DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 12th August 2021

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  • August 12, 2021
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Special Economic Zones (SEZ)

Part of: GS Prelims and GS- III- Economy

In news The government will soon free up unused built-up area worth about ₹30,000 crore and idle land inside Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for other economic activities.

  • The move to free up unutilised land parcels is likely to be operationalised by the end of August 2021, as part of a simpler regulatory regime that the government is ringing in for SEZs, which account for about 30% of India’s exports.

What is Special Economic Zone (SEZ)? 

  • It is a specifically delineated duty-free enclave, deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations and duties and tariffs. 
  • Goods and services going into the SEZ area from Domestic Tariff Area (whole India except SEZ) shall be treated as exports and goods coming from the SEZ area into DTA shall be treated as imports. 
  • SEZ units may be set up for manufacture of goods and rendering of services. 
  • The business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. 
  • SEZs are located within a country’s national borders.
  • Their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration

News Source: TH

Minority Institutions and RTE: NCPCR Survey

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II –  Governance

In news Recently, the National Commission for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (NCPCR) conducted a Nationwide Assessment of Minority Schools. 

  • The report was titled “Impact of Exemption under Article 15 (5) with regards to Article 21A of the Constitution of India on Education of Minority Communities”.
  • The aim was to assess how the 93rd Amendment to Indian Constitution, which exempts minority institutions from otherwise mandatory provisions of the Right to Education, affected children belonging to minority communities.

What are the key highlights of the report?

  • Minority Schools Catering to the Non-Minorities: Overall, 62.5% of the students in these schools belonged to non-minority communities.
    • Only 8.76% of the students in minority schools belong to socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Disproportionate Numbers: In West Bengal, 92.47% of the minority population is of Muslims and 2.47% are Christians. On the contrary, there are 114 Christian minority schools and only two schools with Muslim minority status.
    • Similarly, in Uttar Pradesh, though the Christian population is less than 1% there are 197 Christian minority schools in the state.
    • This disproportion takes away the core objective of establishing minority educational institutions.
  • It found that the largest number of out-of-school children – at 1.1 crore – belonged to the Muslim community.
  • Non-Uniformity in Madarsas: According to the report, there are three kinds of madrasas in the country:
    • Recognised Madrasas: These are registered and impart both religious as well as secular education.
    • Unrecognised Madrasas: These have been found deficient for registration by state governments as secular education is not imparted.
    • Unmapped Madrasas: These have never applied for registration.
    • According to the NCPCR, the Sachar Committee report 2005, which says 4% of Muslim children (15.3 lakh) attend madrasas, has only taken into account the registered madrasas.
    • Further, the syllabi of madrasas, that have evolved over centuries, are not uniform, and that “being left ignorant of the world around them”.
    • It also says that madrasas do not have any teachers training programmes.

What is National Commission for Protection of Child Rights?

  • NCPCR is a statutory body set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • The Commission’s mandate is to ensure that all laws, policies, programmes, and administrative mechanisms are in consonance with the child rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • It enquires into complaints relating to a child’s right to free and compulsory education under the Right to Education Act, 2009.
  • It monitors the implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.

News Source: IE

Government to completely exit erstwhile PSUs

Part of: Prelims and GS – III – Economy 

In news The government is planning to sell its residual stakes in public sector firms like Paradeep Phosphates, Hindustan Zinc and Balco, which were privatised during the Atal Behari Vajpayee regime. 

  • The firms are staying highly profitable after the transfer of management control to a private player. Thus, selling these stakes could yield a significant revenue for the government. 
  • The government intends to complete the privatisation of Air India, BPCL, Shipping Corporation of India, BEML, Pawan Hans and Nilanchal Ispat Nigam Limited. More airports would also be offered as public-private partnership ventures. 
    • These are the transactions where there is sufficient interest from bidders and are the second stage of the due diligence and financial bidding is near completion. 
  • GAIL is also likely to come up with an offering soon through the Infrastructure Investment Trust (InvIT) structure. 

What are Infrastructure Investment Trusts?

