DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 23rd February 2023

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  • February 23, 2023
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Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (IEPFA)

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  • Prelims – Economy

Context:  The IEPFA is seeking applications from young students and scholars for its short-term internship programme which began recently.

About IEPFA:

  • IEPF is a statutory body under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, established under the Companies Act 2013.
  • It administers the Investor Education and Protection Fund.
  • IEPF Authority has undertaken a proactive approach to achieve its mandate of promoting investor education, awareness and protection.
  • Its objective is to promote Investor Education, Awareness, and Protection.
  • The Amounts credited to IEPF are maintained under the Consolidated Fund of India (Article 266 of the Constitution).
  • Composition:
  • Secretary Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the Chairperson of the Authority.
  • The Joint Secretary Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the Chief Executive Officer of the Authority.
  • The Authority is entrusted with the responsibility of administration of the Investor Education Protection Fund (IEPF), make refunds of shares, unclaimed dividends, matured deposits/debentures etc. to investors and to promote awareness among investors.
  • The Authority has taken a 360 degree approach to sensitize stakeholders to include household investors, housewives, professionals, etc. across the country in rural and urban areas through direct investor awareness programmes, media campaign and engaging with other stakeholders with the common goal.
  • In the urban and semi-urban areas the Authority organizes investor awareness programmes in association with the Institute of charted Accountants of India, Institute of Cost Accountants of India and Institute of Company Secretaries of India.
  • In the rural areas the programmes are organised in collaboration with CSC e-governance Services Private Limited through the Common Service Centre (CSC’s) located in villages.
  • Multilingual Information, Education and Communication booklets and films have been developed for creating awareness.
  • A Joint Awareness campaign has been launched in association with Reserve Bank of India, Securities and Exchange Board of India & Department of Consumer Affairs.

The IEPF is to be utilized for :

  • The refund of unclaimed dividends , matured deposits, debentures , application money due for refund and interest thereon.
  • Promotion of investor’s education, awareness and protection.
  • Distribution of any disgorged amount among eligible and identifiable applicants for shares or debentures , shareholders, debenture-holders or depositors who have suffered loss due to wrong actions by any one person , in accordance with the ordered made by the court which had ordered disgorgement.


Previous year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the ‘Banks Board Bureau (BBB)’, which of the following statements is correct? (2022)

  1. The Governor of RBI is the Chairman of BBB.
  2. BBB recommends the selection of heads for Public Sector Banks.
  3. BBB helps Public Sector Banks in developing strategies and capital-raising plans.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to “National Investment and Infrastructure Fund’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2018)

  1. It is an organ of NITI Aayog.
  2. It has a corpus of Rs. 4, 00,000 crores at present.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Special Rupee Vostro Accounts

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  • Prelims – Economy

Context: Recently, government of India informed that Russian banks have opened Special Rupee Vostro Accounts (SRVA) with partner banks in India.

About Special Rupee Vostro Accounts (SRVA):

  • The SRVA is an additional arrangement to the existing system that uses freely convertible currencies.
  • It works as a complimentary system to facilitate transactions that cannot be executed through the existing banking setup.

About Vostro Accounts:

  • A Vostro account is an account that domestic banks hold for foreign banks in the former’s domestic currency.
  • In this, a foreign bank acts as an agent providing financial services on behalf of a domestic bank.
  • It enables domestic banks to provide international banking services to their clients who have global banking needs.
  • Domestic banks use Vostro accounts to facilitate transfers, conduct business transactions, accept deposits, and gather documents on behalf of the foreign bank.


  • The system could reduce the “net demand for foreign exchange, the U.S. dollar in particular, for the settlement of trade flows”
  • It will reduce the dependence on foreign currencies.
  • It can make the country less vulnerable to external shocks.
  • Ensure timely payments.
  • This helps domestic banks to gain wider access to foreign financial markets and serve international clients without having to be physically present abroad.
  • Vostro accounts are not restricted to banks, they can be used by other entities such as insurance companies and business entities to keep funds with another entity.
  • When Vostro accounts are used by corresponding banks, the domestic bank can execute transfers, deposits, and withdrawals on behalf of the corresponding bank.

Functioning :

  • The framework entails three important components, namely, invoicing, exchange rate and settlement.
  • Invoicing entails that all exports and imports must be denominated and invoiced in INR.
  • The exchange rate between the currencies of the trading partner countries would be market-determined.
  • The final settlement also takes place in Indian National Rupee (INR).
  • Domestic importers are required to make payment in INR into the SRVA account of the correspondent bank against the invoices.
  • Domestic exporters are to be paid the export proceeds in INR from the balances in the designated account of the correspondent bank of the partner country.

