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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 13th December 2022

  • IASbaba
  • December 13, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


NavIC

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

In News: To promote the use of ‘NAVigation with the Indian Constellation’ (NavIC), the Indian version of GPS, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will introduce the L1 frequency in all its future satellites, for civilian navigational use.

What is NavIC:

  • It is the navigation satellite system and homegrown alternative to GPS.
  • Developed by ISRO, it was first approved in 2006 but became operational only by 2018.
  • At present, it consists of eight satellites, covering the whole of India and up to 1,500 km from its boundaries.
  • The seven satellites in the NavIC constellation use two frequencies for providing positioning data — the L5 and S bands.
  • The new satellites NVS-01 onwards, meant to replace these satellites, will also have L1 frequency.
  • NavIC is as accurate as GPS.

What is L1 frequency:

  • The L1 is the oldest and most established GPS signals
  • Even the less sophisticated, civilian-use devices such as smartwatches can receive it.
  • Thus, with this band, the use of NavIC in civilian-use gadgets can go up.
  • GPS satellites generally transmit on two frequencies—L1 (42 MHz) and L2 (1227.60 MHz).

Use of NavIC:

  • It is mainly being used in public vehicle tracking, to provide emergency warning alerts to fishermen venturing into the deep sea, and for tracking data related to natural disasters.
  • The government is also pushing for its increased use in smartphones.

Advantages of NavIC:

  • Since it is homegrown, will be more accurate than other systems.
  • With a fully operational constellation and ground stations outside of India — ISRO plans to set up ground stations in Japan and France to better triangulate the entire area under NavIC coverage – the system is likely to become more accurate than GPS.
  • The satellites placed directly over India also ensure better availability of signals in varied geographical regions compared to GPS, which India receives at an angle, making it difficult to access in dense forests or valleys.

Other navigation systems:

  • Galileo – European Union
  • GLONASS – Russia
  • China’s – Beidou
  • QZSS – Japan

Source: Indianexpress

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. IRNSS has three satellites in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits.
  2. IRNSS covers entire India and about 5500 sq. km beyond its borders.
  3. India will have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None

Artemis 1 mission

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

In News: NASA’s Orion capsule splashed down back to Earth

  • The Orion’s landing in the Pacific Ocean marked the end of the inaugural Artemis 1 lunar mission exactly 50 years after Apollo’s final moon landing.
  • It also performed a new landing technique called ‘skip entry’, designed to help the spacecraft accurately splash down at the landing site.
  • Orion entered the Earth’s upper atmosphere and used the atmosphere and its lift to “skip” back outside the atmosphere only to re-enter once again.

What is the Artemis I Mission?

  • Artemis I is an uncrewed mission of NASA.
  • Named after the sister of Apollo in Greek mythology, it is NASA’s successor to the Apollo lunar missions from fifty years ago.
  • Artemis I is the first in a series of increasingly complex missions to build a long-term human presence at the Moon for decades to come.
  • The primary goals for Artemis I are to demonstrate Orion’s systems in a spaceflight environment and ensure a safe re-entry, descent, splashdown, and recovery prior to the first flight with crew on Artemis II.
  • It is only a lunar Orbiter mission even though, unlike most Orbiter missions, it has a return-to-Earth target.
  • Artemis I is the first step into that new space age of achieving the promise of transporting humans to new worlds, of landing and living on other planets, or maybe meeting aliens.

What are the Upcoming Artemis Missions?

Artemis II:

  • It will take off in 2024.
  • Artemis II will have a crew aboard Orion and will be a test mission to confirm that all of the spacecraft’s systems will operate as designed when it has humans on board.
  • But the Artemis II launch will be similar to that of Artemis I. A crew of four astronauts will be aboard Orion as it and ICPS orbit the Earth twice before moving to the direction of the Moon.

Artemis III:

  • It is scheduled for 2025, and is expected to ferry astronauts to the moon for the first time since the apollo missions.

Source: Indianexpress.com

Previous Year Question

Q.1) “The experiment will employ a trio of spacecraft flying in formation in the shape of an equilateral triangle that has sides one million kilometres long, with lasers shining between the craft”. The experiment in question refers to (2020)

  1. Voyager
  2. New Horizons
  3. LISA Pathfinder
  4. Evolved LISA

India-China Tawang clash

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current affairs

In news: Indian and Chinese troops clashed in Arunachal Pradesh’s Tawang sector, beating each other up with sticks and canes in their closest encounter since the deadly Galwan incident in eastern Ladakh in June 2020.

