 – Environment VAN, SET 7 BLOCK 2
  • Comment on India’s wetland management system. Examine the associated problems. Also discuss the changes introduced by Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Amendment Rules, 2016. TLP

Q.8) Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State ‘in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?

Q.9) The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger “One Belt One Road” initiative .Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same.

  • What are the challenges being posed by China’s Belt and Road initiative for India? Analyse. TLP
  • What is CPEC? Should India worry about it? Analyse. TLP
  • The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is China’s Marshall plan. Do you agree? Substantiate. TLP

Q.10) Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still effects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the government of India’s approach to counter the challengers post by LWE.

  • Examine the changing characteristics and pattern of left-wing extremism in India. TLP
  • C2C 2018 Phase 2 Test 11: What are the challenges posed by left-wing extremism (LWE) in India? Also, examine the importance and limitations of infrastructure development in curbing LWE.

Q.11) How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile planning commission in India?

  • Critically analyse the performance of NITI Ayog since its origin. Do you think the vision, strategy and actions of NITI Ayog are in sync with the aspirations of young India? Examine. TLP

Q.12) How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade effect macroeconomic stability of India?

  • We are witnessing a trend of increasing protectionism and isolationism by the developed countries of the world. What reasons can be attributed to this trend? How will it affect India’s interests? Examine. TLP
  • Protectionism and a retreat from international cooperation seem to be the trend today with major powers of the world looking inward and adopting measures to protect their domestic interests. Has this trend affected India in any way? Critically examine. TLP

Q.13) Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers?

  • Examine the potential of horticulture as a source of sustainable livelihood. Also discuss the objectives and features of the Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH). TLP
  • What are technology missions? Discuss their significance for the agricultural sector with the help of suitable examples. TLP

Q.14) How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.

  • Why coarse grains are important? How can coarse grains be integrated into the cropping pattern to ensure maximum benefit? Discuss. TLP
  • ILP 2018 VAN-SET 4 BLOCK 3

Q.15) Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma? 

Q.16) With growing energy needs should India keep on extending its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy.

  • C2C 2018  Phase 1 (Test 5) – Critically analyse the need for making India independent in nuclear energy capabilities. Also, throw light on the recent progress of nuclear development in India.
  • ILP 2018 VAN- Nuclear Issues

Q.17) How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation flora and fauna?

  • ILP 2018 – Environment VAN

Q.18) Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’?

Q.19) Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cybercrimes. The justice B.N Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weaknesses of the Report relating the protection of personal data in cyberspace?

  • C2C 2018 Data protection is one of the key elements for a robust cyber policy. Analyse.
  • Assessment: Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee recommendations. DNA

Q.20) India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What countermeasures should be taken to prevent the same?

  • AIR – Prevention of Drug Abuse and Trafficking
  • What do you understand by narco-terrorism? Explain. What challenges does it pose to India’s internal security? Examine. TLP
  • Examine the increasing symbiotic relationship between organised crime cartels and terrorist groups. TLP

GS -2

Q.1) In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (10)

  • C2C Phase I Test 5: Restoring confidence in EVMs is not just a legal issue but also holds the key to restoring confidence in the idea of democracy as a whole. Comment. 

Q.2) Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (10)

  • Keeping in mind the increasing instances of violence and atrocities against Dalits, do you think giving more powers and teeth to the National Commission for Schedule Castes will address the issue? Examine. TLP

Q.3) Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? (10)


Q.4) Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. (10)

  • C2C Phase I Test 1: Parliamentary committees act as instruments for ensuring executive accountability. Elucidate. Also explain briefly the committee system of the Indian Parliament. 

Q.5) “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. (10)

  • C2C Phase II Test 2: The CAG has become the most reliable instrument to establish integrity in administration. Critically comment. (150 Words, 10 Marks) 

Q.6) “Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation to the environment.” Comment with relevant illustrations. (10)

Q.7) Appropriate local community level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Explain. (10)

  • While the private sector dominates healthcare delivery across the country, a majority of the population living below the poverty line (BPL) continues to rely on the under-financed and short-staffed public sector for its healthcare needs, as a result of which these remain unmet. Comment. Also suggest ideas to improve the status of public healthcare in India. TLP
  • Although the private sector can play a constructive role in the provisioning healthcare services, the overall health policy discourse must retain the ‘public good’ character of the health sector. Comment. TLP

