DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam –19th June 2023

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  • June 19, 2023
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Gandhi Peace Prize 2021


  • Prelims – Important Awards

Context: According to recent reports, the Gandhi Peace Prize 2021 will be conferred to Gita Press, Gorakhpur.

About Gandhi Peace Prize 2021:-

  • Origin: it was instituted in 1995, on the occasion of the 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
    • 1995: Dr Julius K. Nyerere, former President of Tanzania was awarded the first award.
    • Dr Julius K. Nyerere: was also the major force behind the movements for African Unity.
  • Time: it is an annual award. (UPSC CSE: Nobel peace prize 2021)
  • Significance: it is a tribute to the ideals espoused by Mahatma Gandhi. (UPSC CSE: Mahatma Gandhi)
    • Mahatma Gandhi: a lawyer, nationalist, and anti-colonial activist.
    •  He led a non-violent mass movement against the British rule of India.
    • Early movements by Gandhiji: Champaran Satyagraha (1917), Kheda Satyagraha (1918), 1920: Non-Cooperation Movement(1920), Civil Disobedience Movement(1930), Quit India movement(1942).
    • Works: newspapers including Harijan(Gujarati), Indian Opinion and Young India(English).
    • Autobiography: The Story Of My Experiments with Truth.
  • Eligibility for Award: the award is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed or gender.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Culture
  • The award carries an amount of one crore rupees, a citation and a plaque.
  • Jury: it is chaired by Hon’ble Prime Minister, and comprises two ex-officio members, namely the Chief Justice of India and  Leader of the single largest Opposition Party in Lok Sabha.

Recent Awardees:-

  • 2020: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. (UPSC MAINS: 971 Indo-Pak war)
    • Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman: Father of Nation in Bangladesh.
  • 2021: Gita Press.
    • Gita Press: it was established in 1923, and is one of the world’s largest publishers.

MUST READ: Gandhi Mandela Award



Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of the Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards. (2021)

  1. Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards are titled under Article 18(1) of the Constitution of India.
  2. Padma Awards, which were instituted in the year 1954, were suspended only once.
  3. The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of five in a particular year.

Which of the above statements is not correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Which one of the following best defines the term “State”? (2021)

  1. A community of persons permanently occupying a definite territory independent of external control and possessing an organized government.
  2. A politically organized people of a definite territory possessing an authority to govern them, maintain law and order, protect their natural rights and safeguard their means of sustenance.
  3. A number of persons who have been living in a definite territory for a very long time with their own culture, tradition and government.
  4. A society permanently living in a definite with a central authority, an executive responsible to the central authority and an independent judiciary.



  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: An international team of astronomers announced they conducted a detailed study of the extremely hot giant exoplanet WASP-76 b.

About WASP-76b:

  • The planet orbits the massive star WASP-76, which is about 634 light-years away from our planet in the direction of the constellation Pisces.
  • WASP-76 b orbits very close to its parent star, around 12 times closer than Mercury is to the Sun.
  • The planet has a mass similar to that of Jupiter, but it is more than six times larger by volume.
  • The planet is tidally-locked, meaning that one of its sides permanently faces the star that it orbits.
  • This means that one side is constantly superheated while another side is much colder.
  • This could mean that the wind carries the iron atoms from the dayside to the night side.
  • When the iron reaches the transition point between the two sides, the temperature decreases and the iron will condense into liquid drops that fall to the land.
  • The researchers used the MAROON-X instrument of the Gemini-North Telescope to conduct a detailed study of the planet.

Source:   IE

International Monetary Fund (IMF)


  • Prelims – Important Institutions

Context: Bangladesh recently announced that it will adopt the International Monetary Fund (IMF) mandated method to calculate its foreign reserves.

About IMF:-


  • It is an international organization that works to achieve sustainable growth and prosperity for all of its member countries.
  • Established in 1944
  • HQ: Washington, D.C. (United States of America)
  • Members: 190
    • India is a member.
    • Any other state, whether or not a member of the UN, may become a member of the IMF.
  • Structure:
    • At the top of its organization is the Board of Governors.
    • The day-to-day work of the IMF is overseen by its 24-member Executive Board.
    • The Managing Director is the head of the IMF staff and Chair of the Executive Board.
    • S/he is assisted by four Deputy Managing Directors.
  • Funding: the IMF’s resources mainly come from the money that countries pay as their capital subscription (quotas) when they become members.