About:

  • The clash in Arunachal Pradesh took place along the LAC in the Tawang heights near a point called Yangtse in Eastern Tawang.
  • This part of the LAC is one of the “agreed disputed areas” between the two sides, according to military sources.
  • This time the PLA had “pre-planned” the transgression for an “opportune” time.
  • The location of the skirmish is described as heavily forested terrain, with Chinese troops occupying “top of the wall” positions with deep supply lines and infrastructure.
  • The incident came days after China expressed objection to Operation Yudhabhyas, an India-US joint military exercise at Auli in the Uttarakhand hills
  • China claimed it was a violation of 1993 and 1996 border agreements.
  • The continuing military tensions at different points along the 3,000 km-Line of Actual Control comes as India took presidency of the G-20, a grouping of the world’s leading economies that includes China.
  • After the clash, the Indian side is said to have used Radio Frequency (RF) signal geolocation equipment to reconstruct satellite images.

Other incidents:

  • In September 2022, Indian and Chinese troops disengaged in the Gogra Hotspring area of Eastern Ladakh.
  • The Galwan incident, which claimed the lives of 20 Indian soldiers, came after the two sides had discussed disengagement in the area.
  • Tensions in Ladakh continue over the build-up of Chinese troops in Depsang, intrusions in Demchok and the rapid infrastructure build up by the Chinese, including two bridges over the Pangong lake that will reduce Chinese mobilisation time on the southern bank.

Source: Indianexpress

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Siachen Glacier is situated to the: (2020)

  1. East of Aksai Chin
  2. East of Leh
  3. North of Gilgit
  4. North of Nubra Valley

Meitei script

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

Context: The script, once patronised by Meitei rulers but which fell into disuse with the advent of Hinduism and eventually disappeared, is now enjoying a new lease of life after a decades-old movement for its revival.

The Meiteilon script

  • The Meiteilon (Manipuri language) script is fairly old.
  • The earliest epigraphic record of the script is a stone inscription from Khoibu village which was erected on the orders of Meidingu Kiyamba (1467-1508).
  • ‘Meidingu’ are kings who belong to the Ningthouja clan whose rule extends from 33 AD to 1949 AD.
  • The Meitei Mayek or Meitei script evolved with time and this led to conflict between various proponents.
  • The inscriptions on the coins of the 7th and 8th Century were perhaps in the 18-letter script, which, with the advent of Hinduism in the 17th century during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba (1709-1748), was perhaps expanded to the 36-letter script.
  • With the advent of Hinduism, Bengali scripts became so popular that stone inscriptions in the 18th and 19th century were in Bengali script.
  • A movement to revive the Meitei Mayek started in the 1930s and gathered strength in the 1950s.
  • By a Cabinet decision taken on May 18, 2005, Manipuri written in Meitei Mayek was introduced in schools and by now, it is taught even at the university level, replacing Bengali script.

About Meitei

  • Meitei, also spelt Meetei or Meithei, also called Manipuri, dominant population of Manipur in northeastern India.
  • They are predominantly Vaishnavite Hindus.
  • They are divided into clans, the members of which do not intermarry.
  • An interesting aspect of the village socio-economic organization in Meitei society is the Marup system (literally means friendship association), a type of cooperative saving and credit institution.
  • They speak a Tibeto-Burman language, they differ culturally from the surrounding hill tribes by following Hindu customs.
  • Rice cultivation on irrigated fields is the basis of their economy.

Source: Indianexpress.com


Female leadership in government

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 1 (Society)

Context: According to government data presented in the Lok Sabha recently women representation in Parliament and most States legislatures is below 15% with 19 Assemblies having less than 10% women lawmakers.

Recent Study

  • A recent study in the United States reports that States which have female governors had fewer COVID-19 related deaths.
  • They say this is partly because female governors acted more decisively by issuing earlier stay-at-home orders.
  • The authors of the study conclude that women leaders are more effective than their male counterparts in times of crises.

What does the US study reveal?

  • A recent study in the United States reports that States which have female governors had fewer COVID-19 related deaths.
  • They say this is partly because female governors acted more decisively by issuing earlier stay-at-home orders.
  • The authors of the study conclude that women leaders are more effective than their male counterparts in times of crises.