Legal framework:

  • All reporting of cross-border transactions are to be done in accordance with the extant guidelines under the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999.

Eligibility criteria of banks:

  • Banks from partner countries are required to approach an authorised domestic dealer bank for opening the SRVA.
  • The domestic bank would then seek approval from the apex banking regulator providing details of the arrangement.
  • Domestic banks should ensure that the correspondent bank is not from a country mentioned in the updated Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Public Statement on High Risk & Non-Co-operative jurisdictions.
  • Authorised banks can open multiple SRV accounts for different banks from the same country.
  • Balances in the account can be repatriated in freely convertible currency and/or currency of the beneficiary partner country depending on the underlying transaction, that is, for which the account was credited.

There are 3 types of accounts : Vostro, Nostro and Loro Accounts

  • Vostro accounts -are maintained in the domestic currency.
  • Nostro accounts- are maintained in foreign currency.
  • A Loro account -is a current account that is maintained by one domestic bank for another domestic bank in the form of a third-party account, unlike nostro and vostro which is bilateral correspondence.

The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA):

  • It is a civil law dealing with foreign exchange market in India.
  • Under it the Central Government can regulate the flow of payments to and from a person situated outside the country.
  • Financial transactions concerning foreign securities or exchange cannot be carried out without the approval of FEMA.
  • The Act empowers RBI to place restrictions on transactions from capital Account even if it is carried out via an authorized individual.


Previous year Questions

Q.1) Rapid Financing Instruments” and “Rapid Credit Facilities” are related to the provisions of lending by which of the following: (2022)

  1. Asian Development Bank
  2. International Monetary Fund
  3. United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative
  4. World Bank

Q.2)  ‘European Stability Mechanism’, sometimes seen in the news, is an : (2016)

  1. the agency created by the EU to deal with the impact of millions of refugees arriving from the Middle East
  2. agency of the EU that provides financial assistance to eurozone countries
  3. agency of the EU to deal with all the bilateral and multilateral agreements on trade
  4. agency of the EU to deal with the conflicts arising among the member countries

The New START Treaty

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  • Prelims – International Relations

Context: Recently, the Russian President announced that Russia is suspending its participation in the New START.

About New START:

  • The name START comes from the original “Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty”, known as START-I, which was signed between the US and the erstwhile USSR in 1991, and came into force in 1994.

It is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation.

It replaced the Treaty of Moscow (SORT), which was to expire in 2012.

START-I, which capped the numbers of nuclear warheads and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that each side could deploy at 6,000 and 1,600 respectively, lapsed in 2009 and was replaced first by the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT or Treaty of Moscow), and then by the New START treaty.


Previous year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following pairs : (2019)

Sea Bordering country
  1. Adriatic Sea
  1. Black Sea
  1. Caspian Sea
  1. Mediterranean Sea
  1. Red Sea

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. 1, 2, and 4 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2018)

The town is sometimes mentioned in the news Country
  1. Aleppo
  1. Kirkuk
  1. Mosul
  1. Mazar-i-Sharif

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 1 and 4
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 3 and 4

International Mother Language Day

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  • Prelims – Polity

Context: The world celebrates International Mother Language Day on February 21, 2023.

About International Mother Language Day:

  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)celebrates 21st February as International Mother Language Day.
  • It is celebrated to promote mother tongue-based multilingual education.
  • The theme of the 2023 International Mother Language Day, is “Multilingual education – a necessity to transform education”.
  • It was Bangladesh’s initiative to introduce the idea of International Mother Language Day to UNESCO.
  • The United Nations agency initiated the International Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022-2032) .

About  Languages in India:

  • Indian Languages are classified into several groups, including the Indo-Aryan group, the Dravidian group, the Sino-Tibetan group, Austric, and others.
  • Article 343 (1)of the Indian Constitution mentions that “the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script.”
  • Part XVIIof the Indian constitution deals with the official languages of India from Article 342 to 351.
  • There are 22 languageslisted under the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution namely Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Santhali, and Maithili.
  • Recent studies show that tribal languages are moving towards extinction in India.
  • Linguist experts say that the most threatened language is Majhi in Sikkim.
  • Similarly, the Mahali language in eastern India, Koro in Arunachal Pradesh, Sidi in Gujarat, and Dimasa in Assam are facing extinction.
  • There are 62 tribal groups in the state of Odisha, including 13 particularly vulnerable ones, literature but the education material is available only in Santali and Ho
  • Only six tribal languages — Santali, Ho, Soura, Munda and Kui — have a written script in Odisha.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) If a particular area is brought under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which one of the following statements best reflects the consequence of it? (2022)

  1. This would prevent the transfer of land from tribal people to non-tribal people.
  2. This would create a local self-governing body in that area.
  3. This would convert that area into a Union Territory.
  4. The State having such areas would be declared a Special Category State.

