DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 15th November 2022

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  • November 15, 2022
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Naan Mudhalvan scheme

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  • Prelims – Governance

Context: Corporates, industrial bodies and chambers of commerce are pitching in to play a crucial role in the Tamil Nadu government’s ‘Naan Mudhalvan’ scheme aimed at equipping college students with industry-relevant skills.

About the scheme:

  • The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu recently launched the ‘Naan Mudhalvan’ scheme.
  • The scheme aims to provide skills to the 10-lakh youth across the state.
  • The youths will be able to recognize their talents and interests through this scheme.
  • A portal to register for the scheme and get related information about the scheme was also launched.
  • The career and academic guidance to the students will be granted under the scheme. They will be given proper learnings and training sessions.
  • The spoken English lessons will also be granted in order to improve vocab skills among students. The sessions on software coding, robotics will also be taken.
  • Naan Mudhalvan provides free employment linked skill development trainings to the Youth in the age group of 18-35 years across the state under the various state and centrally sponsored schemes.
  • These nationally certified trainings are provided through empanelled training partners at centres in urban and rural areas across the state in over 20 different sectors like Healthcare, Media & Entertainment, Green jobs, Retail, Beauty, Construction, Electronics and Hardware, Food Processing, Health Care, IT ITES, Leather, Logistics etc.

About the Platform:

  • Naan Mudhalvan platform aims to provide dynamic information for college students on courses and relevant information about industry specific skill offerings.
  • This will enable the students of Tamil Nādu to get training in their chosen field of interest that will help them in achieving their career goals.
  • The objective of this scheme is to identify potential training providers, to impart various skill trainings based on current industry gaps.
  • Through this flagship program the students will be able to get trained and ensure they get jobs according to their skill sets.
  • Naan Mudhalvan showcases 2000+ institutes and consequent 300+ career pathways.

Source:  The Hindu

Sir CP Ramaswamy Iyer

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  • Prelims – History

Context: Amid the ongoing tussle between the LDF government in Kerala and Governor, senior BJP leader and state education minister traded allegations over erstwhile Travancore Diwan Sir CP Ramaswamy Iyer.

About Sir CP Ramaswamy Iyer:

  • Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, popularly known as ‘Sir CP’ or simply CP was an able lawyer, efficient administrator and astute politician.
  • He graduated with distinction from the Madras Law College in 1901.
    • He used to spend his college vacations with Sir K. Seshadri Iyer, the Dewan of Mysore and got inspiration from him.
  • He was the Dewan of the erstwhile Travancore princely state from 1936 to 1947.
  • Under his Dewanship, Travancore became the first princely state to abolish capital punishment, first to introduce free and compulsory education, first to introduce universal adult franchise and the first to be connected to the rest of India by air.
  • The proposed bicameral legislature for the Travancore comprised of the Sri Mulam Assembly (First Chamber) and the Sri Chithira State Council (Second Chamber) and Sir C.P, was the President of both.
  • In 1936, Sri Chithira Thirunal personally requested Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer to serve as the Dewan of Travancore which he accepted and served for ten years.
  • In 1936, at the instance of Sir C.P, Sri Chithira Thirunal issued the famous Temple Entry Proclamation which gave Hindus of all castes and classes, including Harijans or untouchables, the right to enter Hindu temples in the state.
    • Mahatma Gandhi and other social reformers praised the Maharaja and the Dewan for this proclamation though the conservative Hindus opposed it.
  • Sir CP was the first person in India to suggest a plan for interlinking the rivers in the country and is also credited with the establishment of several hydro-electric power projects.
  • He established the Pallivasal Hydro-electric power project on the Periyar River and initiated the Pechipara Hydro-electric Scheme and the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary project.
  • In 1940, under his Dewanship, Travancore became the first state to nationalize road transport in India.
  • The first cement highway in India between Trivandrum and Kanyakumari covering a distance of 88 kms was constructed during his tenure.
  • Sir CP started the University of Travancore (subsequently named as Kerala University) in 1937 with the Maharaja Sri Chithira Thirunal as the Chancellor and himself as the Vice Chancellor.
  • He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Travancore in 1939. He also renovated the Padmanabhapuram Palace built during Marthanda Varma’s time and expanded the Trivandrum Art Gallery.
  • Sir CP was the first to introduce the midday meal scheme in the form of the Vanchi Poor Fund in Travancore to encourage poor children to attend school.
  • He established the Fertilizers and Chemicals of Travancore, the first fertilizer plant in India with American collaboration.
    • He also established the Travancore Cement Co., the Travancore Titanium Co. and the Travancore Rayons Limited.
    • The state revenue increased four-fold during his tenure as the Dewan.
  • Sir CP was the patron of the Trivandrum Club and the Travancore Athletic Association. He was the Chairman of the Travancore State Sailer Soldiers and Armies Board, member of the Indian Rubber Production Board and President of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
  • Some of his literary works are: Indian Universities: Retrospect’s and Prospects; Religion, Man and Other Essays; Biographical Vistas; Pen Portraits; Fundamentals of Hindu Faith and Culture; Cultural Freedom of Some Eminent Indians; At the Crossroads, Phases of Religion and Culture; World Religions-A study in synthesis; World Culture and India; Treatment of Landscape in Eastern and Western Poetry etc.
  • Sir CP has been criticized as an authoritarian and anti-Communist but despite his animosity with the Communists, he opposed as “unconstitutional” the dismissal of the elected Communist government of Kerala in 1959.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q.1) In the first quarter of the seventeenth century, in which of the following was/were the factory/factories of the English East India Company located? (2021)

