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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 9th May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 9, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Rakhigarhi

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Ancient History
  • Mains – GS 1 (Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times)

In News: ASI’s excavation at Harappan site of Rakhigarhi

Rakhigarhi

  • It is a Harappan site in Haryana’s Hisar district
  • Rakhigarhi is the largest Harappan site in the Indian subcontinent
  • The site is located in the Sarasvati river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river
  • At Rakhigarhi, the excavations are being done to trace its beginnings and to study its gradual evolution from 6000 BCE (Pre-Harappan phase) to 2500 BCE.

Finidings

Ongoing Excavation

  • The excavation have revealed the structure of some houses, lanes and drainage system, and what could possibly be a jewellery-making unit
  • The ASI has also has also revealed pieces of copper and gold jewellery, terracotta toys, besides thousands of earthen pots and seals at excavation
  • The noteworthy antiquity found at both the mounds (1 & 3) include steatite seals, terracotta unbaked sealing with relief of elephants and Harappan script.

Previous excavation – Major finidings

  • A cylindrical seal with 5 Harappan characters on one side and a symbol of an alligator on the other is an important find from this site.
  • Animal sacrificial pit lined with mud-brick and triangular and circular fire altars on the mud floor have also been excavated that signifies the ritual system of Harappans
  • Findings also included blades; terracotta and shell bangles, beads of semi precious stones, and copper objects; animal figurines, toy cart frame and wheel of terracotta; bone points; inscribed steatite seals and sealings.

Source: Indian Express, The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Which one of the following ancient towns is well known for its elaborate system of water harvesting and management by building a series of dams and channelising water into connected reservoirs? (2021)

  1. Dholavira
  2. Kalibangan
  3. Rakhigarhi
  4. Ropar

Q.2) Which one of the following is not a Harappan site? (2019)

  1. Chanhudaro
  2. Kot Diji
  3. Sohgaura
  4. Desalpur

Monkey Pox

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science – Health

In News: A case detected in United Kingdom

  • Health authorities in the United Kingdom have confirmed a case of monkey pox, in an individual who recently travelled to that country from Nigeria

Monkey Pox

  • It is a rare viral infection similar to smallpox
  • Monkeypox is a zoonosis, that is, a disease that is transmitted from infected animals to humans.

Monkeypox virus

  • The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus, which is a genus of viruses that also includes the variola virus, which causes smallpox, and vaccinia virus, which was used in the smallpox vaccine.
  • Monkeypox continues to occur in a swathe of countries in Central and West Africa
  • According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), two distinct clade are identified: the West African clade and the Congo Basin clade, also known as the Central African clade

Transmission

  • Monkeypox is a zoonosis
  • Monkeypox virus infection has been detected in squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice, and some species of monkeys.
  • Human-to-human transmission is limited
  • Transmission can be through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects

Symptoms

  • Monkey pox begins with a fever, headache, muscle aches, back ache, and exhaustion.
  • It also causes the lymph nodes to swell (lymphadenopathy), which smallpox does not.

Treatment

  • There is no safe, proven treatment for monkeypox yet. The WHO recommends supportive treatment depending on the symptoms.

Source: Indian Express

Q.1) Which of the following statements is not correct?

  1. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted much like HIV
  2. Hepatitis B, unlike Hepatitis C, does not have a vaccine
  3. Globally, the number of people infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses are several times more than those infected with HIV
  4. Some of those infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses do not show the symptoms for many years

Pangolin

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Environment and Ecology

In News: A Pangolin was rescued from the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve

Pangolin

  • Out of the eight species of pangolin, the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) and the Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) are found in India.
  • Pangolins are scaly anteater mammals and they have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin.
  • They are the only known mammals with this feature.
  • Insectivore- Pangolins are nocturnal, and their diet consists of mainly ants and termites
  • Habitat – Indian Pangolin – It is widely distributed in India, except the arid region, high Himalayas and the North-East.
  • Chinese Pangolin – found in the Himalayan foothills in Eastern Nepal, Bhutan, Northern India, and North-East Bangladesh and through Southern China.