Q.8) E-governance in not only about utilization of the power of new technology but also much about the critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information. Explain. (10)

  • In India E-governance is more about the ‘E’ and less about ‘governance’. Examine the statement in the light of the initiatives taken by the government since the beginning of the National E-governance Plan (NeGP). TLP

Q.9) “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. (10)

  • India and Israel share common interests and face similar challenges. In this context, the recent visit by India’s PM to Israel is a reaffirmation of the need to explore the full potential of Indo-Israel ties. Elucidate. TLP
  • India and Israel have come a long way in establishing themselves as important partners in world. Critically evaluate the bilateral relation between two countries. IASBABA AIR

Q.10) A number of outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone of interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. (10)

  • C2C Phase II Test 10: India recently joined the Ashgabat Agreement. What is this agreement and what significance does it hold for India? Analyse. (15 marks, 250 words) 
  • What is the Ashgabat agreement. Why is it important for India? Discuss. TLP

Q.11) Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. (15)

  • The recent Supreme Court judgement in the Govt of NCT of Delhi v Union of India upholds a basic democratic principle: The responsibility to exercise power on behalf of the people, lies with the elected legislature. Discuss. TLP

Q.12) How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (15)

  • C2C Phase II Test 2: The provisions for alternate dispute resolution in India follow from the Constitution. Discuss. Also assess the performance of National Lok Adalats conducted so far in the country. Can they be an effective tool for dispute resolution? Critically examine. (150 Words, 10 Marks) 
  • What are tribunals? How successful are tribunals in India? What reforms are needed to make tribunals an effective dispute resolution mechanism? Suggest. TLP

Q.13) Indian and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based. (15)

  • India-U.S. bilateral relations have developed into a “global strategic partnership”, based on shared democratic values and increasing convergence of interests on bilateral, regional and global issues. Comment. TLP

Q.14) How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. (15)

  • C2C Full Mock Paper 2: Comment upon the changing role and significance of the Finance Commission in India’s rapidly transforming federal polity? 
  • Various concerns have been raised regarding the Terms of Reference of the 15th Finance Commission. Discuss these concerns. DNA

Q.15) Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects? (15)

  • C2C Phase II, Test 2: Localising governance is an offshoot of democratic decentralisation.Explain. How far local governance has succeeded in India? Critically evaluate.
  • Devolution of powers to the local governing bodies mean little in the absence of meaningful financial devolution. Elucidate. What steps have been taken to address this issue? Discuss. TLP
  • C2C Phase I, Test 1: The lack of funds, functions and functionaries plagues the institutions of local self governance in India. Illustrate. Also suggest remedial measures.

Q.16) The multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections of the society leads to problems of overlapping jurisdiction and duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella Human Rights Commission? Argue your case. (15)

  • India has got a plethora of regulating bodies/ authorities which often have conflicting or overlapping jurisdiction. This requires a major overhaul of the regulatory regime to ensure that ‘minimum government and maximum governance’ is followed in true spirit. Substantiate by taking suitable examples. TLP

Q.17) How far do you agree with the view that the focus on the lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (15)

  • C2C Phase I Test 6: Why does India have the maximum number of hungry and malnourished people in the world even after agricultural production being more than sufficient to meet the food requirements of the population? Examine. Also suggest measures to address this problem. 
  • Despite rapid economic growth, hunger and malnutrition remain a challenge in many districts of India. Why? Analyse. TLP

Q.18) The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability, but it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness of the Citizen’s Charters. (15)

  • C2C Phase I Test 13: Citizen Charters have largely been a failed experiment in India. Critically comment. 
  • Citizen Charter is an ineffective and blunt instruments without legal enforceability. Comment. TLP

Q.19) What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (15)

  • C2C FULL Mock Paper 2: How can India safeguard the interests of Indian businesses and trade in the ensuing trade war between the US and China? (250 words) 

Q.20) In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to its situation? (15)

  • C2C Phase II Test 10: What is the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)? What will be the implications for India when the US concludes its withdrawal from the JCPOA? What options does India have to address them? Discuss. (15 marks, 250 words) 
  • How can India ensure that its relations with the US and Iran, and particularly its energy interests are not affected? Suggest. TLP

GS – 1

Q.1) Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Comment

  • A concerted effort to preserve our heritage is a vital link to our cultural, educational, aesthetic, inspirational, and economic legacies – all of the things that quite literally make us who we are. Elucidate.  TLP
  • (Heritage and Culture: Do we need development at any cost? Should urbanisation score over conservation? Importance of protecting our Heritage- Daily News Analysis. DNA

Q.2) Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India.