Objectives of IMF:-

  • Foster global monetary cooperation.
  • Secure financial stability.
  • Facilitate international trade.
  • Promote high employment and sustainable economic growth.
  • Reduce poverty around the world. (UPSC MAINS: Role of IMF)
  • Macroeconomic growth.
  • Policy advice & financing for developing countries.
  • Promotion of exchange rate stability, and an international payment system.


  • Lending
    • The IMF provides loans including emergency loans to member countries experiencing actual or potential balance of payments problems.
    • The aim is to help them rebuild their international reserves, stabilize their currencies, continue paying for imports, and restore conditions for strong economic growth while correcting underlying problems.
  • Surveillance
    • The IMF monitors the international monetary system and global economic developments.
    •  It identifies risks and recommends policies for growth and financial stability.
  • Capacity Development
    • The IMF provides technical assistance and training to governments, including central banks, finance ministries, revenue administrations, and financial sector supervisory agencies.


  • World Economic Outlook
  • Global Financial Stability Report
  • Fiscal Monitor

IMF and India

  • India is a founder member of the IMF.
  • Post-partition period: IMF came to the rescue when India had a serious balance of payments deficits, particularly with the dollar and other hard currency countries.
  • The Fund granted India loans to meet the financial difficulties arising out of the Indo–Pak conflict of 1965 and 1971.
  • In 1981: India was given a massive loan of about Rs. 5,000 crores to overcome the foreign exchange crisis resulting from a persistent deficit in the balance of payments on the current account.
  • In the early 1990s: when foreign exchange reserves of two weeks’ imports as against the generally accepted ‘safe minimum reserves’ of a three-month equivalent position were terribly unsatisfactory the Government of India’s immediate response was to secure an emergency loan of $2.2 billion from the IMF by pledging 67 tons of India’s gold reserves as collateral security.
    • India promised IMF to launch several structural reforms (like devaluation of the Indian currency, cut in government expenditure and subsidy, import liberalisation, industrial policy reforms, trade policy reforms, banking reforms, privatization of public sector enterprises, etc.)
    • Repayments of all the loans taken from the International Monetary Fund were completed in 2000.
  • India has not taken any financial assistance from the IMF since 1993.
  • The Finance Minister of India is the ex-officio Governor on the Board of Governors of the IMF.
  • RBI Governor is the Alternate Governor at the IMF.
  • India’s current quota in the IMF: 2.75%.

MUST READ: IMF and World Economic Outlook



Q.1) “Rapid Financing Instrument” and “Rapid Credit Facility” are related to the provisions of lending by which of the following: (2022)

  1. Asian Development Bank
  2. International Monetary Fund
  3. United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative
  4. World Bank

Q.2) With reference to the “G20 Common Framework”, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. It is an initiative endorsed by the G20 together with the Paris Club.
  2. It is an initiative to support Low-Income Countries with unsustainable debt.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Malcha Mahal


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi, recently issued directions requiring revamping of the forest area around the Malcha Mahal.

About Malcha Mahal:-

  • It was built in 1325 by the then Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
  • It was used as a hunting lodge for a long time.
  • It later became the residence of the descendants of the Nawab of Awadh.
  • Location: Delhi.
  • Historical Background: it came to be known as ‘Wilayat Mahal’ after Begum Wilayat Mahal of Awadh, who claimed that she was a member of the royal family of Oudh.
    • She was given the palace by the government in 1985.
    • When she died it came into the ownership of her daughter Sakina Mahal, and son Prince Ali Raza (Cyrus).
  • The monument is not Archaeological Survey of India(ASI)protected and, therefore, no attention was paid to it in all these years in order to conserve it. (UPSC CSE: ASI)
    • ASI: an Indian government agency.
    •  It is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural-historical monuments in the country.
    • Founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham.
    • He became its first Director-General.
    • Ministry: Ministry of Culture
    • HQ: New Delhi

Feroz Shah Tughlaq

  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the third ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty.
  • Tughlaq dynasty: ruled over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD.
  • He ascended the throne of Delhi after the demise of his cousin Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
  • Time period:  from 1351 to 1388 AD.