  • InvITs are instruments that work like mutual funds. 
  • They are designed to pool small sums of money from a number of investors to invest in assets that give cash flow over a period of time. Part of this cash flow would be distributed as dividend back to investors.
  • The minimum investment amount in an InvIT Initial Public Offering (IPO) is Rs 10 lakh, therefore, InvITs are suitable for high networth individuals, institutional and non-institutional investors.
  • InvITs are listed on exchanges just like stocks — through IPOs.
  • However, the Indian InvIT market is not yet mature and has supported the formation of 10 InvITs till date of which only two are listed.
    • The InvITs listed on the stock exchange are IRB InvIT Fund and India Grid Trust.
  • InvITs are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) (Infrastructure Investment Trusts) Regulations, 2014.

News Source: TH

Marburg virus

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II – Health

In news Recently, Guinea confirmed the first recorded case of Marburg virus death in West Africa.

About Marburg virus

  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) was formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever.
  • Marburg virus disease is a highly virulent disease that causes hemorrhagic fever, with a fatality ratio of up to 88%. 
  • It is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola virus disease. 
  • Two large outbreaks that occurred simultaneously in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany, and in Belgrade, Serbia, in 1967, led to the initial recognition of the disease. 
  • The outbreak was associated with laboratory work using African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) imported from Uganda.
  • Symptoms: Headache, vomiting blood, muscle pains and bleeding through various orifices. Many patients develop severe hemorrhagic signs within seven days. Case fatality rates have varied from 24% to 88% in past outbreaks depending on virus strain and case management.
  • Transmission
    • Rousettus aegyptiacus, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family, are considered to be natural hosts of Marburg virus. 
    • The Marburg virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through human-to-human transmission.
    • Once an individual is infected with the virus, Marburg can spread through human-to-human transmission via direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials contaminated with these fluids. 
  • Treatment and vaccines: Currently there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved for MVD. However, supportive care rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival.
  • The worst epidemic was in Angola in 2005, with 252 infections and a 90% death rate. This epidemic apparently spread through the reuse of contaminated transfusion equipment in a paediatric ward

News Source: HT

Democracy summit

Part of: GS Prelims and GS- II – International Relations 

In news USA President Joe Biden will host a ‘Summit for Democracy’, virtually, on December 9-10. 

About the summit

  • It will be held around three themes: 
    • Defending against authoritarianism, 
    • Fighting corruption, 
    • Promoting respect for human rights. 
  • The summit will gather together Heads of State, civil society, philanthropy, and the private sector. 
  • The Summit is seen as one way to counter growing Chinese influence.
  • There would be country-wise commitments made at the first summit.  
  • A second summit which will be in-person, will follow in 2022.
  • Following a year of consultation, coordination, and action, President Biden will then invite world leaders to gather once more to showcase progress made against their commitments. 

China Approves First Mixed-Vaccine Trial 

Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – International relations; Health 

In news China’s drug regulator has approved the country’s first mixed-vaccine trial as the rapid spread of the Delta variant raises concern about the efficacy of domestically produced jabs.

  • The trial will test the efficacy of combining an “inactivated” vaccine made by China’s Sinovac with a DNA-based one developed by U.S. pharmaceutical company Inovio. 
  • Preclinical work has found that “two different vaccine applications produce an even stronger and more balanced immune response. 

Do you know? 

  • There are several types of COVID-19 vaccines, including those using an inactivated or weakened virus to generate an immune response, and RNA- or DNA-based vaccines that use engineered versions of the coronavirus’ genetic code to create a protein that safely prompts an immune response.
  • The World Health Organization has said there is still not enough data to say whether using two different vaccines together is safe or can boost immunity.

Read Approaches to Vaccine Making for more understanding the science part of Vaccines

(News from PIB)

Policy on Illegal Migrants

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-I- Society

All foreign nationals, including those who enter into the country without valid travel documents or overstay beyond the validity of their visa period, are governed by the provisions contained in: 

  • The Foreigners Act, 1946
  • The Registration of Foreigners Act, 1939
  • The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 
  • The Citizenship Act, 1955, and rules and orders made thereunder. 