Q.2) The provisions in the Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule in the Constitution of India are made in order to : (2015)

  1. protect the interests of Scheduled Tribes
  2. determine the boundaries between states
  3. determine the powers, authorities, and responsibilities of Panchayats
  4. protect the interests of all the border States

Special Category Status

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  • Prelims – Governance

Context:  Recently , the Union Finance Minister announced that the Centre will not consider the demands for “special category status “ for any states

About Special Category Status :

  • It is a classification given by the Centre to assist development of states that face geographical and socio-economic disadvantages.
  • Under this, the Central government extends financial assistance to states that are at a comparative disadvantage against others.
  • There is no provision of SCS in the Constitution of India.
  • The concept emerged in 1969 with the approval of the Gadgil formula in the Fifth Finance Commission in 1969. 

The parameters required for Special Category Status:

  • Must be economically backward with poor infrastructure.
  • The states must be located in hilly and challenging terrain.
  • They should have low population density and significant tribal population.
  • Should be strategically situated along the borders of neighboring countries.
  • First SCS was accorded in 1969 to Jammu and Kashmir, Assam and Nagaland.
  • The 14th Finance Commission has done away with the ‘special category status’ for states, except for the North-eastern and three hill states.
  • Presently, eleven states have the Special Category Status in the country including Assam, Nagaland, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Uttarakhand, and Telangana.

Benefits to States with SCS:

  • The Centre pays 90% of the funds required in a centrally-sponsored scheme to special category status states as against 60% or 75% in case of other states, while the remaining funds are provided by the state governments.
  • Preferential treatment in getting central funds.
  • 30 percent of the Centre’s gross budget also goes to special category states.
  • Unspent money does not lapse and is carried forward.
  • Significant concessions are provided to these states in excise and customs duties, income tax and corporate tax.
  • These states can avail the benefit of debt-swapping and debt relief schemes.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1)  With reference to India’s Five-Year Plans, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2019)

  1. From the Second Five-Year Plan, there was a determined thrust towards substitution of basic and capital good industries.
  2. The Fourth Five-Year Plan adopted the objective of correcting the earlier trend of increased concentration of wealth and economic power.
  3. In the Fifth Five-Year Plan, for the first time, the financial sector was included as an integral part of the Plan.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) The main objective of the 12th Five-Year Plan is (2014)

  1. inclusive growth and poverty reductions
  2. inclusive and sustainable growth
  3. sustainable and inclusive growth to reduce unemployment
  4. faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth.

Survey of India

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  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently, the Centre officially released the National Geospatial Policy of India which allows any private agency to make high-resolution maps.

About Survey of India:

  • Survey of India, The National Survey and Mapping Organization of the country under the Department of Science & Technology.
  • It is the oldest scientific department of the Indian government.
  • It was established in 1767 to help consolidate the Indian territories of the British East India Company.
  • Its assigned role as the nation’s Principal Mapping Agency.
  • It is headquartered in Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
  • It is India’s principal mapping agency and functions under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of Science and                   Technology, Government of India.
  • It provides base maps for expeditious and integrated development of the country by ensuring that all resources contribute to the progress, security, and prosperity of the nation for the present and the future.
  • It is headed by the Surveyor-General of India.

Source:  THE HINDU

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The term ‘IndARC’ sometimes seen in the news, is the name of? (2015)

  1. an indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defense
  2. India’s satellite to provide services to the countries of the Indian Ocean Rim
  3. a scientific establishment set up by India in the Antarctic region
  4. India’s underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region

Q.2) In which of the following areas can GPS technology be used? (2018)

  1. Mobile phone operations
  2. Banking operations
  3. Controlling the power grids

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Global Assessment of Soil Carbon in Grasslands

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  • Prelims – Governance

Context: FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization) published its first Global Assessment of Soil Carbon in Grasslands.