What does the study about India’s gram panchayats reveal?

  • Female leaders perform significantly better than men in implementing policies that promote the interests of women.
  • This was demonstrated in another study conducted by Nobel Laureate Esther Duflo and co-author Raghabendra Chattopadhyay.
  • They used the system of mandated reservations of one-third seats of pradhans for women in gram panchayats to test the effectiveness of female leadership.
  • Villages chosen for the mandated reservations were randomly selected.
  • The differences in investment decisions made by gram panchayats could be attributed to the differences in gender of the pradhans.
  • In addition to the importance of promoting more space for women in public policy, this is an important goal from the perspective of gender equality.

Underrepresentation of women in politics

  • Female members make up only about 10% of the total ministerial strength in India.
  • The underrepresentation of female Ministers in India is also reflected in the fact that there is only one female Chief Minister.
  • Despite this, women constitute just over 14% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha.
  • This gives us the dismal rank of 143 out of 192 countries for which data are reported by the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Reasons for Low Representation

Gender stereotypes:

  • The role of managing household activities has been traditionally assigned to women.
  • Women should be encouraged to move outside their stereotypical roles and participate in the decision-making process of the country.

Lack of Political Education:

  • Education influences the social mobility of women. Formal education such as provided at educational institutions create opportunities for leadership, and impart leadership essential skills.
  • Because of a lack of understanding of politics, they do not know about their basic and political rights.

Work and Family:

  • Uneven distribution of family care responsibilities means that women spend far more time than men in home- and child-care.

Lack of Political Networks:

  • The lack of openness in political decision-making and undemocratic internal processes pose a challenge for all newcomers, but particularly for women as they tend to lack insider knowledge or political networks.

Lack of Resources:

  • Because of their low proportion in the inner political party structure of India, women fail to gather resources and support for nurturing their political constituencies.
  • Women do not get adequate financial support from the political parties to contest the elections.

Social Conditioning:

  • They have to accept the dictates imposed on them and bear the burden of society.
  • Public attitudes not only determine how many female candidates win a general election but also directly and indirectly how many are considered and nominated for office.

Unfriendly Environment:

  • Overall political parties’ environment too is not women-friendly, they have to struggle hard and face multi-dimensional issues to create space for them in the party.
  • There has been increasing violence in politics. A significant rise in criminalization, corruption, insecurity has driven women out of the political arena.

Government Efforts

The Women’s Reservation Bill 2008:

  • It proposes to amend the Constitution of India to reserve 1/3rd of all seats in the Lower house of Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and in all state legislative assemblies for women.

Reservation for Women in Panchayati Raj Institutions:

  • Article 243D of the Constitution ensures participation of women in Panchayati Raj Institutions by mandating not less than one-third reservation for women out of total number of seats to be filled by direct election and number of offices of chairpersons of Panchayats.

Parliamentary Committee On Empowerment Of Women:

  • The Committee on Empowerment of Women was constituted for the first time in 1997 during the 11th Lok Sabha of the Parliament for improving the status of women.
  • The Members of the Committee are expected to work together for the empowerment of women cutting across party affiliations.

What steps could be taken to reduce prejudice?

  • The major party constituents of India can sidestep the logjam in Parliament by reserving say a third of party nominations for women.
  • This will result in increasing numbers of women in legislatures and subsequently in cabinets.
  • Increased female representation in policy making will improve perceptions about female effectiveness in leadership roles.
  • This decreases the bias among voters against women candidates.
  • This also results in a subsequent increase in the percentage of female politicians contesting and winning elections.
  • So, such quotas have both a short-term and long-term impact.

Source: The Hindu


Public Health

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 Governance

Context:

  • A failure to examine and interpret public health problems from a population perspective is leading to ineffective and unsustainable solutions.
  • Propagating individualism has always been a characteristic feature of a consumerist society as every individual can then be a potential ‘customer’ in the face of risk and susceptibility. All forms of individualistic approaches in public health need to be resisted to safeguard its original principles of practice, viz. population, prevention, and social justice.
  • However, public health must be based on population characteristics and economic resources.