Exemptions are given from the provisions of The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 and the Foreigners Act, 1946 on a case-to-case basis.

Government’s efforts or Policy on Illegal Migrants

  • Some illegal migrants sneak into India in a clandestine and surreptitious manner mainly through difficult mountainous and riverine terrains along the international borders.  
  • Central Government has adopted a multi-pronged approach to ensure effective surveillance and domination of land borders to check infiltration of illegal migrants. 
  • Physical infrastructure in the form of border fencing, floodlighting, construction of border roads and establishment of border outposts has been created. 
  • Vulnerable border outposts are regularly reviewed and strengthened by deploying additional manpower, special surveillance equipment and other force multipliers. 
  • A technological solution in the form of Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) has been implemented in some vulnerable border areas. 
  • Border guarding forces conduct regular patrolling, lay nakas and establish observation posts and carry out anti-tunnelling exercises to stop illegal infiltration. 
  • Central Government has issued advisory to Border Security Force and Assam Rifles to maintain strict vigilance and surveillance and to take all possible steps for preventing illegal infiltration at International Borders.

News Source: PIB

Beggars Rehabilitation Scheme

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II- Government Schemes

  • As per the Census of 2011 data available on the website of Registrar General of India, there are 4,13,670 beggars and vagrants in the Country. 
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has formulated a scheme “SMILE – Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise”.

SMILE – Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise

  • The SMILE Scheme includes sub-scheme – ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the act of Begging’. 
  • The focus of the scheme is on providing 
    • Basic necessaries like food, shelter homes, medical facilities
    • Counselling, rehabilitation and basic documentation, 
    • Education, skill development and economic linkages of the persons found to be engaged in begging.
  • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has identified ten cities namely Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur and Patna for undertaking pilot projects on Comprehensive Rehabilitation of Persons engaged in the act of Begging.
  • The pilot projects on Comprehensive Rehabilitation of Persons includes whole range of services including awareness generation, identification, rehabilitation, provision of medical facilities, counselling, education, skill development and sustainable settlement of persons engaged in begging.

News Source: PIB

Quality of Life for Elderly Index 

Part of: GS Prelims 

Quality of Life for Elderly Index was released by Dr Bibek Debroy, Chairman, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM). 

Quality of Life for Elderly Index:

  • The Index has been created by the Institute for Competitiveness at the request of EAC-PM and it sheds light on an issue often not mentioned- problems faced by the elderly and identifies the regional patterns of ageing across Indian States and assesses the overall ageing situation in India. 
  • The Index framework includes:
    • Four pillars: Financial Well-being, Social Well-being, Health System and Income Security, and 
    • Eight sub-pillars: Economic Empowerment, Educational Attainment & Employment, Social Status, Physical Security, Basic Health, Psychological Wellbeing, Social Security and Enabling Environment.

Key Highlights from the Report:

  • The Health System pillar observes the highest national average, 66.97 at an all-India level, followed by 62.34 in Social Well-being. 
  • Financial Well-being observes a score of 44.7, which is lowered by the low performance of 21 States across the Education Attainment & Employment pillar, which showcases scope for improvement
  • States have performed particularly worse in the Income Security pillar because over half of the States have a score below the national average, i.e., 33.03 in Income Security, which is the lowest across all pillars. 
  • Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh are top-scoring regions in Aged and Relatively Aged States, respectively. Chandigarh and Mizoram are top-scoring regions in Union Territory and North-East States category. 
  • The Aged States refer to States with an elderly population of more than 5 million, whereas Relatively Aged States refer to States with an Elderly population of less than 5 million.
  • Significance: These pillar-wise analyses help States assess the state of the elderly population and identify existing gaps that obstruct their growth

News Source: PIB

Atmanirbhar Narishakti se Samvad

Part of: GS Prelims 

In news: PM to participate in ‘Atmanirbhar Narishakti se Samvad’ on 12th August

  • PM Modi will interact with women Self Help Group (SHG) members/community resource persons promoted under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) via video conferencing. 
  • During the event, a compendium of success stories of women SHG members from all across the country, along with a handbook on universalization of farm livelihoods will also be released by the Prime Minister. 


