DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 24th February 2023

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  • February 24, 2023
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Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (CAG) and International Labour Organization (ILO)

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  • Prelims – POLITY

Context: Recently, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India , has been selected as External Auditor of the International Labour Organization in Geneva for a four-year term from 2024 to 2027.

About CAG:

  • CAG is an independent authority under the Constitution of India.
  • The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in chapter V under Part V.
  • He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
  • He is the guardian of the public purse.
  • He acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • Incumbent CAG of India: Shri Girish Chandra Murmu.

Constitutional Provisions regarding the CAG:

  • Article 148151 , in  Part V of the constitution of India deals with the appointment, oath and conditions of service ,Duties and Powers of CAG.
  • Article 279 – The calculation of “net proceeds” is ascertained and certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, whose certificate is final.
  • Third Schedule – Section IV of the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India prescribes the form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India at the time of assumption of office.
  • Sixth Schedule– According to this schedule, the District Council or Regional Council should be kept in such form as the CAG prescribes with the approval of the President.
  • In addition, these bodies’ accounts are audited in such manner as CAG may think fit, and the reports relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor who shall cause them to be laid before the Council.

About International Labour Organization (ILO):

  • It was established by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
  • It is the only tripartiteN. agency. It brings together governments, employers and workers.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It receivedthe Nobel Peace Prize in 1969
  • The eight-core conventions of the ILO are:
    • Forced Labour Convention (No. 29)
    • Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No.105)
    • Equal Remuneration Convention (No.100)
    • Discrimination (Employment Occupation) Convention (No.111)
    • Minimum Age Convention (No.138)
    • Worst forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182)
    • Freedom of Association and Protection of Right to Organised Convention (No.87)
    • Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (No.98)
  • India is afounding member of the ILO
  • India has ratified six out of the eight-core/fundamental ILO conventions. These conventions are:
  • Forced Labour Convention (No. 29)
  • Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No.105)
  • Equal Remuneration Convention (No.100)
  • Discrimination (Employment Occupation) Convention (No.111)
  • Minimum Age Convention (No.138)
  • Worst forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182)

Key reports by ILO :

  • World Employment and Social Outlook.
  • Global Wage Report.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. Attorney General of India and Solicitor General of India are the only officers of the Government who are allowed to participate in the meetings of the Parliament of India.
  2. According to the Constitution of India, the Attorney General of India submits his resignation when the Government which appointed him resigns.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2016)

  1. The Chief Secretary in a State is appointed by the Governor of that State.
  2. The Chief Secretary in a State has a fixed tenure

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS)

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  • Prelims –Economy

Context: The third e-auction to offload wheat under Open Market Sale Scheme (Domestic) took place recently.

About OMSS:

  • The government sells the excess stock of food grains in the open market through e-auctions through this scheme.
  • The Food Corporation of India (FCI) on instructions from the Government, sells wheat and rice in the open market from time to time.
  • The purpose of OMSS is to dispose of surplus stocks of wheat and rice held by FCI(Food Corporation of India)and to regulate the prices of wheat in the open market.
  • FCI conducts weekly auctions for the OMSS for wheat on the platform of the National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX).
  • NCDEX – a commodity exchange platform in India that provides a platform for trading in various agricultural and other commodities.

Source: AIR

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The economic cost of food grains to the Food Corporation of India is Minimum Support Price and bonus (if any) paid to the farmers plus: (2019)

  1. Transportation cost only
  2. Interest cost only
  3. Procurement incidentals and distribution cost
  4. Procurement incidentals and charges for godowns

Q.2) With reference to the provisions made under the National Food Security Act, 2013, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. The families coming under the category of ‘below poverty line (BPL)’ only are eligible to receive subsidized food grains.
  2. The eldest woman in a household, age 18 years or above, shall be the head of the household for the purpose of issuance of a ration card.
  3. Pregnant women and lactating mothers are entitled to a ‘take-home ration’ of 1600 calories per day during pregnancy and for six months thereafter.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Shipping Industry in India

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  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways  stressed upon reducing pollution intensity and evolve strategies to introduce renewable energy and green hydrogen in the shipping sector.