  1. Broach
  2. Chicacole
  3. Trichinopoly

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

27th COP of UNFCCC

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  • Prelims – Environment

In news: All nations that signed the pact under UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are meeting in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, at the COP27.

About current situation:

  • As per the Paris Agreement on Climate Change of 2015, the focus is to drive down greenhouse gas emissions and keep the rise in average global temperature to well below 2°C and as close to 1.5°C as possible by the end of the century.
  • Current temperature rise stands at 1.2°C to 1.3°C over the pre-industrial average, the highest in about 12,000 years since the last Ice Age.
  • UNEP’s Emissions Gap Report 2022 says global warming is projected to rise to 1.8°C with a 66% probability, even if all the Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs (voluntary pledges submitted under the Paris pact) are implemented.
  • At 2°C, up to 20% decline in snowmelt water for irrigation, diminished water for farming and human settlements due to glacier mass loss, and a two-fold increase in flood damage could happen, while up to 18% of species on land could go extinct.
  • Global annual emissions during 2021 at 52.8 Gigatonnes (GtCO2e), represents a slight increase compared to 2019, the pre-COVID year, and that the outlook for 2030 is not bright.
  • The latest Sixth Assessment Report (SAR) of the IPCC says that biodiversity loss, Arctic ice loss, threat to coastal settlements and infrastructure, conflicts & migration of affected people and urban challenges to energy and water access could also arise.
  • Tipping points means moments that cascade into irreversible changes, with a domino effect on other elements such as heat waves, Greenland ice sheet collapse, West Antarctic ice sheet collapse, thawing of the boreal permafrost, and tropical coral reef die offs, all of which are expected to happen at 1.5°C.
  • G20 members account for 75% of emissions, although it is the richer countries that are responsible for accumulated emissions since the industrial revolution.

Objectives of COP27:

  • The COP27 is described as the conference of implementation.
  • Aim: to review progress, raise ambition on emissions cuts and draw up funding plans to help vulnerable countries adapt to climate change.
  • Countries most affected by the effects of a changing climate have been seeking loss and damage payments from the richer industrialised nations in the form of a separate loss and damage fund.
  • To move away from fossil fuels and to peak emissions by 2025.
  •  “10 New Insights on Climate Science” released at COP27 – shows continuing high emissions from fossil fuels.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question:

Q.1) With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2016)

  1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
  2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2°C or even 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Methane Alert and Response System (MARS)

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  • Prelims – Environment

In News: The Methane Alert and Response System (MARS) was launched at the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

About MARS:

  • A new satellite-based system to detect methane emissions and tackle them to slow climate change.
  • The data-to-action platform was set up as part of the UN Environment Programme’s (UNEP) International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO) strategy to get policy-relevant data into the right hands for emissions mitigation.
  • The system will be the first publicly available global system to connect methane detection to notification processes transparently.
  • It will use state-of-the-art satellite data to identify significant emission events, notify relevant stakeholders, and support and track mitigation progress.
  • MARS partners will also provide technical or advisory services, such as help in assessing mitigation opportunities.
  • UNEP will monitor the event location and make the data and analysis available to the public between 45 and 75 days after detection.