  • It is a centrally sponsored programme, launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in June 2011.
  • Objective:
    • To eliminate rural poverty through the promotion of multiple livelihoods and improved access to financial services for the rural poor households across the country.
    • To reach out to all rural poor households and impact their livelihoods.
  • DAY-NRLM aims at mobilizing rural poor households into Self Help Groups (SHGs) in a phased manner and provide them long-term support to diversify their livelihoods, improve their incomes and quality of life. 
  • Most of Mission’s interventions are being implemented and scaled up by the SHG women themselves who are trained as community resource persons (CRPs) – Krishi Sakhis, Pashu Sakhis, Bank Sakhis, Bima Sakhis, Banking Correspondent Sakhis etc. 
  • The Mission is also working on empowering the SHG women through awareness generation and behaviour change communication on issues like domestic violence, women’s education and other gender related concerns, nutrition, sanitation, health etc.

News Source: PIB

(Mains Focus)


  • GS-3: Awareness in the fields of IT
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Patent to an Artificial Intelligence system

In news: In a world first, South Africa grants patent to an artificial intelligence system

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

  • It describes the action of machines accomplishing tasks that have historically required human intelligence.
  • It includes technologies like machine learning, pattern recognition, big data, neural networks, self algorithms etc
  • AI involves complex things such as feeding a particular data into the machine and making it react as per the different situations. It is basically about creating self-learning patterns where the machine can give answers to the never answered questions like a human would ever do.
  • AI is different from hardware driven robotic automation. Instead of automating manual tasks, AI performs frequent high volume computerised tasks reliably.

Benefits and Potential of AI

  • Multi-sectoral applications: Already, AI has helped increase crop yields, raised business productivity, improved access to credit and made cancer detection faster and more precise.
  • Boosts Economic Growth: It could contribute more than $15 trillion to the world economy by 2030, adding 14% to global GDP. Google has identified over 2,600 use cases of “AI for good” worldwide.
  • Enabler for SGDs: A study published in Nature reviewing the impact of AI on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) finds that AI may act as an enabler on 134 — or 79% — of all SDG targets.

What’s the issue with South Africa granting Patent?

  • At first glance, a recently granted South African patent relating to a “food container based on fractal geometry” seems fairly mundane.
  • The innovation in question involves interlocking food containers that are easy for robots to grasp and stack.
  • On closer inspection, we notice that the inventor is not a human being — it is an artificial intelligence (AI) system called DABUS. The invention was entirely devised by the DABUS.
  • The patent application listing DABUS as the inventor was filed in patent offices around the world, including the U.S., Europe, Australia, and South Africa. But only South Africa granted the patent (Australia followed suit a few days later after a court judgment gave the go-ahead).
    • The United States Patent and Trademark Office and the European Patent Office rejected these applications in the formal examination phase.

What is the DABUS?

  • DABUS stands for “device for the autonomous bootstrapping of unified sentience”.
  • It is an AI system created by Stephen Thaler, a pioneer in the field of AI and programming.
  • The system simulates human brainstorming and creates new inventions.
  • DABUS is a particular type of AI, often referred to as “creativity machines” because they are capable of independent and complex functioning.

What are the ‘Creativity machines’?

  • Creativity machines can process and critically analyse data, learning from it. This process is known as machine learning.
  • Once the machine learning phase has occurred, the machine is able to “autonomously” create without human intervention. 
  • Prior to DABUS, Thaler built another AI which created novel sheet music, and which he credited with inventing the cross-bristle toothbrush design.

Why are some experts opposing this move?

