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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 6th May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 6, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Delimitation Panel

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains –GS 2 (Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies)

Why in News: Jammu and Kashmir Delimitation Commission released its final order

  • The delimitation exercise had started in June 2021 in the state.

Key takeaways

  • The panel has recommended seven additional constituencies — six for Jammu and one for Kashmir — taking the total number of seats in the UT to 90 from 83 earlier
  • It has reorganised of the Parliamentary constituencies such that the five Lok Sabha seats now are made up of exactly 18 Assembly constituencies each, taking the total number to 90
  • It has reserved nine Assembly seats for Scheduled Tribes – six in Jammu and three in Kashmir
  • It has removed the regional distinction between Jammu and Kashmir by treating it as one, as is reflected in the combining of Anantnag region in Kashmir with Rajouri and Poonch in Jammu to carve out Anantnag-Rajouri as a Parliamentary constituency.

What is delimitation?

  • Delimitation is the act of fixing or redrawing the limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies of Assembly or Lok Sabha seats in a country
  • The delimitation exercise is carried out by an independent high-powered panel known as the Delimitation Commission
  • The redrawing of the constituencies is done based on its population size – based on its last census
  • The process may also result in change in the number of seats in a state.
  • This exercise also involves reservation of Assembly seats for SC & ST in accordance with the Constitution.
  • The Commissions orders have the force of law and cannot be questioned by any court.

Constitutional Provisions

  • Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.
  • Under Article 170, States also get divided into territorial constituencies as per Delimitation Act after every Census.
  • Once the Act is in force, the Union government sets up a Delimitation Commission
  • Delimitation Commissions had been set up four times — 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002 under the Acts of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002.

Composition of Delimitation Commission

  • The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India

Composition:

  • Retired Supreme Court judge
  • Chief Election Commissioner
  • Respective State Election Commissioners

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. The Election Commission of India is a five-member body.
  2. The Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections.
  3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only.
  3. 2 and 3 only.
  4. 3 only.

Source: Indian Express


Farm Exports

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Agriculture
  • Mains – GS3 – Agriculture

In News: India’s agricultural exports crossed $50 billion during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2022.

  • While exports valued at $50.3 billion, no less interesting is imports, too, scaling an all-time-high of $32.4 billion.

  • High international prices are favorable for exports of farm produce.

The tables below shows India’s top agricultural export and import items

  • Leading the exports list is marine products, whose value has steadily risen, from just over $5 billion in 2013-14 $7.8 billion in 2021-22.
  • The real increase has come from rice (specifically non-basmati), sugar and wheat, with their exports breaking all earlier records.
  • On the other hand, many of the items that contributed to the previous export boom have displayed stagnation, even posting declines, in the recent period.

  • These include basmati rice, buffalo meat, oil meals, guar gum and raw cotton
  • As far as imports go, the spike in 2021-22 has been largely courtesy of vegetable oils.
  • Vegetable oil imports were worth $7.2 billion in 2013-14to $19 billion in the fiscal just ended.
  • Other big-ticket import items were fresh fruits (mainly almonds and apples), cashew (basically raw nuts for re-export after processing), spices and natural rubber.

  • In spices, India happens to be both a large importer ($1.3 billion in 2021-22) and exporter ($3.9 billion).
  • Exports mostly comprise chili, mint products and cumin. On the other hand, there has been a rising trend in imports of pepper, cardamom and other traditional plantation spices from countries such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) With reference to the international trade of India at present, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. India’s merchandise exports are less than its merchandise imports.
  2. India’s imports of iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizers, and machinery have decreased in recent years.
  3. India’s exports of services are more than its imports of services.
  4. India suffers from an overall trade/current account deficit.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4 only

Q.2) Consider the following statements

  1. The quantity of imported edible oils is more than the domestic production of edible oils in the last five years.
  2. The Government does not impose any customs duty on all the imported edible oils a special case.