Meaning of Individualism:

  • A strong tendency in public health to prioritise individual-oriented interventions over societal oriented population-based approaches, is known as individualism in public health.
  • Determinants:
  • Misconception that what is done at an individual level, when done at a population level, becomes public health.
  • Atomistic fallacy in public health: The public and health experts will make the mistake of judging a population’s characteristics based on individual experiences.
  • Market’s role and the effect of consumerism in public health practice:
  • Health effects are more visible and appear convincing at the individual level, wherein improvements at the population level will be clear only after population-level analysis

Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY)

  • It falls under Ayushman Bharat
  • It is the largest publicly-funded health insurance scheme covering hospitalisation expenses for a family for ₹5 lakh a year.
  • It aims to ensure ‘free’ curative care services for all kinds of hospitalisation services so that there is no financial burden to the beneficiary.

Challenges:

  • Lack of population-based health-care planning.
  • Giving assurance to every individual without ensuring the necessary health-care services to the population is not sustainable.
  • As per NSSO 75th round – on an average, only 3% of the total population in India had an episode of hospitalisation in a year.
  • Ideally, the Government needs to ensure health-care facilities to only 3%-5% of the population to cover all the hospitalisation needs of a population.
  • Low proportion of benefit distribution:
  • More than 90% of those who were given the promise do not need hospitalisation
  • From an individualist perspective, any individual can be at risk for hospitalisation anytime but from a population perspective, one can confidently argue that each year, the maximum proportion of population in need of hospitalisation will be in the range of 5% of the total population.
  • Covid management issues:
  • Around 20% of the total COVID-19 positive cases needed medical attention, with around 5% needing hospitalisation and around 1%-2% needing intensive care (ICU) or ventilator support.
  • Most of the deaths due to COVID-19 reflect the failure to offer ventilator and ICU support services to the 1%-2% in desperate need of it.

Suggestions:

  • Quantum increase in budget allocations
  • India spends one of the lowest amounts as a country on health – 1.1% of its GDP.
  • The National Health Policy recommends increasing the outlay – Centre and state combined – to 2.5%.
  • It further recommends that state budgets increase health allocation 8% of the total budget.
  • Supplementary nutrition programmes
  • Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey in 2019 – anganwadi centres in many states introduced eggs in their meals for protein requirements.
  • Strengthening of the Public Distribution System(PDS)
  • Chronic disease control
  • For example, tuberculosis continues to push people into poverty – in southern Rajasthan people incur a debt of Rs 22,000 on average before presenting themselves to outpatient clinics
  • Most stop working due to the disease’s ill effects.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment:
  • A report the Centre for Policy Research showed – in 15 states, not a single Primary Healthcare Center (PHC) meets the national public health standards set by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • Building skilled manpower:
  • India has one of the highest numbers of medical colleges in the world.
  • India has 0.7 per thousand physicians in the country as opposed to the WHO-recommended 1 per thousand; and regional disparities compound this problem.
  • A General Physician (GP) in UK treats about 20 patients per day compared to treating up to 250 patients per day in India.
  • Social justice in healthcare
  • The biological advantage reflected in the lower infant mortality rates among female babies relative to the males is offset by social and cultural preferences for male children.
  • Distressing incidents of discrimination in care for women in southern Rajasthan, where many families often deny women and girls hospital care even in life-threatening situations.

Way forward:

  • The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted several issues in healthcare systems like high treatment costs, overburdened health facilities, lack of access to medical equipment, etc.
  • We must now rise to anchor a revolution to change the face of health services in the country rooted in sustainable, evidence-based changes.
  • Only then can we solidify India’s commitment to providing an equitable and inclusive healthcare service model to its citizens.

Source: The Hindu


Judiciary and Executive

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 Indian Constitution

Context:

  • A major confrontation is on between the Union government and the Supreme Court over the former’s resentment towards the Collegium system of appointments and its push to have a dominant say in judicial appointments and transfers.
  • The government has also started airing its grievance against the invalidation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) by the court in 2015.
  • Government’s repeated public criticism of the Collegium system on the ground that it is “opaque”.
  • A ping-pong battle between the Collegium and the government over the names being recommended and reiterated for appointment in constitutional courts.

Collegium system:

  • It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges
  • It has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
  • Supreme Court collegium is headed by the CJI (Chief Justice of India) and comprises four senior most judges of the Supreme court.
  • A High Court collegium is led by the incumbent Chief Justice and two other senior most judges of that court.
  • Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.