About Methane:

  • Methane is a short-lived climate pollutant like hydrofluorocarbons and stays in the Earth’s atmosphere for a few years, unlike carbon dioxide.
  • Methane is the second-most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide
  • Methane is an 80 times more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide at trapping atmospheric heat in the 20 years following its release.
  • Methane has contributed to about one-third of the current anthropogenic greenhouse gas-driven warming.
  • Major sources of Methane:
  • Natural: decay of plant material in wetlands, termites, oceans, digestion of food by cattle or the seepage of gas from underground deposits.
  • Anthropogenic: landfills, oil and natural gas systems, agricultural activities, coal mining, stationary and mobile combustion, wastewater treatment, and industrial processes
  • India: Agriculture – 61%, Energy sector – 16.4%, waste – 19.8% (as per Global Methane tracker)
  • Methane enters the atmosphere due to leaks in oil and gas industries, rearing livestock and the decomposition of waste in landfills.
  • Currently, only 2 per cent of global climate finance goes to methane.
  • Global methane emissions in 2030, can be reduced by 57 per cent using available strategies and technologies. This reduction can cause lower global warming by around 0.25°C in 2050 and 0.5°C by the end of the century.


  • The global mean temperature 2022 is 1.15 degrees Celsius (°C) above the 1850-1900 pre-industrial average, with a range of 1.02°C to 1.28°C.
  • Global Methane Pledge(2021): cut methane emissions by at least 30 per cent by 2030 — to keep the 1.5°C temperature limit within reach.
  • India is not a part to the pledge
  • Most emissions can be traced back to
  • As per a WMO report, past eight years are on track to be the eight warmest on record, fuelled by ever-rising greenhouse gas concentrations and accumulated heat.
  • NASA recently found 50 “super-emitters” of methane gas in central Asia, the west Asia and the southwestern United States. Most of these sites have ties with agriculture and fossil fuel industries.
  • UNEP releases the Emissions Gap Report.

Source: Down To Earth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which of the following statements are correct about the deposits of ‘methane hydrate’? (2019)

  1. Global warming might trigger the release of methane gas from these deposits.
  2. Large deposits of ‘methane hydrate’ are found in Arctic Tundra and under the seafloor.
  3. Methane in atmosphere oxidizes to carbon dioxide after a decade or two.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Nagaland’s Bird Count drive

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  • Prelims – Environment

In News: A recent 4-day birding drive called Tokhü Emong Bird Count (TEBC), was organised in Nagaland during Tokhü Emong post-harvest festival of the Lotha Nagas.

  • Birding is a unique enterprise in which birdwatchers contribute crucial information on the behaviour, distribution, and occurrence of bird species to ornithological knowledge.

About the event:

  • Organised in collaboration with the Wokha Forest Division, Nagaland Forest Management Project, Wokha, Nagaland and Bird Count India.
  • Aim: To get people interested in birds, create awareness, celebrate the rich bird diversity of the state and set a benchmark against which future studies of avian populations can be compared.
  • This initiative involves local communities to identify different species that are found in the state.
  • It has documented a total of 178 bird species in the state.
  • eBird is an online platform to record their observations.
  • Nagaland is known as the “Falcon Capital of the World”.
  • Species reported included:
  • Brown Shrike
  • Warblers — Ashy-throated, Buff-barred, Yellow-browed, Dusky, Grey-cheeked, Greenish, and Yellow-bellied Warblers, Whistler’s, Blyth’s Leaf, Grey-hooded, Brown Bush, and Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler.
  • Spot-breasted Parrotbill
  • Partridge — Hill, Rufous-throated, and Mountain Bamboo-Partridge.
  • Raptors included Eurasian Sparrowhawk, Himalayan Buzzard, Oriental Scops-Owl and Amur Falcon.
  • Asian Barred and Collared Owlet
  • Scops-Owl — Mountain Scops-Owl, Collared Scops-Owl and Oriental Scops-Owl
  • Black-tailed Crake.
  • Bulbul — Black-crested, Crested Finchbill, Striated, Red-vented, Red-whiskered, Flavescent, Himalayan Black, Mountain Bulbul;
  • Thrush — Long-billed, Black-breasted, Eyebrowed, Blue Whistling-Thrush
  • Wagtail — Grey, Eastern Yellow, and White Wagtail.