  • First, their respective patent laws only provide for human inventors — not AI — as indicated by the use of pronouns such as “him” and “her” in their text.
  • Second, ideas, for the purposes of patents, require the element of “mental conception” — something of which only a human mind is capable.
  • Finally, inventorship comes with rights, which AI is not legally capable of possessing.
  • The critics argued that it was the incorrect decision in law, as AI lacks the necessary legal standing to qualify as an inventor.
  • Critics feel that if South Africa instead had a substantive search and examination system in place, the DABUS patent application would have been rejected. 


Given the policy environment and the vast potential of AI, the granting of the patent makes sense. Perhaps this will turn out to be a strategic masterclass by the South African office which will lead to a much more innovative nation.

Connecting the dots:

News Source: TH


  • GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources 
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors 

An urban jobs safety net

In news According to World Economic Outlook by IMF, the global GDP shrunk by 3.3%. The contraction in the U.S., Brazil, Japan, Canada and Euro Area was in the range of 3.5%-7%. India’s GDP plummeted by 8%. 

  • China, on the contrary, posted a growth of 2.3%. 
  • The report stated that 95 million people have fallen into the ranks of the extreme poor category. 

Unemployment and Pandemic

  • The unemployment rate in the Euro Area, the U.S. and Canada shot up to 7.1%, 8.1% and 9.6%, respectively.
  • Spain, Greece, Turkey, the Philippines, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru among others are grappling with unemployment rates in double digits. 
  • As per the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy’s estimates, the unemployment rate in India peaked to 23.5% in April 2020 before falling to 6.9% in February 2021.

In the wake of economic deceleration, the challenge is to minimise livelihood losses. Given the contemporary realities, the need is to approach this from a rural-urban perspective for two reasons. 

  • First, when there is an economic shock, it is essential to provide people with formal access to a livelihood safety net. 
  • Second, the livelihood safety net must have comprehensive coverage. Such a net, provided by the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), exists only in rural areas. Urban India does not have any such cushion.

Isn’t there any scheme which caters to Urban employment?

  • Though the Indian government operates the National Urban Livelihoods Mission, which is focused on self-employment through skill up-gradation and credit linkages through banks, the scheme does not have guaranteed wage employment provisions akin to what MGNREGS provides. 
  • Last year’s migration tragedy and the economic slowdown have highlighted the need for a MGNREGA type safety net in urban India.
  • A few States have experimented with a wage employment-based urban livelihood scheme.

Insights from Himachal Pradesh (HP)

  • HP launched the Mukhya Mantri Shahri Ajeevika Guarantee Yojana (MMSAGY) in 2020 with the objective of enhancing livelihood security in urban areas by providing 120 days of guaranteed wage employment to every household at minimum wages in FY 2020-21. 
  • Any adult member of a household, less than 65 years of age, residing in the jurisdiction of the urban local body (ULB) and willing to engage in unskilled work at projects being provided by the municipality can register under the scheme. 
  • A job card is issued to the beneficiary within seven days of registration and employment is provided within a fortnight. Otherwise, the beneficiary is eligible to be compensated at a rate of ₹75 per day.
  • Funding  was from the grants already available to ULBs under the State and Central Finance Commissions. 
  • Output: In a year of its operation, a quarter million man-days, benefiting about 3% of the total urban households in H.P., were generated. 

Himachal Pradesh’s experience has provided some crucial insights. 

  • Fiscally Possible: One, an urban livelihood scheme can be launched within the existing fiscal space. If not, the Union and States can provide resources together. 
  • Curbs Migration: Two, separate minimum wages for rural and urban areas do not cause migration to urban areas since the higher cost of living in urban areas has an offsetting effect. 
  • Urban areas require shift in focus: The focus of the Urban Employment Guarantee scheme must shift from asset creation to service delivery. Restricting it to asset creation or wage-material ratios may be sub-optimal in urban settings. The focus should be on enhancing the quality of municipal services. 
  • Needs to be replicated at National Level: Such a scheme is like an ‘economic vaccine’ and will protect people against unemployment. It should be administered at the national level rather than at the State level.