Key Findings:

  • The study found that if the SOC content in the 0–30 cm depth layer of available grasslands increased by 0.3 percent after 20 years of the application of management practices that enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, 0.3 tonnes C/ha per year could be sequestered.
  • Grasslands contain approximately 20 percent of the world’s SOC
  • Grasslands have suffered losses because of human activities such as intensive livestock grazing, agricultural activities, and other land-use activities.
  • Most of the world’s grasslands have a positive carbon balance, meaning the land is stable or well-maintained.

About Grasslands:

  • Grasslands are areas dominated by grasses.
  • Distribution: Grasslands are found in areas having well-defined hot and dry, warm and rainy seasons.
  • Grasslands can majorly be divided into two parts:
  • Tropical Grasslands – Savannah, Campos, and Llanos
  • Temperate Grasslands- Pampas, Prairie, Veld, Steppe, and Down

Significance of Grasslands :

  • Farmers who keep cattle or goats, as well as shepherds who keep sheep, are highly dependent on grasslands.
  • Domestic animals are grazed in the ‘common’ land of the village.
  • Fodder is collected and stored to feed cattle when there is no grass left for them to graze in summer.
  • The grass is also used to thatch houses and farm sheds.
  • The thorny bushes and branches of the few trees that are seen in grasslands are used as a major source of fuelwood.
  • Nutrient cycling (biogeochemical cycles)
  • Ecological succession or ecosystem development

Distribution across the World :


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) If rainforests and tropical forests are the lungs of the Earth, then surely wetlands function as its kidneys.” Which one of the following functions of wetlands best reflects the above statement? (2022)

  1. The water cycle in wetlands involves surface runoff, subsoil percolation and evaporation.
  2. Algae form the nutrient base upon which fish, crustaceans, molluscs, birds, reptiles and mammals thrive.
  3. 58 15 Wetlands play a vital role in maintaining sedimentation balance and soil stabilization.
  4. Aquatic plants absorb heavy metals and excess nutrients.

Q.2) The vegetation of savannah consists of grassland with scattered small trees. The forest development in such areas is generally kept in check by one or more or a combination of some conditions. (2021)

Which of the following are such conditions?

  1. Burrowing animals and termites
  2. Fire
  3. Grazing herbivores
  4. Seasonal rainfall
  5. Soil properties

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 and 5 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 5 only

Q.3) Which of the following leaf modifications occur(s) in the desert areas to inhibit water loss? (2018)

  1. Hard and waxy leaves
  2. Tiny leaves
  3. Thorns instead of leaves

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 2 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

APJ Abdul Kalam SLV

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  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: India’s first hybrid rocket launched from Tamil Nadu’s Pattipulam.

About APJ Abdul Kalam SLV:

  • Martin Foundation in association with Dr APJ Abdul Kalam International Foundation and Space Zone India completed the project known as Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Satellite Launch Vehicle Mission 2023.
  • It is India’s first hybrid sounding rocket by private players .
  • The reusable rocket was made by the selected top 100 students, while the rest made the satellite.

About Hybrid Rocket:

  • is a type of rocket engine that combines features of both liquid-fueled and solid-fueled rockets. In a hybrid rocket, a solid fuel is burned in combination with a liquid or gaseous oxidizer to produce thrust.
  • The solid fuel in a hybrid rocket is typically made of a polymer, such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which is cast into a cylindrical shape and placed inside the rocket motor.
  • They are generally simpler and less expensive to manufacture than liquid rockets.
  • They are also safer than both liquid and solid rockets


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The experiment will employ a trio of spacecraft flying in formation in the shape of an equilateral triangle that has sides one million kilometers long, with lasers shining between the craft.” The experiment in question refers to (2020)

  1. Voyager-2
  2. New Horizons
  3. LISA Pathfinder
  4. Evolved LISA

Q.2) With reference to the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), consider the following statements : (2018)

  1. IRNSS has three satellites in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits.
  2. IRNSS covers entire India and about 5500 sq. km beyond its borders.
  3. India will have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None

Q.3) With reference to India’s satellite launch  vehicles, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. PSLVs launch satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
  2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth.
  3. GSLV Mk III is a four-staged launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct.?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 3 only

India’s potential of blue economy

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  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: Recently, G20 Environmental and Climate Sustainability Working Group discussed issues of land degradation, blue economy and the circular economy.

About Blue Economy:

  • According to the World Bank, It is defined as the “sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of the ecosystem.”
  • The blue economy offers coastal nations like India a huge socioeconomic opportunity to responsibly use ocean resources for societal benefit.
  • The rise in demand of ocean-linked products such as seafood, energy generation, etc. has led to the growth of the blue economy globally, with estimated global turnover ranging between US$ 3-6 trillion annually.
  • The concept began seeping into the consciousness of academics and policymakers after the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012.