Salient Features of his rule:-

  • He gave imperative concessions to the Islamic scholars.
    • He boycotted the practices these scholars deemed un-Islamic
  • He started the imposition of Jaziya.
  • He provided the principle of inheritance to the armed forces.
    • Under this, the officers were permitted to rest and send their children to the army in their place.
    • However, they were not paid in real money but by land.
  • He imposed taxes like:-
    • Kharaj: Land tax which was equal to one-tenth of the produce of the land.
    • Zakat: Two and a half per cent tax on property realized from the Muslims.
    • Kham: One-fifth of the booty captured (four-fifth was left for the soldiers)
    • Jaziya: Levied on the non-Muslim subjects, particularly the Hindus.
    • Women and children were, however, exempted from the taxes.

MUST READ: ASI planning barricade around famed stone chariot at Hampi



Q.1) Who among the following rulers advised his subjects through this inscription? (2020)

“Whosoever praises his religious sect or blames other sects out of excessive devotion to his own sect, with the view of glorifying his own sect, he rather injures his own sect very severely.”

  1. Ashoka
  2. Samudragupta
  3. Harshavardhana
  4. Krishnadeva Raya

Q.2) Which one of the following is not a Harappan site? (2018)

  1. Chanhudaro
  2. Kot Diji
  3. Sohgaura
  4. Desalpur

Nova Kakhovka dam


  • Prelims –International Affairs

Context: The Nova Kakhovka dam in Ukraine collapsed recently.

About Nova Kakhovka dam:-

IMAGE SOURCE: newarab.com

  • It was built in 1956 as part of the Kakhovka hydroelectric power plant.
  • The dam was built in the Soviet era.
  •  It is built on the Dnipro River.
    • Dnipro: is one of the major transboundary rivers of Europe.
    • It is the longest river in Ukraine and Belarus.
    •  It is the fourth-longest river in Europe, after the Volga, Danube, and Ural rivers.
    • It  rises in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia.
    • It flows through Belarus and Ukraine into the Black Sea. (UPSC CSE: Loss of the ‘Moskva’ & Black Sea )
    • Black Sea: is an inland sea located between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
    • The Turkish straits system – the Dardanelles, Bosporus and the Marmara Sea forms a transitional zone between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
    • The Black Sea is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.
    • Bordering countries of the Black Sea are Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania.
  • The dam holds back a huge reservoir, which locals call the Kakhovka Sea.
  • Volume: the dam holds back around 18 cubic kilometres of water in the Kakhovka Reservoir.
  • It lies in the Kherson region. (UPSC CSE: Perspectives on Russia-Ukraine War)
    • Russia occupies the left, or southern, bank while Ukraine controls the right, or northern, bank.
  • Distribution: it supplies water to the Crimean Peninsula and to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant.
  • The reservoir also provided water for the cooling system of the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant.
    • Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant of Ukraine: it is the largest in Europe.


  • Hydroelectric Power Generation: One of the primary purposes of the Kakhovka Dam is to generate electricity.
  • Water Management: By controlling the Dnieper River’s flow, it helps prevent floods during periods of heavy rainfall and releases water during dry seasons to support irrigation and agricultural activities.
  • Navigation and Transport: The reservoir created by the Kakhovka Dam serves as a navigable waterway, enabling inland navigation along the Dnieper River.
  • Recreation and Tourism: The Kakhovka Dam and its reservoir offer opportunities for recreational activities such as boating, fishing, and swimming.
  • Environmental Impact: While it contributes to hydroelectric power generation and supports agriculture, the construction of the dam and the alteration of the river’s flow can have ecological consequences on the river ecosystem and the species that depend on it.

MUST READ: Black Sea Grain Initiative



Q.1) Consider the following countries: (2022)

  1. Azerbaijan
  2. Kyrgyzstan
  3. Tajikistan
  4. Uzbekistan
  5. Turkmenistan

Which of the above has borders with Afghanistan?

  1. 1, 2 and 5 only
  2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2022)

The region often mentioned in the news:      Country

  1. Anatolia                                                    Turkey
  2. Amhara                                                     Ethiopia
  3. Cabo Delgado                                           Spain
  4. Catalonia                                                 Italy

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

National Water Awards


  • Prelims – Awards

Context: Recently, the Vice President of India, conferred the 4th National Water Awards, 2022.

About National Water Awards:-

  • The first National Water Award was launched in 2018.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Jal Shakti.


  • To encourage the stakeholders to adopt a holistic approach towards water resources management in the country.
  • To create awareness among the people about the importance of water and attempt to motivate them to adopt the best water usage practices.
  • Start-ups, leading organisations and people can engage, deliberate and strengthen existing partnerships on issues concerning water conservation and management activities.