About Shipping Industry in India :

  • According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95% of India’s trading by volume and 70% by value is done through maritime transport.
  • India has 12 major and 205 notified minor and intermediate ports.
  • Mumbai Port is India’s largest port by size.
  • Tamil Nadu has the highest number of major ports in India.
  • Krishnapatnam Port, is the deepest port in India .
  • India is the sixteenth-largest maritime country in the world with a coastline of about 7,517 kms.
  •  The Indian Government plays an important role in supporting the ports sector.
  • It has allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of up to 100% under the automatic route for port and harbour construction and maintenance project
  • India’s merchandise exports in FY22 were at US$ 417.8 billion, up 40% from the previous year.

  • Indian ports received cumulative FDI inflow worth US$ 1.63 billion between April 2000-June 2021.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) became the first of its kind operational port-based multi-product SEZ in India.
  • APSEZ (Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone) plans to become the world’s largest private port company by 2030 and carbon neutral by 2025.
  • India was ranked 44th in the Logistics Performance Index, a measure through which the World Bank ranks countries based on their logistics performance.
  • Logistics Performance Index (LPI) :
    • It is released by World Bank 
    • India ranked 44th on the LPI in 2018

Government Initiative to boost Shipping Industry:

The Sagarmala Programme –

  • It is the flagship program of the Ministry of Shipping to promote port-led developmentin the country.
  • It aims to modernize India’s Ports

Source: AIR

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the international trade of India at present, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2020)

  1. India’s merchandise exports are less than its merchandise imports.
  2. India’s imports of iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizers, and machinery have decreased in recent years.
  3. India’s exports of services are more than its imports of services.
  4. India suffers from an overall trade/current account deficit.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. and 2 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 3, and 4 only

Q.2) India’s ranking on the ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following has declared that ranking? (2016)

  1. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  2. World Economic Forum
  3. World Bank
  4. World Trade Organization (WTO)

Khajuraho temples

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  • Prelims –Art and culture

Context: While Khajuraho is internationally recognized for its rich architectural grandeur of the Western Group of temples that UNESCO recognizes as world heritage, the districts of Chhatarpur and Panna have lesser-known destinations that can serve as model local tourist destinations.

About Khajuraho Temples :

  • The Temples of Khajuraho are a magnificent example of the Nagara style of templesas the temples consist of
    • a sanctum,
    • a narrow ante-chamber (antarala),
    • a transept (mahamandapa),
    • additional halls (ardha mandapa),
    • a mandapa or nave and
    • an ambulatory passage (Pradakshina-path) which is lighted by large windows.
  • These are a collection of Hindu and Jain temples located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • They are known for its ornate temples, was built by the Chandela rulers between 900 CE to 1130 CE.
  • These are located in the Vindhya Mountain range.
  • They  got the status of UNESCO’s World Heritage Site in 1986.
  • Erotic imagery is very common in the Temples of Khajuraho.
  • Sculptures of celestial nymphs with broad hips, heavy breasts and languishing eyes are commonly found in the Kandariya Mahadeva and Vishwanath Temple. These sculptures are believed to reflect the idea of female beauty and fertility.
  • Other scenes depicted on the walls of the temples are a part of the Narathara (the human life cycle) signifying how sexual procreation and kamaare an essential aspect of human life.
  • The major focus of the study of the Temples of Khajuraho have been on the sculptures.
  • The walls of these temples have some of the best sculptures of the time, making Khajuraho a representation of excellent artistic features.
  • It is believed that the temples constitute five different sets of sculptures:
    • cult images
    • the parivara, parsva and avarana devatas
    • the apsaras and the surasundaris
    • secular sculptures of miscellaneous themes (dancers, musicians, disciples and domestic scenes)
    • mythical creatures (vyalas, sardula and other animals)
  • The first mention of Khajuraho and its temples is in the accounts of Abu Rahyan al Biruni( 1022 CE) and Ibn Batuta (1335 CE).
  • The carvings on them reflect the four goals of life in Hinduism, viz, dharma, kama, artha, moksha.
  • One theory posits their construction can be understood as a part of the proliferation of the Siva-Sakti cult. The other theory is that the temples are a representation of thedevadasis who were once a major part of the temple activities.
  • The Temples of Khajuraho are divided into three groups, the Western Group, the Eastern Group and the Southern Group.