About Bird Count India:

  • Bird Count India is an informal partnership of organizations and groups working together to increase our collective knowledge about bird distributions and populations.
  • The eBird India portal is managed by Bird Count India.

Source: Down To Earth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to India’s biodiversity, Ceylon frogmouth, Coppersmith barbet, Gray-chinned minivet and White-throated redstart are: (2020)

  1. Birds
  2. Primates
  3. Reptiles
  4. Amphibians

‘Sealed Cover jurisprudence’

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  • Prelims – Polity

In News: A Bench led by (now) Chief Justice of India D Y Chandrachud criticised the practice of “sealed cover” jurisprudence.

  • In its order issued in ‘Cdr Amit Kumar Sharma v Union of India’ on October 20, 2022, SC called it as setting a “dangerous precedent”, which makes “the process of adjudication vague and opaque”.

Sealed cover jurisprudence:

  • It is the controversial practice followed by the Supreme Court (and sometimes lower courts as well) of seeking and accepting information from government agencies in sealed envelopes that can only be perused by the judges.
  • It is found in Rule 7 of Order XIII (“Copying”) of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013 (notified in May 2014)
  • Applicability: When information is connected to an ongoing investigation, and when it involves personal or confidential information.
  • Effect: The sealed cover procedure affects the functioning of the justice delivery system both at an individual case- to case level and at an institutional level.
  • It denies the aggrieved party their legal right to effectively challenge an order since the adjudication of issues has proceeded based on unshared material provided in a sealed cover. It prevents parties from having a full overview of the charges against them
  • It perpetuates a culture of opaqueness and secrecy by bestowing absolute power in the hands of the adjudicating authority.
  • It also tilts the balance of power in a litigation in favour of a dominant party which has control over information.
  • It also takes away the opportunity to analyse judicial decisions, and to appreciate the rationale behind them.
  • The Supreme Court clarified that all information must be not disclosed in the public, example “sensitive information affecting the privacy of individuals such as the identity of a sexual harassment victim”.
  • The Supreme Court itself has encouraged the practice of seeking public-interest related information in sealed envelopes such as in the Rafale aircraft case, the court accepted the government’s argument that the matter pertained to the Official Secrets Act.

Source: Indian Express

Ninth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and Jharkhand Reservation Bill

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  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: Recently the Jharkhand Assembly cleared a Bill to raise the total reservation in State government posts.

About the Ninth Schedule:

  • The Ninth Schedule contains a list of central and state laws which cannot be challenged in courts.
  • Currently, 284 such laws are shielded from judicial review.
  • Most of the laws protected under the Schedule concern agriculture/land issues.

Origin of 9th schedule:

  • The Schedule became a part of the Constitution in 1951, when the document was amended for the first time.
  • It was created by the new Article 31B, which along with 31A was brought in by the government to protect laws related to agrarian reform and for abolishing the Zamindari system.
  • Article 31A extends protection to ‘classes’ of laws,
  • Article 31B shields specific laws or enactments.

Evolution of 9th schedule:

  • The First Amendment to Indian Constitution added 13 laws to the Schedule.
  • Subsequent amendments in 1955, 1964, 1971, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1984, 1990, 1994, and 1999 have taken the number of protected laws to 284.
  • While the Ninth Schedule provides the law with a “safe harbour” from judicial review, the protection is not blanket.
  • The Supreme Court ruled in a verdict that while laws placed under Ninth Schedule cannot be challenged on the grounds of violation of fundamental rights, they can be challenged on the ground of violating the basic structure of the Constitution.

Kesavananda Bharati case and Basic structure:

  • The court clarified that the laws cannot escape the “basic structure” test if inserted into the Ninth Schedule after 1973, as it was in 1973 that the basic structure test was evolved in the Kesavananda Bharati case as the ultimate test to examine the constitutional validity of laws.