  • Ministry of Jal Shakti is giving 57 awards to States, Organizations, Individuals etc. in 11 different categories as follows:-
    • Best State, Best District, Best Village Panchayat, Best Urban Local Body, Best Media (Print & Electronic), Best School, Best Institution/RWA/Religious organization for Campus usage, Best Industry, Best NGO, Best Water User Association, and Best Industry for CSR Activity.

MUST READ: Rashtriya Puruskar Portal



Q.1) Atal Innovation Mission is set up under the (2019)

  1. Department of Science and Technology
  2. Ministry of Labour and Employment
  3. NITI Aayog
  4. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Q.2) With reference to organic farming in India, consider the following statements: (2018)

  1. 1.‘The National ‘Programme for Organic Production’ (NPOP) is operated under the guidelines and ‘directions of the Union Ministry of Rural Development.
  2. 2.‘The Agricultural and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority ‘(APEDA) functions as the Secretariat for the implementation of NPOP.
  3. 3. Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic State.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Dairy Sector in India


  • Mains – GS 3 (Indian Economy)

Context: The Union Minister of Heavy Industries Dr Mahendra Nath Pandey unveiled the “Dugdh Sanakalan Sathi Mobile App” at Mussoorie, Uttarakhand.

About the App:

  • It improves the quality of milk, foster transparency among stakeholders, and streamline operations at the grassroots village level, including Milk Cooperative Societies.
  • Designed and Developed by: Rajasthan Electronics and Instruments Limited (REIL), Jaipur, a ‘Mini Ratna” Central Public Sector Enterprises under the Ministry of Heavy Industries

Dairy Sector in India:

  • India’s success story in milk production was scripted by Dr Verghese Kurien, known as the “Father of the White Revolution” in India.
  • Dairy is the single-largest Agri commodity in India. It contributes 5% to the national economy and employs 80 million dairy farmers directly.
  • Growth in the liquid milk segment, which accounts for over half of the dairy industry, is likely to remain stable (6-7%).
  • The organised dairy segment, which accounts for 26-30% of industry (by value), has seen faster growth, compared to the unorganised segment.
  • Notably, 228 dairy cooperatives reach out to 17 million farmers, many of whom are likely to be assured of their milk being procured at the right time and at a fair price.

Operation Flood:

  • Operation Flood helped quality milk reach consumers across 700 towns and cities through a National Milk Grid.
    • The programme also helped remove the need for middlemen, thereby reducing seasonal price variations.
  • In 1968-69, prior to the launch of Operation Flood, milk production was only 21.2 MT which increased to 30.4 MT by 1979-80 and 51.4 MT by 1989-90. Now it has increased to 210 million tonnes in 2020-21.

Significance of the Dairy Sector in India:

  • India’s dairy industry has played a crucial role in the country’s economic development.
  • The sector has demonstrated an important part in achieving food security, reducing poverty, generating employment opportunities, and providing a regular source of income for rural households.
  • The Operation Flood has reduced the import bill, converted India from a milk importer to the world’s largest producer.

Underlying Supply Constraints in India’s Dairy Sector:

Fodder Inflation and Supply Constraints:

  • Fodder and feed account for 70% of the cost of milk.
  • Fodder development has not found much of a place in animal husbandry budgets.
  • Fodder is grown on just 4% of farmland, leading to supply constraints.

Demand Destruction during the Covid-19 Pandemic:

  • The pandemic led to a crash in milk prices, impacting farmers’ ability to invest in cattle upkeep.
  • The effects of this demand destruction will linger for some time.

Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreak:

  • Lumpy skin disease has wreaked havoc on livestock, leading to losses in income and capital.

Cooperatives’ Limited Success:

  • Dairy cooperatives have revolutionized dairying, but their success has not gone beyond Gujarat and Karnataka.
  • Private players have taken market share by offering higher prices in a buoyant market.

Inefficient Breeding Practices:

  • Inefficient breeding practices lead to low productivity and genetic variability, ultimately reducing milk production.
  • Many farmers still rely on traditional breeding practices and do not have access to modern technologies for genetic improvement.