The Western Group:

  • Chausath Jogini Temple-this temple stands on the low rocky eminence to the south west of the Sib-Sagar
  • Kandariya Mahadeva Temple– Largest of all the temples in Khajuraho, it dates back to the 10th century CE.
  • Devi Jagdamba Temple -this temple is now known by the name of Devi Jagdambaor the ‘Mother Goddess of the World’.
  • Chitragupta or Bharatji’s Temple -This temple is dedicated to the Sun God (Surya), an image of the Sun God is enshrined within the sanctum, wearing high boots and driving a chariot of seven horses.
  • Vishwanath Temple – Vishwanath, or the ‘Lord of the Universe’, is another name for Lord Shiva to whom this temple is dedicated.
  • Laxmana Temple -also known as the Chaturbhuj Temple.
    • It is popularly known for its innovation in the technique of architecture.

The Eastern Group:

  • Brahma Temple -situated on the banks of Khajuraho Sagar.
  • Vamana Temple -situated on the north-east side of the Brahma Temple
  • Ghantai Temple -this temple got its name from the bells suspended on chains which adorn the pillars of its portico.
  • Parsawanatha Jain Temple – it is the largest of the Jaina temples. It is believed to be a shrine of Parsawanatha, the 22nd Jain Tirthankara.

The Southern Group:

  • Duladeo Temple – It is about a mile and a half away from the main Khajuraho Temples and was originally dedicated to the Siva
  • Jatkari or Chaturbhuja Temple -situated near the Jatkari village, this temple faces west. It is dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

About Chandela Dynasty:

  • The Chandela Empire ruled central India from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries.
  • Chandela were well known for their interest in art and architecture.
  • Although followers of Shaivism, the Chandela were also said to have been inclined towards Vaishnavism and Jainismas well.

About Panna Biosphere :

  • The Panna Biosphere is located in the Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It  is situated in the Vindhya Mountain range in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh
  • Ken River, a tributary of the Yamuna River, flows through the reserve.
  • The ken-Betwa river interlinking projectwill be located within the tiger reserve.
  • The region is also famous forPanna diamond mining.
  • The Panna National Parkgot the status of  India’s 22nd tiger reserve in 1994.
  • In 2011, it was notified as a Biosphere Reserve by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigersin the country followed by Karnataka and Uttarakhand.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Th Prime Minister recently inaugurated the new Circuit House near Somnath Temple Veraval. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Somnath Temple? (2022)

  1. Somnath Temple is one of the Jyotirlinga shrines.
  2. A description of the Somnath Temple was given by Al-Biruni.
  3. Pran Pratishtha of Somnath Temple (installation of the present-day temple) was done by President S. Radhakrishnan.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.2) With reference  to Chausath Yogini Temple situated near Morena, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. It is a circular temple built during the reign of the Kachchhapaghata Dynasty.
  2. It is the only circular temple built in India.
  3. It was meant to promote the Vaishnava cult in the region.
  4. Its design has given rise to a popular belief that it was the inspiration behind the Indian Parliament building.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 4
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Kalyana Karnataka Utsav

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  • Prelims – Art and Culture

Context: Recently, For the first time, a mega event celebrating the region — the Kalyana Karnataka Utsav, is being  organized by the Government of Karnataka

About  Kalyana Karnataka Utsav:

  • The Kalyana Karnataka Utsav is been organized by the Government of Karnataka.
  • It is the  first time, a mega event celebrating the region is being organized.
  • Seven districts including Bidar, Raichur, Yadgir, Koppal, Kalaburagi, Vijayanagara, and Ballari are participating in the grand festival.
  • The theme is focused on educational development and heritage.