Background of Reservation policy with respect to 9th schedule:

Indra Sawhney case:

  • In the Indra Sawhney vs Union of India, popularly known as the Mandal Commission case, the Supreme Court ordered that total reservation should not exceed 50 percent.
  • Critics believe that the 50 percent ceiling is a constitutional requirement without which the structure of equality of opportunity would collapse.
  • Supreme Court’s recent judgment regarding flexibility on the 50% cap on the reservation:
  • The bill was cleared in the backdrop of a Supreme Court Constitution Bench’s majority ruling in the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) case that the 50% cap on the reservation was not sacrosanct.

Outcome of this judgment:

  • This ruling of SC has paved the way to give new life to the argument of several other States fighting to increase reservations for Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBC) beyond the 50% mark.
  • Now, after the Jharkhand Assembly’s move and the EWS judgment on this aspect, other States like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka are likely to get a fresh impetus to argue for extending reservations for Backward Classes beyond the 50% limit.

Ninth schedule and provision of 103rd CAA 2019:

  • Before the EWS judgment once again affirming that the Indra Sawhney decision does not specifically bar a breach of the 50% limit, State governments considered that the only way to raise reservations was through a Constitutional amendment that included their legislations in the Ninth Schedule.

Jharkhand Reservation of Vacancies in Posts and Services (Amendment) Bill, 2022

  • The Jharkhand Assembly passed a Bill to raise the total reservation for Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) in State government posts to up to 77%.

Amending Ninth schedule:

  • In the Bill passed by the Jharkhand Assembly, the recommendation is to amend the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution accordingly.
  • The 77 percent reservation breaches the 50 percent ceiling set by the Supreme Court in the landmark 1992 Indra Sawhney v Union of India verdict.
  • However, placing legislation in the Ninth Schedule shields it from judicial scrutiny.

About breach of 50% ceiling:

  • Without directly referring to the Indra Sawhney judgment of 1993, the Bill passed in Jharkhand Assembly noted that the 50% ceiling set out in the judgment never explicitly prohibited the breaching of the limit.

Earlier instances — Tamil Nadu’s case

  • The Tamil Nadu Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutions and of Appointments or Posts in the Services under the State) Act, 1993, reserves 69 per cent of the seats in colleges and jobs in the state government.
  • When it ran into legal obstacles in the 1990s after the SC verdict, the then Chief Minister Jayalalithaa, along with other leaders of various parties, led a delegation to New Delhi to meet the then Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao. The reservation provision was then included in the Ninth Schedule.

Verdict of the IR Coelho Case:

  • The IR Coelho verdict said, “A law that abrogates or abridges rights guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution may violate the basic structure doctrine or it may not.
  • If former is the consequence of law, whether by amendment of any Article of Part III or by an insertion in the Ninth Schedule, such law will have to be invalidated in exercise of judicial review power of the Court.”

MUST READ: Supreme Court and EWS Verdict

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The Ninth Schedule was introduced in the Constitution of India during the prime ministership of    (2019)

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru
  2. Lal Bahadur Shastri
  3. Indira Gandhi
  4. Morarji Desai

Data Localisation

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  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance) and GS 3 (Science and Technology)

Context: The most debated matter in recent times is about data localisation and its associated issues. There is always a tussle going on between the need of data localisation requirements and issues associated with it.

About Data localisation:

  • Data localization is the practice of keeping data within the region it originated from.
  • Countries mandate data that are created within their borders to remain stored within its territorial boundaries. This process of storing data locally is referred to as data localisation.
  • It mandates that companies collecting critical data about consumers must store and process them within the borders of the country.
    • As of now, most of these data are stored, in a cloud, outside India.
  • RBI’s circular on storage of payment system data: In 2018, RBI had issued a circular wherein it directed all system providers to ensure that within a period of six months, the entire data relating to payment systems operated by them is stored in a system only in India.
    • This covered not only card payment services by Visa and MasterCard but also of companies such as Paytm, WhatsApp and Google which offer electronic or digital payment services.
  • RBI’s barring of Mastercard from issuing new domestic cards has been done under the violation of this circular only.