Government Initiatives to Boost Dairy Industry:

  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission: Aims to genetically improve the cattle population and promote and conserve indigenous cattle breeds.
    • Under the mission, farmers now have access to several cutting-edge technologies at their doorstep, including sex-sorted semen, IVF technique and genomic selection.
  • National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD): Aims to build or strengthen infrastructure for the production of high-quality milk as well as for the procurement, processing, and marketing of milk and milk products through the State Implementing Agency or State Cooperative Dairy Federation.
  • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS): DEDS is being implemented by the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries to create self-employment opportunities in the dairy industry.
    • The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development is carrying out the programme.
  • e-GOPALA: The web version of the e-GOPALA application developed by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) has been launched to aid dairy farmers.
  • Launching of Dairy mark: The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) together developed a dedicated ‘Dairy Mark’ logo as a unified quality mark across India to boost the confidence of consumers in milk and milk products.

Way Forward:

The milk shortage in India is a complex issue that requires a multi-pronged approach to address. While demand destruction during Covid, lumpy skin disease, and fodder inflation have all contributed to the drying up of milk output, there is hope that the first two factors may be transient.

However, fodder inflation is an endemic issue that requires urgent attention from policymakers. Investing in policies to address embedded supply constraints, such as fodder development, could provide a solution to this long-standing problem.

MUST READ: Learning from Dairy Revolution

Source:     LM

Transgenic crops in India


  • Mains – GS 3 (Environment and Ecology)

Context: Three States, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Telangana, have recently rejected a proposal, approved by the Centre’s Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC), to test a new kind of transgenic cotton seed.

About Transgenic Crops:

  • Transgenic crops are plants that have been modified through genetic engineering
  • These crops have had specific genes inserted into their DNA to give them new characteristics or traits that are not naturally found in the species through traditional breeding methods.

About Genetically Modified Crops:

  • A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is any living organism whose genetic material has been modified to include certain desirable techniques.
  • Genetic modification has previously been used for the large-scale production of insulin, vaccines, and more.
  • In crops, genetic modification involves the manipulation of DNA instead of using controlled pollination— the conventional method to improve crops— to alter certain characteristics of the crop.

Status in India:

  • In India, only Cotton is currently commercially cultivated as a GM crop. Trials are underway for other crops like brinjal, tomato, maize, and chickpea using transgenic technology.
  • The GEAC approved the environmental release of GM mustard hybrid DMH-11, bringing it closer to full commercial cultivation.
  • However, there is an ongoing legal case in the Supreme Court questioning the permission for transgenic food crops. They seek a stay on GM mustard, citing concerns about farmers using banned herbicides.


  • Disease resistant and Sustainability: Through genetic modifications the genetically modified crops are made resistant to diseases. This enhances their sustainability and yield.
  • Environmental Protection: According to an Oklahoma State University report, the increase of GM animals and crops often requires less time, tools and chemicals, and may help with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and environmental pollution.
  • Longer Shelf life: Genetically modified foods have a longer shelf life. This enhances the ease of transportation and storage.
  • Affordability: Due to reduced burden of inputs and longer shelf life hence reduced wastages, the prices of the output will be low. This increases the affordability.
  • Fortification: According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, some GM foods have been engineered to become more nutritious in terms of vitamin or mineral content.
    • This not only helps people get the nutrients they need, but also plays a significant role in fighting against malnutrition in third-world countries.


  • It is believed that consumption of these genetically engineered foods can cause the development of diseases which may be immune to antibiotics.
  • This cross-pollination method can cause damage to other organisms that thrive in the environment.
  • The technology could be carcinogenic. It is a killer technology that kills soil, microbes, pollinators, almost all medicinal herbs and adversely affects crop diversity. It may also cause cancer in humans,

Way Forward:

The GEAC has asked the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and the ICAR to “jointly organise capacity-building activities with regard to GM crops for appraising the State/UT Government(s) about the technology involved and the regulatory framework in place for evaluation of these GM crops.

To resolve the issue of States not following approvals on testing, because of differing attitudes to GM crops, the GEAC is considering a proposal by the DBT to declare some regions across India as ‘notified testing sites. There are 42 such proposed sites and, if it goes through, companies and institutions wanting to conduct trials of GM crops at these locations won’t need the permission of States for trials.

Source: The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements regarding, the International Monetary Fund (IMF):

  1. India has not taken any financial assistance from the IMF since 1993.
  2. Its Headquarters is in New York.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2) Consider the following statements regarding, the Nova Kakhovka dam :

  1. It is on the Black Sea.
  2. It supplies water to the Crimean Peninsula, and to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q3) Consider the following statements regarding, the National Water Awards:

  1. They are given by the Ministry of Urban Development.
  2. It was established in 2015.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 19th June 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 17th June – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – c

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