About Monuments at Kalaburagi :

  • Kalaburagi is a place that housed several Sufi saints who lived to build communal harmony and teach humanity.
  • The region was home to the 12th-century social reformer Basavanna, the 14th-century Sufi Khwaja Bandanawaz Gesudaraz, and the 19th-century saint Sharana Basaveshwara.
  • The region, which was ruled by the Maurya’s, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Bahmani’s, and Nizams, still holds much rich cultural heritage and wonders like
    • The  Bahmani fort consists of a large Jama Masjid and one of the world’s longest cannons.
    • the Haft Gumbaz, where the Bahmani kings were buried.
    • The tomb of Firoz Shah Bahmani which is particularly well-known for its ornamentation with stucco-work and black stone carvings on the doors and windows.
    • The Syed Khalilullah Husseini dargah complexwhich was inspired by Bahmani and Adil Shahi architecture.  
    • There is also a small tomb of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s daughter carved with white marble.
    • The palaces of the last two Nizams, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan and his son Mir Osman Ali Khan are also located in the heart of Kalaburagi city and have a high influence of the Gothic style of structures with the addition of the architectural style of local Patel homes.

Muhammad bin Yusuf Al-Hussaini,


  • was a 12th-century philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet, and social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.
  • He spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas.
  • Basavanna rejected gender or social discrimination, superstitions, and rituals.
  • He presided over the Sharana movement which attracted people from all castes.
  • He is the first Kannadiga in whose honour a commemorative coin has been minted in recognition of his social reforms.
  • He introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa, that welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.

Taj-ud-din Firoz Shah

  • also known as Firuz Shah Bahmani was the ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate from 1397 to 1422.
  • Firuz Shah is considered an important ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate.
  • He enlarged his realm and even conquered the Raichur Doabfrom the Vijayanagara kings.
  • Mahboob Ali Khan was the youngest son of 5th Nizam Afzal-ud-Daulah.
  • Mir Osman Ali Khan was the last Nizam of Hyderabad, a princely state in British India, and the second richest man in the world in his time.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following pairs: (2020)

  1. Parivrajaka — Renunciant and Wanderer
  2. Shramana — Priest with a high status
  3. Upasaka — Lay follower of Buddhism

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the religious practices in India, the “Sthanakavasi” sect belongs (2018)

  1. Buddhism
  2. Jainism
  3. Vaishnavism
  4. Shaivism

Q.3) With reference to India’s culture and tradition, what is ‘Kalaripayattu’? (2014)

  1. It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in some parts of South India
  2. It is an ancient style bronze and brass work still found in the southern part of the Coromandel area
  3. It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar
  4. It is an ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India


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  • Prelims – Art and Culture

Context: Noted dancer Kanak Rele, who gave academic status to Mohiniyattam, passed away recently.

About Mohiniyattam:

  • It originated in the state of
  • The dance is performed by women in honor of the Hindu god Vishnuin his incarnation as the enchantress Mohini.
  • Mohiniyattamis characterized by graceful, swaying body movements with no abrupt jerks or sudden leaps. It belongs to the Lasya style which is feminine, tender, and graceful.
  • The references to Mohiniyattam can be found in the texts Vyavaharamala written in 1709 by Mazhamagalam Narayanan Namputiriand in Ghoshayatra, written later by poet Kunjan Nambiar.
  • Mohiniyattam is exclusively danced by women.

The Classical dances recognized by the Government of India are:

  • Bharatnatyam (Tamil Nadu)- Bharatanatyam has grown out of the art of dancers dedicated to temples, and was earlier known as Sadir or Dasi Attam.
    • It is the first of India’s traditional dances to be refashioned as a theatre art.
    • The musicians include at least one vocalist, a Mridangam (drum)-player, and a flutist or violinist or Veena (lute)-player.
  • Kathak (North India)- It is the principal dance of northern India, and is widely practiced in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, and even parts of western and eastern India.
    • It is believed to be connected with the narrative art of Kathakaras or story-tellers.
    • The music of traditional Kathak consists of the Thumri and other lyrical song-forms, and the essential musical instruments are the Tabla, Pakhawaj, and Sarangi.
  • Kathakali (Kerala)- Kathakali or ‘story play’ took shape in Kerala in southern India in the seventeenth century under the patronage of the prince of Karnataka, who wrote plays for performance drawn from the epic Ramayana in Malayalam.
    • Kathakali categorizes its characters according to their nature and employs make-up and costume to build them up as symbolic personalities.
  • Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)- It originated from Andhra Pradesh, where it grew largely as a product of Bhakti movement beginning in the 7th Century AD and derives its name from the village Kuchelapuram.
    • Kuchipudi today is performed either as a solo, duet or a group presentation, but historically it was performed as a dance drama, with several dancers taking different roles.
  • Odissi (Odisha)- It was performed as part of temple service by ‘meharis’ or female temple servants.
    • The traditional dance was remodeled as a theatre art towards the middle of the twentieth century.
    • The dancer is supported by a singer, a drummer who plays the Pakhawaj, flute and Sitar.
  • Sattriya (Assam)- ‘Sattriya dance’ refers to the body of dance and danced drama developed in the sattras or monasteries of Assam since the sixteenth century, when the Vaishnava faith propagated by the saint and reformer Shankaradeva (1449-1586).
    • Group dances are also common in traditional and modern Sattriya dance, and these may be prefaced with a brief musical ‘interlude’ on drums, the Gayan Bayan.
  • Manipuri (Manipur)- It evolved in Manipur, is anchored in the Vaishnava faith of the Manipur valley.
    • Manipuri dance is introverted and restrained compared to most other dances of India – the artist never establishes eye contact with the audience.
    • The Pung, a drum, and flute are the principal instruments used in Manipuri dance.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to Manipuri Sankirtana, consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. It is a song and dance performance
  2. Cymbals are the only musical instruments used in the performance
  3. It is performed to narrate the life and deeds of Lord Krishna

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 only

Q.2) With reference to the famous Sattriya dance, consider the following statements: (2014)

  1. Sattriya is a combination of music, dance and drama
  2. It is a centuries-old living tradition of Vaishnavites of Assam
  3. It is based on classical Ragas and Talas of devotional songs composed by Tulsidas, Kabir and Mirabai

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Deep-Sea Mining

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  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy) and Environment

Context: Recently, a study published in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science has warned that commercial deep-sea mining could pose a serious risk to ocean ecosystems.

About Deep-Sea Mining:

  • It refers to the extraction of minerals and other resources from the seabed, which can be found in large quantities in the deep ocean.
  • These minerals include metals such as copper, nickel, cobalt, and rare earth elements, as well as valuable resources such as oil and gas.
  • Despite the risks to ocean ecosystems, the Pacific Island nation of Nauru plans to start deep-sea mining, invoking a two-year rule inserted as a part of the UN Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS).
  • The “two-year rule” clause of the UNCLOS requires the ISA to put in place the governance infrastructure – the rules, regulations, and procedures governing the contours of deep-sea mining within two years of approval.
  • India has been allotted a site of 75,000 square kilometers in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules.
  • A fraction of that reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years,
  • India’s Exclusive Economic Zone spreads over 2.2 million square kilometres.
  • A manned submersible will be developed to carry three people to a depth of 6,000 meters in the ocean with a suite of scientific sensors and tools.

Major types of deep-sea mining:

  • Manganese nodule mining: This involves collecting nodules of manganese, iron, and other metals that are scattered on the ocean floor.
  • Seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) mining: This involves extracting mineral deposits formed near hydrothermal vents, which can contain high concentrations of copper, zinc, and other metals.
  • Cobalt crust mining: This involves collecting crusts of cobalt, nickel, and other metals that form on the surface of seamounts.

Significance of Deep-Sea mining:

  • Growing demand for minerals: It has the potential to provide a reliable and abundant supply of minerals the demand for which is rapidly increasing, driven by the growth of industries such as renewable energy, electric vehicles, and consumer electronics.
  • Depletion of land-based resources: Deep-sea mining presents an opportunity to access new sources of valuable resources such as cobalt and rare earth metals which are essential to modern technology and industry but are becoming increasingly scarce on land.
  • Strategic importance: Developing a domestic supply of these resources is seen as strategically important for India as many of the minerals and metals that are found in deep sea mining, such as cobalt and rare earth metals, are essential to national security and defence.
  • Economic benefits: It has the potential to create jobs, stimulate economic growth, and generate revenue for governments and companies.