What is MoP:

  • The MoP is the playbook agreed upon by the government and the judiciary on the appointment of judges, in accordance with the Collegium system.
  • It was laid down in 1998.
  • It states that the initiation of a proposal for appointment of Supreme Court judges vested with the CJI and that of High Court judges with the Chief Justice of the High Courts concerned.
  • The MoP required the Chief Justices of High Courts to initiate the proposals six months prior to vacancies.
  • The Constitution (99th Amendment) Act was passed by Parliament to provide for a National Judicial Commission, which was duly formed by the NJAC Act.
  • In 2015, the court struck down the NJAC Act and the Constitution Amendment which sought to give politicians and civil society a final say in the appointment of judges to the highest courts.

The challenges: Government’s view

  • Delaying judicial appointments by the Collegiums, both at the Supreme Court and High Court levels.
  • The Supreme Court itself has six vacancies.
  • Thwarting of NJAC that allowed proportionate representation to both centre and judiciary.
  • Lack of due procedure: High Courts are not making recommendations six months in advance of a vacancy.
  • In 2022, there are 332 judicial vacancies in the High Courts out of a total sanctioned strength of 1,108 judges.
  • The High Courts have made 146 (44%) recommendations which are under consideration of the government and the Supreme Court.
  • It said 43 High Court judges are scheduled to retire between December 1, 2022 and May 31, 2023, taking the vacancies up to 229. So far, no recommendations have been received.
  • Dominance of Supreme Court: It rejects 25% names recommended by the High Courts for judgeships.
  • While making 165 appointments during 2022, 56 proposals were rejected by the Supreme Court Collegium.
  • Efficiency: The delay in the appointment process has affected the timely filling up of vacancies in the High Courts and efficient working of the judicial system.

Suggestions:

  • No immunity from disclosure of the reasons recorded on the file when questioned in court.
  • The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression in article 19.
  • Mandatory Requirement of Recording views of all consultees in writing.
  • Full-scale Judicial Review about transfer or non-appointment of a candidate/judge.
  • Difference between challenging appointment by proceeding in quo warranto vis a vis challenging non-appointment at the instance of the candidate.

Way forward:

  • The Collegium system, combined with the MoP, is the current law.
  • The Collegium and the government should work with a sense of “constitutional statesmanship”

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) What is the provision to safeguard the autonomy of the Supreme Court of India? (2012)

  1. While appointing the Supreme Court Judges, the President of India has to consult the Chief Justice of India.
  2. The Supreme Court Judges can be removed by the Chief Justice of India only.
  3. The salaries of the Judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India to which the legislature does not have to vote.
  4. All appointments of officers and staffs of the Supreme Court of India are made by the Government only after consulting the Chief Justice of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 3 and 4 only
  3. 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Fiscal deficit of India

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: India needs to bring down its fiscal deficit which is highest among G20 countries

India and G20 presidency

  • As India takes over the G20 presidency, one of the big jobs under the finance track is to ensure that G20 nations come up with a credible policy framework to tame inflation, especially food inflation, while protecting growth and ensuring overall financial stability.

What happened?

  • The massive stimulus that was injected in almost all G20 nations to circumvent the fear of recession during Covid-19 has come back to haunt them in the form of excess liquidity, causing inflation.
  • On top of that, the Russia-Ukraine conflict has flared fuel and food prices while climate change in the form of intense heat waves, floods and droughts, is also hitting at food prices in several countries.
  • The year 2023 will be a test case for the collective wisdom of the G20 in taming inflation and protecting growth.

Other economies

  • Global growth is likely to tumble from 6 per cent in 2021 to just 3.2 per cent in 2022 and 2.7 per cent in 2023.
  • Advanced economies are likely to see even lower growth at only 2.4 per cent and 1.1 per cent in 2022 and 2023 respectively.
  • Against this global backdrop of inflation and growth, India can surely stand tall and may be able to give a lesson or two to the G20 on how it has managed not to let food inflation go out of control and yet maintained the highest rate of GDP growth.

How did India manage inflation with growth?

  • Managing inflation with growth was done in a synchronised manner by the RBI, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Food, and many other ministries. It is like playing an orchestra with various policy tools to create a symphony.