Significance of India’s Blue Economy:

  • Below image shows Indian Marine Exports (in US$ Billions).
  • India’s blue economy: It is a subset of the national economy comprising the entire ocean resources system and human-made economic infrastructure in marine, maritime, and onshore coastal zones within the country’s legal jurisdiction.
  • India is strategically located between two important plug points called Strait of Hormuz and Strait of Malacca, through which most of trade in commercial shipping moves in the Indian Ocean.
  • Coastal states and islands: With some 7,500 kilometres, India has a unique maritime position.
    • Nine of its 29 states are coastal, and it’s geography includes 1,382 islands.
  • Ports and Exclusive Economic Zone: There are nearly 199 ports, including 12 major ports that handle approximately 1,400 million tons of cargo each year.
    • Besides, India’s Exclusive Economic Zone of over 2 million square kilometres has a bounty of living and non-living resources with significant recoverable resources such as crude oil and natural gas.
  • Coastal settlements: The coastal economy sustains over 4 million fisherfolk and coastal communities.

Govt of India Initiatives to promote sustainable blue economy:

  • Sagarmala Project: Vision of the Sagarmala Programme is to reduce logistics cost for export-import and domestic trade with minimal infrastructure investment.
  • Coastal Economic Zones: The government identifies CEZs in the National Perspective Plan for Sagarmala Programme.
    • CEZs aims to promote exports by providing infrastructure and facilities to entrepreneurs to set up businesses and industries near Ports.
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association: India has been taking active participation in the IORA for promotion of blue economy in Indian Ocean littoral states.
  • Matsya Sampada Yojana: It is a flagship scheme for focused and sustainable development of the fisheries sector in the country.
    • It will bring about the Blue Revolution by harnessing fisheries’ potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner.
  • Polymetallic Nodules: India has received the sanction from International Seabed Authority for deep-sea mining in the Central Indian Ocean.
  • Deep Ocean Mission: It was launched with an intention to develop technologies to harness the living and non-living resources from the deep-oceans.
  • India-Norway Task Force on Blue Economy for Sustainable Development: It was inaugurated jointly by both the countries in 2020 to develop and follow up joint initiatives between the two countries.

Way Forward:

With its vast maritime interests, the blue economy occupies a vital potential position in India’s economic growth. It could well be the next multiplier of GDP and well-being, provided sustainability and socio-economic welfare are kept centre-stage.

India should look to adopt the Gandhian approach of balancing economic benefits with sustainability for meeting the broader goals of growth, employment generation, equity and protection of environment.

Source: Down To Earth    

Child Marriage in India

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  • Mains – GS 1 (Society)

Context: Activists working on ground suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic combined with poverty may have worsened the phenomenon of child marriage in India.

About Child marriage:

  • Child marriage can be described as a formal marriage or an informal union entered into by an individual before attaining the prescribed eligible age.
  • The legally prescribed marriageable age in some jurisdictions is below 18 years, including India.

Child marriage in India:

  • Child marriage prevalence is generally defined as the percentage of women 20-24 years old who were married or in union before age 18.
    • India is estimated to have over 24 million child brides.
  • According to the National Family Health Survey, 40% of the world’s 60 million child marriages take place in India.
  • According to the International Centre for Research on Women, India has the 14th highest rate of child marriage in the world,
  • Eight States have a higher prevalence of child marriage than the national average —
    • West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura top the list with more than 40% of women aged 20-24 years married below 18, according to NFHS data.
    • In Kerala, women who got married before the age of 18 stood at 6.3% in 2019-20, from 7.6% in 2015-16.

Reasons for child marriage in India:

  • Customs and Traditions: Traditions like dowry put a lot of stress on the family because the parents have to give a lot of money, jewellery, land etc. for their daughter to get married.
    • Generally the amount of dowry rises with age of the girl, so families prefer to marry their girls young.
  • Poverty: Poor Families ‘sell’ their children through marriage to pay off debts or to get out of the cycle of poverty.
    • Child marriage makes families poorer because young girls who get married won’t be educated or skilled enough to do well in the workforce.
  • “Protecting” the Girl’s Sexuality: In some cultures, marrying a girl young is thought to “protect” the girl’s sexuality and the family’s honour.
  • Security: Parents often marry their daughters off young to “secure” a good future for them.
    • Abuse, rape, and other crimes against girls, as well as extreme poverty, can make parents turn to child marriage as a way to protect their daughters.
  • Laxity in Implementation of Laws: Laws are not implemented stringently. In many cases the ages of the bride and groom aren’t checked at the time of registration of marriage.
    • Many child marriages aren’t even registered.
  • Discrimination based on gender: Child marriage is a manifestation of discrimination against girls and women.
    • According to a UNICEF report on ‘Child Marriage and the Law’, “The discrimination often manifests itself in the form of domestic violence, marital rape, and deprivation of food, lack of access to information, education, healthcare, and general impediments to mobility”.