Arguments in favour of need for data localisation:

  • Strengthens the protection: The requirement of data localisation strengthens the protection of personal data, as all of us while using the internet are sending data in some manner or form.
  • General Data Protection Regulation: Obligations under the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), obligates businesses in the EU to keep the data secured within the boundaries of the EU.
    • If in any case such data is to be transferred to a different country, they need to have similar protections like those that exist in the EU.
    • Countries like Russia on the other hand have stricter laws pertaining to the cross-border flow of data and emphasises keeping data within the Russian Federation.
  • Control on the data: The motive for different governments to store data locally is not only to protect the privacy of their citizens but also to exercise their control on the data, which is fuelling and driving businesses in their countries, for law enforcement purposes.
  • Data protection Bill: India being one of the most powerful markets in terms of data creation and use, the need for data localisation is essential.
    • The recently withdrawn Bill on data protection also emphasised this fact.
    • Law enforcement agencies in India face a lot of difficulties in getting timely access to data that may be stored elsewhere by businesses operating in India.
  • Payment system data information: Due to the increasing number of digital payments in the country, the Reserve Bank of India has also mandated payment system data information to be stored in India for better monitoring and safety.

Arguments against Data localisation:

  • Data more vulnerable: If governments look at data localisation from the point of security and counter data breaches, it can, due to the forced localisation of data, make data security more vulnerable as the data no longer undergoes sharing.
  • Risk of local surveillance: There can also be an increased risk of local surveillance through the implementation of stringent data localisation laws.
  • Hindrance of global trade: The present technology-powered age is impacting trade on a different level. Therefore, imposing restrictions in the free flow of data can not only create an impact on the global economy but also become a hindrance for local markets.
  • Varied nature of compliances: A lot of countries prohibit transfer of data on the account of ‘national interest’ which is a very broad term and could encompass various situations. Such variations can foster a varied set of challenges in different settings and the nature of businesses.
  • Increases the operational costs: the mandate of data localisation increases the operational costs of the businesses.
  • Promotion of monopoly: Another downside of this could be promotion of monopoly and eradication of small and mid-size businesses from the market.
  • High investment and energy costs: Maintaining multiple local data centres may entail significant investments in infrastructure and higher costs for global companies, which is why they are not too supportive of this provision.

Suggestions for data localisation:

  • Glocalization: The ‘glocalization’ approach is one such method in the digital space, wherein laws can be harmonised globally, but by paying attention to local interests.
  • Increasing the efficiency of IT systems: There is no denying the fact that robustness of IT systems should become more important than the geographical location of data storage.
  • Growing businesses: The cross-border data flow has proven to be an important pillar of strength for established as well as growing businesses.
    • The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in their Digital Economy Report found that businesses using the internet for global trade have a higher survival rate than those who do not.
  • Essential for growth: Data is the enabler of businesses and digitisation that has been essential for growth and innovation.
  • Multiple stakeholder approach: A way forward could be to move with a multiple stakeholder approach which can not only help in looking at data localisation alone, but also other issues such as privacy and governance.

India has a stronger bargaining chip than most nations in pushing for data localisation — access to its billion-strong consumer market.

Source: Indian Express

Maritime Security

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  • Mains – GS 3 Internal Security

In News: More than 200 Chinese fishing vessels have been monitored in the Indian Ocean, according to the Indian Navy, even as illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing continues to rise beyond India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZs).


  • With a coastline of over 7000 KM, Maritime security is an important aspect of national security for India.
  • There is a presence of extra-regional distant water fishing fleets from China, European Union and other counties, especially in the Northern Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • Moreover, there have been growing incidence of Chinese deep sea fishing trawlers in the Indian Ocea, an overall rise of China’s maritime presence in the region and there are two Chinese research vessels which can track missile tests currently deployed in the Indian Ocean region.

What is IUU fishing:

  • IUU fishing is a broad term that captures illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities, both on the high seas and in areas within national jurisdiction.
  • It concerns all aspects and stages of the capture and utilisation of fish, and it may sometimes be associated with organized crime.
  • IUU fishing takes advantage of corruption and exploits weak management regimes in countries lacking effective monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS) mechanisms.
  • It threatens marine biodiversity, livelihoods, exacerbates poverty, and augments food insecurity.