Fiscal Deficit

  • However, there is no room for complacency even for India as we step into 2023. While our GDP growth prospects are the brightest and inflation is under control our fiscal deficit at 9.9 per cent (Centre and states combined) is the highest amongst all G20 countries.

Reasons for High Fiscal Deficit

The Fiscal Deficit can happen either due to poor revenues or high expenditures. However, the reasons for this are macroeconomic in nature. The reasons for the high fiscal deficit during COVID-19 is due to:

  • Lower Revenue Realisation – Because of interruption in simple business deeds following the pandemic and lockdowns, the fiscal deficit has faced a lower revenue realization.
  • Higher Expenditure: With an identified increase in revenue expenses for food and public Maintenance and development of rural areas could be imputed in pandemic relief programs by the government, the increase in Expenditure has one noticed.

Implications of Fiscal Deficit

  • Inflationary Spiral: Borrowing from RBI, increases the supply of money in the economy, which increases the general price level. A prolonged increase in the general price level results in an inflationary spiral, i.e. borrowing from RBI > Increase in money supply > Increase in prices > Inflationary Spiral.
  • National Debt: Fiscal Deficit gives birth to the national debt. It hampers GDP growth, as a large portion of the national income is spent on repaying past debts.
  • Vicious Circle of High Fiscal Deficit and Low GDP Growth: When there is a high fiscal deficit constantly, it gives rise to a situation in which GDP growth remains low due to high fiscal deficit and the fiscal deficit remains high due to low GDP growth.
  • Debt trap: Borrowing leads to two main problems, with respect to the repayment of loan and payment of interest, because the payment of interest again increases the revenue deficit. And more borrowing will be required to finance interest payments which results in a debt trap.
  • Crowding Out: Crowding Out Effect is an outcome of Fiscal Deficit. It refers to a condition when high government borrowings because of high fiscal deficit, decreases the availability of funds for private investors. This reduces overall investment in the economy.
  • Erosion of Government Credibility: High fiscal deficit destroys the credibility of the government in both domestic and international markets. This lowers down the government’s credit rating, and the foreign investors will begin withdrawing money that they have invested in the domestic economy. As a result of which GDP is reduced.

Measures Taken

  • A high fiscal deficit can also be good for the economy if the money spent goes into the creation of productive assets like highways, roads, ports and airports that boost economic growth and result in job creation.
  • The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 provides that the Centre should take appropriate measures to limit the fiscal deficit upto 3% of the GDP by 31st March, 2021.
  • The NK Singh committee (set up in 2016) recommended that the government should target a fiscal deficit of 3% of the GDP in years up to 31st March, 2020, cut it to 2.8% in 2020-21 and to 2.5% by 2023.

What can be done?

  • Instead of subsidies same expenditure on building irrigation facilities, roads, warehouses and other infrastructure would help farmers earn higher incomes on a much more durable basis.
  • Reduction in GST rates would be easier to implement, this measure would put more money into the hands of the people.
  • Private firms would bring into use their excess capacities, and ultimately incur the much needed capital for increasing production and generating employment.

Note:

Source: Indian Express


Baba’s Explainer – E-Rupee Vs UPI

E-Rupee Vs UPI

Syllabus

  • GS-3: Money & Banking; RBI and its monetary Policy
  • GS-2: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

Context: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has announced the launch of India’s much-awaited Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), E-Rupee, a sort of official cryptocurrency, for retail users from December 1.

  • RBI defines the CBDC as the digital form of currency notes issued by a central bank. It is a sovereign or entirely independent currency issued by the central bank (in this case, RBI), in accordance with the country’s monetary policy.

Read Complete Details on E-Rupee Vs UPI


Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following pairs:

Pass                                             Area

  1. Mana Pass                       Old silk route
  2. Nathu La Pass                Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
  3. Sela Pass                          Tawang

Which of the statements given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Q.2) With reference to “NavIC”, consider the following statements:

  1. Presently, it has 7 satellites.
  2. Its new satellites will use S and L2 band of frequency.
  3. Among other things, it helps in weather forecasting for fishermen folk.

Which of the following statements are correct:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 only

Q.3) Which of the below given pairs is/are correctly matched?

Lunar Mission                                 Country

  1. Artemis 1                                NASA
  2. Beresheet                              Japan
  3. Hope                                      UAE

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 1 only

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 13th December 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st


ANSWERS FOR 12th December – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – a

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