Difference between Indian and Chinese Pangolin

  • Indian Pangolin is a large anteater covered by 11-13 rows of scales on the back.
  • A terminal scale is also present on the lower side of the tail of the Indian Pangolin, which is absent in the Chinese Pangolin.

Status

  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I
  • IUCN Red List: Indian Pangolin – Endangered; Chinese Pangolin – critically endangered
  • CITES: Appendix I

Threats

  • Hunting and poaching for local consumptive use and international trade for its meat and scales in East and South East Asian countries, particularly China and Vietnam.
  • They are believed to be the world’s most trafficked mammal

Source: The Hindu


Poverty

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS (Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger)

In News: A recent World Bank Report has shown that extreme poverty in India more than halved between 2011 and 2019 – from 22.5 per cent to 10.2 per cent.

  • The reduction was higher in rural areas, from 26.3 per cent to 11.6 per cent.

Reasons for reduction

  • Identification of deprived households on the basis of the Socioeconomic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 across welfare programmes was a game-changer in the efforts to ensure balanced development, socially as well as across regions.

Participation of Women:

  • Coverage of women under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana and Self Help Groups (SHG) increased from 2.5 crore in 2014 to over 8 crore in 2018
  • This provided a robust framework to connect with communities and created a social capital that helped every programme.

Financial Decentralization

  • Finance Commission transfers were made directly to gram panchayats leading to the creation of basic infrastructure
  • The high speed of road construction under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadhak Yojana created greater opportunities for employment by improving connectivity and enhancing mobility.

Credit Access

  • The social capital of SHGs ensured the availability of credit through banks, micro-finance institutions and MUDRA loans

Basic Needs

  • Thrust on universal coverage for individual household latrines, LPG connections and pucca houses improved standard of living

Co operative federalism

  • The competition among states to improve basic needs helped in development
  • Example: NITI Aayog SDG index

Monitoring

  • Through processes like social and concurrent audits, efforts were made to ensure that resources were fully utilized.
  • Still Poverty persists in India
  • Pandemic and pandemic induced lockdown – loss of livelihood
  • Population Explosion
  • Low Agricultural Productivity
  • Inefficient Resource utilisation
  • Inflation
  • Social Factors – Caste system, communal vilolence etc
  • Climatic Factors – Extreme Weather events – disasters like cyclone, landslides etc

Way forward

  • Realistic Assessment of the present situation of poverty in the country in need of the hour
  • Improving social infrastructure and job opportunities in rural areas
  • Investment in Agriculture by the government is necessary to decrease rural poverty
  • Access to credit, financial inclusion and DBT
  • Adoption of ICT to fight corruption
  • Involvement of citizen in developmental plans, adoption of bottom-up approach etc

A lot has been achieved, much remains to be done. Strong political will and proper implementation of existing schemes is the need of an hour.

Source: Indian Express


Baba’s Explainer – Sedition Law

Syllabus

  • GS-2: Indian Constitution- significant provisions
  • GS-2: Functions and responsibilities of the government
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Why in News: Recently, the Union government has sought more time to file a reply in a plea challenging the constitutional validity of the sedition charge under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code.

  • The pleas filed by the Editors Guild of India and Major General (Retired) S.G. Vombatkere state that the law causes a ‘chilling effect’ on free speech and is an unreasonable restriction on free expression, a fundamental right.

Read Complete Details on Sedition Law – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs


Q.1) Arrange the following sites of IVC, from north to south

  1. Dholavira
  2. Lothal
  3. Rangpur
  4. Alamgirpur

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1-2-3-4
  2. 4-2-1-3
  3. 4-1-2-3
  4. 4-3-2-1

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Monkey pox

  1. It is a zoonotic disease
  2. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira
  3. There is no human to human transmission

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements

  1. Pangolins are the only known mammals with protective keratin scales covering their skin
  2. Both Indian and Chinese pangolins are found in India
  3. While IUCN status of Indian pangolin is Endangered, Chinese pangolin is critically endangered

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 3 only

ANSWERS FOR 9th MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 c
2 d
3 a

 

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