Concerns about India’s maritime security:

  • IUU fishing depletes fish stocks, destroys marine habitats, puts fishermen at disadvantage and impacts coastal communities, especially in developing countries.
  • Chinese deep-sea trawlers operate far from the Chinese coast and impact local marine ecology. For instance, between 2015 and 2019, on an average at least 500 Chinese deep-sea trawlers were present in the IOR.
  • There is a huge surge in unregistered Chinese fishing vessels such that close to 140 Chinese fishing vessels have been monitored carrying out fishing beyond India’s EEZ, in the North Western IOR.
  • India is not a signatory to the two main regulations globally on IUU fishing: the Cape Town Agreement and the Agreement on Ports State Measures; which undermines its global position.

Suggestions and current Mechanisms:

  • As per United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal nations are responsible for addressing IUU fishing issues within their respective EEZ.
  • Regulatory bodies to monitor IUU fishing on the high seas: The Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement operating under the mandate of UNCLOS.
  • Joint Quad monitoring: the Quad, comprising India, Australia, Japan and U.S., in 2022 announced a major regional effort under the ambit of Indo-Pacific Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA).
  • It aims to provide an accurate maritime picture of “near-real-time” activities in the region.
  • IPMDA is expected to catalyse joint efforts of India and other Quad partners towards addressing IUU in Indo-Pacific region.
  • Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) in Gurugram monitors all vessel movements on the high seas under the ambit of the Indian Navy.
  • The Information Fusion Centre-Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR), co-located with IMAC, has been collaborating with other regional monitoring centres across the globe to enhance maritime safety and security, including efforts to monitor IUU.
  • IFC-IOR undertakes satellite monitoring of vessels operating in the IOR to track such vessels.
  • Fishing Vehicle management systems identifies their position, and also requires them to record the volume and location of their catch, helping to tackle the issue of IUU fishing.
  • Global Record of Fishing Vessels, Refrigerated Transport Vessels and Supply Vessels is an international tool, developed by FAO, to fight IUU fishing.

Way forward:

  • SDG target 14.4 aims to end overfishing, illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing and destructive fishing practices.
  • Further, the ‘IUU Fishing Index,’ which uses a suite of 40 indicators to benchmark vulnerability, prevalence and response to IUU fishing among all of the world’s 152 coastal countries, is aimed to help policymakers identify where interventions to stop IUU are most needed.
  • Sustainable fisheries accounted for approximately 0.1 per cent of global GDP in 2017. An effort can be made to enhance this figure through a multi-stakeholder and participative approach.

Source The Hindu

Baba’s Explainer – Significance of the Bali G-20 summit

Significance of the Bali G-20 summit


  • GS-2: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Context: Leaders of the G-20 nations will gather at Bali, Indonesia for the 17th summit of the world’s most advanced economies.

  • While the focus will be on post-pandemic recovery and dealing with energy and food security impacted by the Russian war in Ukraine, much interest will be around which leaders choose to hold bilateral summits on the sidelines.

Read Complete Details on Significance of the Bali G-20 summit

Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to India’s biodiversity, Buff-barred Warbler, Rusty-capped Fulvetta, Eyebrowed Thrush and Eastern Yellow Wagtail are

  1. Primates
  2. Birds
  3. Reptiles
  4. Amphibians

Q.2) With reference to ‘Global Methane Pledge,’ consider the following statements:

  1. It was launched at 26th COP of UNFCCC.
  2. India made a commitment to reduce methane emissions by 30 percent by 2030.
  3. Methane is 60 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping atmospheric heat.

Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None

Q.3) With reference to modern consider the following statements:

  1. He was the Dewan of the erstwhile Travancore princely state from 1936 to 1947.
  2. Under his Dewanship, Travancore became the first princely state to abolish capital punishment, first to introduce free and compulsory education, first to introduce universal adult franchise and the first to be connected to the rest of India by air.
  3. He was the patron of the Trivandrum Club and the Travancore Athletic Association.

Who among the following has been described in the above statements?

  1. M Visvesvaraya
  2. K Seshadri Iyer
  3. CP Ramaswamy Iyer
  4. V Sivankutty

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’15th November 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 14th November – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – b

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