Harmful impacts of Child Marriage:

Child Rights Issues:

  • Children who are forced to get married young lose their rights including the right to an education, the right to be safe from physical and mental violence, injury, or abuse, among others.

Health Issues:

  • According to NFHS-5, prevalence of child stunting is 35.5% in 2019-21.
  • Premature Pregnancy: Most young brides don’t know much about contraception and don’t have easy access to reproductive health services.
    • They get pregnant at a younger age and have more than one child before their mind and bodies are ready.
  • Maternal Mortality: Girls under 15 are five times more likely to die during childbirth or pregnancy. The leading cause of death for girls ages 15 to 19 around the world is pregnancy-related deaths.
  • Infant Mortality: Babies born to mothers younger than 20 have almost 75% higher death rates than babies born to mothers older than 20 years. The children who do make it are more likely to be born pre-mature and with a low birth weight.


  • Child brides are often taken out of school and not allowed to get further education.
  • Research shows that child marriage and pregnancy are the biggest factors that keep girls from going to school.

Intergenerational Cycle of Poverty:

  • Child marriage negatively affects the economy and can lead to an intergenerational cycle of poverty.
  • Girls and boys married as children more likely lack the skills, knowledge and job prospects needed to lift their families out of poverty.
  • Early marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime, increasing economic burden on the household.

Teen Widows:

  • In a society that allows child marriages, it is not unusual to find widows and divorcees under the age of 18.

Laws and Policies to prevent child marriages:

  • The Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929: It is also known as the Sarda Act. It was a law enacted to restrain the practices of Child Marriage.
  • Its main goal was to eliminate the evils placed on young girls who could not handle the stress of married life and to avoid early deaths.
  • This act defined a male child as 21 years or younger and a female child as 18 years or younger.
  • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act of 2006: Under this act, the marriageable age for a male is prescribed as 21 years and that of a female is 18 years.
  • Child Marriage is prohibited in India as per the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.
  • Hindu Marriage Act, 1956: Under Hindu Marriage Act, there are no certain provisions for punishing the parents or people who solemnized the marriage.
  • A girl can get the marriage annulled only if she wants to get married before attaining the age of fifteen years and she challenges the marriage before turning eighteen.
  • Muslim Personal Law: Under the Muslim Laws, there is no bar to child marriage. The couple after marriage has an “option of puberty” known as Khayar-ul-bulugh in which they can repudiate the marriage after attaining the age of puberty.
  • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012: which aim at protecting children from violation of human and other rights.
  • A parliamentary standing committee is weighing the pros and cons of raising the age of marriage for women to 21, which has been cleared by the Union Cabinet.

Way forward:

  • The solution lies in empowering girls, creating proper public infrastructure and addressing societal norms.
  • It should be ensured that Child Protection Committees and Child Marriage Prohibition officers are doing the job and community support groups should be activated.
  • Such efforts can lead to Child Marriage Free Villages like in Odisha which now has over 12,000 such villages.
  • Local gram panchayat members should be oriented to spread awareness on child marriage, not only that it is illegal to get a child married off before 18, but also the dangers to the child’s health and her offspring.
  • There has been a rise in child marriages during the pandemic, but many have been prevented as well.

Source:  The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements Survey of India:

  1. It is the national survey and mapping organization of the country works under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  2. It is headquartered in Delhi.
  3. It is headed by the Surveyor-General of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

Q.2) Consider the following pairs:

Grasslands and location

  1. Savanna – Western Africa
  2. Pampas – Argentina
  3. Prairies – USA
  4. Down – New Zealand

How many pairs given above is/are correct?

  1. One pair only
  2. Two pairs only
  3. Three pairs only
  4. All four pairs

Q.3) Consider the following statements Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (IEPFA):

  1. It is a statutory body established under the Companies Act 2013.
  2. It works under the Ministry of Education.

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 23rd February 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 22nd February – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – d

Q.3) – a

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