Q.3) Throw light on the significance of the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi in the present times.

  • Discuss the moral principles given by Mahatma Gandhi. Quote instances from his life where he practiced his principles before preaching them. TLP
  • The life of Mahatma Gandhi is a perfect example of restraint, forgiveness and magnanimity. Comment. Why are these attributes important in today’s world? Discuss. TLP

Q.4) Why is the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation?

  • This is a very direct question and an old issue. We have covered it in various initiatives like AIR, RSTV and DNA. and ILP VAN in detail. (ILP 2018-Science & Tech VAN Series-Space)

Q.5) Why is India taking a keen interest in the Arctic region?

  • Examine the significance of the Arctic region as the new frontier of resources. TLP
  • India to expand polar research to Arctic,. DNA

Q.6) Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics.

  • Mantle Plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth’s mantle. It is core part of Plate techtonic principles and evolution of mountains.
  • Discuss the principles of plate tectonics? Examine the interrelation between plate tectonics and the evolution of the Alps mountain range. TLP
  • Geo TLP

Q.7) What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystem?

  • Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world’s oceans and large lakes, caused by “excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water. So, anyone clear with marine pollution will be able to write about it.
  • Marine pollution has become a critical problem in many parts of the world. What are the major factors that have aggravated this problem? Do ocean currents play a role in causing marine pollution? Discuss. TLP

Q.8) “Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, the caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. (10)

  • C2C Phase 2-Test 5: Despite making rapid strides on economic and technological fronts, the institution of caste remains a pervasive social reality in India. Why? Examine 
  • What we know today as ‘caste’ is more a product of colonialism than of ancient Indian traditions. Do you agree? Which British interventions led to the strengthening of the caste system in India? Discuss. TLP

Q.9) ‘Despite the implementation of various programmes for the eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing’. Explain by giving reasons.

  • ILP-2018 VAN: SET 1 BLOCK 3-MAINS (Indian Society and Poverty Issues)

Q.10) How the Indian concept of secularism different from the western model of secularism? Discuss.

  • ILP-2018 VAN- SET 2 BLOCK 2-MAINS (Indian and Western Model of Secularism-Subtopic)

Q.11) The Bhakti movement received a remarkable re-orientation with the advent of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Discuss.

  • ILP-2018 VAN- Set 3 Block 2- PART 2 (Bhakti Movement)
  • Sufism indeed was a religion of intense devotion, love was its passion; poetry, song and dance, its worship and passing away in God its ideal. Comment. TLP

Q.12) Discuss whether the formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India.

Q.13) Why indentured labour was taken by the British from India to their colonies? Have they been able to preserve their cultural identity over there?

Q.14) “The ideal solution of depleting groundwater resources in India is water harvesting system.” How can it be made effective in urban areas?

Q.15) Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India.

  • C2C Phase 2-Test 3: Despite being the second largest fish producer in the world, India hasn’t been able to extract the full potential of the aquaculture industry. Examine the reasons. How can the fishing industry usher in the blue revolution? Suggest.
  • ILP VAN-SET 5 BLOCK 1- Blue Revolution

Q.16) What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.

Q.17) Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India and explain the nature of convergence, collaboration and competition for its success.

Q.18) ‘Women’s movement in India has not addresses the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view.

  • ILP-2018 VAN- SET 1 BLOCK 3-MAINS (Women Issues)

Q.19) ‘Globalisation is generally said to promote cultural homogenisation but due to this cultural specificities appear to be strengthened in the Indian society.’ Elucidate.

  • ILP-2018 VAN- SET 2 BLOCK 2-MAINS (Effects of Globalization on Indian Society)
  • C2C Phase II, Test 5: How does globalisation lead to ‘biculturalism’? Is it happening in India? Explain with the help of suitable examples.

Q.20) ‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation.’ Argue by giving suitable illustrations.

  • Write a note on the evolution of communalism in the Indian society. TLP
  • Is communalism a threat to internal security? Examine. TLP
  • ILP-2018 VAN- SET 2 BLOCK 2-MAINS (Communalism)

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