Major Issues associated with the deep-sea mining:

  • Environmental impacts: Mining operations can disturb and damage fragile deep-sea ecosystems, including coral reefs, hydrothermal vents, and other important habitats.
  • Thermal pollution: The mining vehicles also generate sediment plumes that could smother the benthic species at the bottom of the ocean.
  • Noise pollution: The process generates noise pollution that can overlap with the frequencies at which cetaceans communicate, causing auditory masking and behavioral changes in marine mammals.
  • Regulatory gaps: There is currently a lack of international regulations governing deep-sea mining, which could lead to environmental harm and other negative impacts.
  • Social and economic impacts: The potential benefits of deep-sea mining may not be evenly distributed, and could lead to social and economic disparities between different communities.
  • Technological challenges: Deep-sea mining requires advanced technologies and equipment that are currently under development, and may not be cost-effective or efficient enough to make the practice commercially viable.

Govt of Initiatives to promote deep sea mining:

  • National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR): It was established in 2020 by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in Goa, which is tasked with exploring the country’s deep-sea mineral wealth.
  • Draft Deep Seabed Mining Regulations, 2021: It has been formulated by the Indian government to provide a legal framework for the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources in the country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
  • International collaborations: The government is also considering setting up a nodal agency to regulate deep sea mining activities in the country, in line with the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

Way Forward:

  • Studies for understanding deep sea: To understand what species live in the deep sea, how they live, and how they could be affected by mining activities baseline studies are needed with more funds for training and educational programmes focused on improving our understanding of the deep sea.
  • Environmental impact assessments: These assessments are also needed to ensure that the loss of biodiversity as a result of mining operations is properly accounted for in mining regulations set by authorities, well before any decision to mine is approved.
    • The costs to the marine environment should be included in the financial and economic assessments conducted by mining companies.
  • Enhanced regulation: The ISA is operating with the dual mandate of promoting the development of deep-sea minerals whilst ensuring that this development is not harmful to the environment.
    • This challenging and conflicting mandate will require improved oversight by the international community – including government representatives and the general public – to ensure that marine life is adequately protected.
    • To avoid possible conflicts of interest due to the dual mandate of ISA, the organization should consider divesting itself of some of its responsibilities, and placing them on independent entities.
  • Mitigation: Current technologies may not be sufficient to avoid serious and lasting harm to the environment, including the loss of biodiversity.
    • Mining operations strategies should be based on the avoidance of environmental impacts.
    • This requires stringent and precautionary controls on the permissible extent and duration of mining operations to keep large parts of the seabed undisturbed.
    • Minimising impacts should involve, among other things, improving mining equipment to reduce seafloor disturbance.
  • Circular economy: The repair, recycling and reuse of products should be encouraged to help reduce the demand for raw materials from the deep sea.
    • Enhancing product design to make use of less or alternative materials can also reduce the demand.

Source: Down To Earth

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (CAG):

  1. CAG is an independent authority under the Constitution of India.
  2. He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
  3. According to Fifth schedule, the District Council or Regional Council should be kept in such form as the CAG prescribes with the approval of the President.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding temples of Khajuraho:

  1. They are a magnificent example of the Nagara style of temples architecture.
  2. These are a collection of Hindu and Buddhist temples at the Khajuraho.
  3. They got the status of UNESCO’s World Heritage Site in 1986.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.3) It originated in the state of Kerala. The dance is performed by women in honor of the Hindu god Vishnu in his incarnation as the enchantress Mohini. It is characterized by graceful, swaying body movements with no abrupt jerks or sudden leaps. It belongs to the Lasya style which is feminine, tender, and graceful. The references to this dance can be found in the texts Vyavaharamala written in 1709 by Mazhamagalam Narayanan Namputiri and in Ghoshayatra, written later by poet Kunjan Nambiar. It is exclusively danced by women.

The above passage describes which of the following classical dances/

  1. Kathakali
  2. Mohiniyattam
  3. Bharatanatyam
  4. Odissi

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 24th February 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR  23rd February – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – a

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