Which of the two statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) With reference to pulse production in India, consider the following sentences:

  1. Black gram (Urad) can be cultivated as both Kharif and rabi crop.
  2. Green gram (Moong) alone accounts for nearly half of pulse production.
  3. In the last three decades, while the production of kharif pulses has increased, the production of rabi pulses has decreased

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Source: Indian Express


Judicial appointments

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains – GS 2 (Judiciary)

In news: Collegium recommends two names for Supreme Court

Appointment of Judges

Constitutional Provisions

  • Article 124(2) of the Indian Constitution provides that the Judges of the SC are appointed by the President after consultation with such a number of the Judges of the SC and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
  • Article 217 of the Indian Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
  • The Supreme Court has offered diverse meanings of the phrase “consultation”

Evolution of Collegium System

  • Collegium System: It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC

First Judges Case (1981):

  • The Supreme Court judgment held that consultation does not mean concurrence and it only implies an exchange of views.

Second Judges Case (1993):

  • SC introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”.
  • It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the SC.

Third Judges Case (1998):

  • The Court opined that the consultation process to be adopted by the Chief Justice of India requires ‘consultation of plurality judges’.
  • The sole opinion of the CJI does not constitute the consultation process.
  • He should consult a collegium of four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court and even if two judges give an adverse opinion, he should not send the recommendation to the government.
  • The court held that the recommendation made by the chief justice of India without complying with the norms and requirements of the consultation process is not binding on the government.
  • Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.
  • The government’s role is limited to getting an inquiry conducted by the Intelligence Bureau (IB) if a lawyer is to be elevated as a judge in a High Court or the Supreme Court.

Criticism of the Collegium System:

  • Opaqueness and a lack of transparency
  • Scope for nepotism
  • Embroilment in public controversies
  • Overlooks several talented junior judges and advocates

Attempts to reform judicial appointments

  • The attempt made to replace Collegium System by a ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission’ (through Ninety-ninth Amendment Act, 2014) was struck down by the court in 2015 on the ground that it posed a threat to the independence of the judiciary.

Judiciary is one of the most important pillars of the democracy, thus making the appointments continuous and collaborative process involving the executive and the judiciary, hence it is time to think of a permanent, independent body to institutionalize the process with adequate safeguards to preserve the judiciary’s independence guaranteeing judicial primacy.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. The 44th Amendment to the Constitution of India introduced an article placing the election of the Prime Minister beyond judicial review
  2. Supreme Court of India struck down the 99th amendment to the Constitution of India as being violative of the independence of the judiciary

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) The power to increase the number of judges in the Supreme Court of India is vested in (2014)

  1. the President of India
  2. the Parliament
  3. the Chief Justice of India
  4. the Law Commission

Source: The Hindu


Baba’s Explainer –Electric Vehicles and Battery Fires

Syllabus

  • GS-3: Infrastructure and Economic Development
  • GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News: The Union Government has constituted an expert panel to probe the recent series of battery explosions in electric vehicles (EVs).

  • Manufacturers like Okinawa and Pure EV have recalled some batches of electric scooters following fire incidents involving the vehicles.
  • Recently, an 80-year-old man died at his home in Telangana’s Nizamabad district after the battery of an electric scooter exploded while being charged.

Read Complete Details on Electric Vehicles and Battery Fires – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs


Q.1) With reference to Delimitation Commission, consider the following statements

  1. It is a 3 member permanent body formed by the Act of parliament
  2. Delimitation Commissions had been set up four times since independence
  3. The Commissions orders have the force of law and cannot be questioned by any court

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements

  1. India is experiencing steady agricultural trade surplus for past five years
  2. For the fiscal year 2021-22 export of non basmati rice is more than export of basmati rice

Which of the two statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) With reference to pulse production in India, consider the following sentences:

  1. Collegium System of Supreme Court derives its constitutional mandate under Article 271 of the Indian Constitution
  2. Along with appointments the collegium also handles transfer of judges of the higher judiciary of India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ANSWERS FOR 6th MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 c
2 a
3 b

 

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