Connecting the dots:

(RSTV Debate)

RSTV 29 July, 2021: The Big Picture – One year of NEP reform: New initiatives



  • GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education, Human Resources 
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

One year of NEP reform: new initiatives

  • The July 29th 2021 marked the completion of one year of the new National Education Policy. 
  • The policy document was launched in 2020, paving the way for transformational reforms in school and higher education systems, also improve understanding and employability of graduates in the country and to make India a global knowledge superpower. 
  • To mark one year of these reforms, Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed policy makers in the domain of education and skill development, students and teachers. 
  • The Prime Minister also launched multiple initiatives in the education sector such as the academic bank of credit (ABC) that will provide multiple entry and exit options for students in higher education first year engineering programmes in regional languages guidelines for internationalization of higher education.
  • The National Digital Education Architecture (NDEAR) and the National Education Technology Forum (NETF) were also launched at the event. 
  • As per the government, these initiatives will help in realizing the goals of NEP 2020 and will make education more holistic, accessible, and affordable. 

What is Academic bank credit 

  • Academic Bank of Credit referred to as ABC is a virtual storehouse that will keep records of academic credits secured by a student. 
  • Courses undergone by the students through the online modes through National Schemes like SWAYAM, NPTEL, V-Lab etc. or of any specified university, shall also be considered for credit transfer and credit accumulation.
  • Credits obtained by students by undergoing Skill-courses from Registered Higher Education Institutions offering vocational Degree or Diploma or Post Graduate Diploma or Certificate programmes are also eligible for accrual and redemption of credits through the Academic Bank of Credits.
  • NEP is trying to help student in deciding the pace of their studying courses through Academic Bank of Credit by giving multiple entry and exit options in their courses.
  • Flexibility options are being discussed. If student don’t want to graduate, based on the credits student have accumulated he will be given the degree. In short more flexibility in deciding the pace depending on students own reasons.

Significance of the Academic bank credit 

  • Drafted on the lines of the National Academic Depository, the ABC will give multiple entry and exit options to the students enabling them to leave a degree or course and get a corresponding certification and re-join studies after a certain time and be able to start from where they had left.
  • The ABC Regulations intend to give impetus to blended learning Mode, allowing students to earn credits from various HEIs registered under this scheme and through SWAYAM, an online repository of courses. The student can earn up to 50 per cent credits from outside the college/university where she/he is enrolled for the degree/diploma program.
  • It will function as a commercial bank where students will be the customers and ABC will offer several services to these students.
  • It will also provide students with the flexibility to move between institutes while pursuing one degree or leave a course.

Issues in implementation:

  • There are speculations that ABC Regulation 2021 will only lead to the dilution of degrees and that these policies ignore the key ideas of equity, quality, access and efficacy. 
  • It is absolutely critical to create new institutional mechanisms at the national level that are vested with the responsibility of implementing the NEP.
  • One of the major challenges of implementing any policy is the absence of legislative backing and statutory support.


  • In recent years, India’s education sector has considered a host of reforms and accelerated economic outlays. These reforms could perchance transform India into a knowledge haven. Especially reforms through NEP will probably lead to extensive increment in education in the country.

Can you attempt these questions now?

  • Critically discuss the significance of the NEP reforms.
  • What are the different NEP reforms? Discuss the significance of Academic bank credit.


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)


  • Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.

Q.1 Consider the following statements regarding Marburg virus:

  1. Rousettus aegyptiacus, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family, are considered to be natural hosts of Marburg virus. 
  2. The Marburg virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and does not spread among humans
  3. It is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola virus disease.

Which of the above is or are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 only 

Q.2 All foreign nationals are governed by the provisions contained in which of the following acts

  1. The Foreigners Act, 1946
  2. The Registration of Foreigners Act, 1939
  3. The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 
  4. The Citizenship Act, 1955

Select the correct answer from below. 

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only 
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4 

Q.3 Consider the following statements regarding Infrastructure Investment Trusts:

  1. It is regulated by security and exchange Board of India
  2. These are listed on exchanges just like stocks through IPOs

Select the correct statements: 

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only 
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 


1 C
2 B
3 C

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