(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)
Part of: GS Prelims and GS – III – Sci & tech
- Newly published results of an international experiment hint at the possibility of new physics governing the laws of nature.
- The experiment, called Muon g–2 (g minus two), was conducted at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).
- The experiment studied a subatomic particle called the muon.
- Its results do not match the predictions of the Standard Model, on which all particle physics is based.
- The results instead reconfirm a discrepancy that had been detected in an experiment 20 years ago.
- Concluded in 2001, the Brookhaven experiment came up with results that did not identically match predictions by the Standard Model.
- The Muon g–2 experiment measured this quantity with greater accuracy.
What is the Standard Model?
- The Standard Model is a rigorous theory that predicts the behaviour of the building blocks of the universe.
- It lays out the rules for six types of quarks, six leptons, the Higgs boson, three fundamental forces, and how the subatomic particles behave under the influence of electromagnetic forces.
- The muon is one of the leptons.
- It is similar to the electron, but 200 times larger, and much more unstable, surviving for a fraction of a second.
What quantity was measured?
- g–factor was measured.
- It is a measure that derives from the magnetic properties of the muon.
- The rate at which the muon wobbles is described by the g-factor.
- This value is known to be close to 2, so scientists measure the deviation from 2. Hence the name g–2.
- The new experimental results (combined from the Brookhaven and Fermilab results) announced are:
- g-factor: 00233184122
- anomalous magnetic moment: 00116592061.
Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – International Relations
- Indian PM and Seychelles President jointly inaugurated several Indian projects in Seychelles.
- Seychelles is central to India’s vision of ‘SAGAR’ – ‘Security and Growth for All in the Region’.
- During times of need, India was able to supply essential medicines and 50,000 doses of Made in India vaccines to Seychelles.
- Seychelles was the First African country to receive the Made in India COVID-19 vaccines.
- India has contributed towards the construction of the new Magistrates’ Court Building in Seychelles.
- For strengthening the maritime security of Seychelles, India has handed over a Made-in-India Fast Patrol Vessel to the Seychelles Coast Guard.
- India handed over a One Mega Watt solar power plant in the Seychelles built with India’s assistance.
- The virtual Summit between the two sides also saw the handing over of 10 High Impact Community Development Projects (HICDPs) implemented by the High Commission of India in collaboration with local bodies, educational and vocational institutions.
Do you know?
- Present President of Seychelles, Wavel Ramkalawan is a Person of Indian origin (PIO) with his roots in Gopalganj, Bihar.
Part of: GS Prelims and GS – II – Economy
- The Government of India has notified Copyright (Amendment) Rules, 2021.
- In India, the copyright regime is governed by the Copyright Act, 1957 and the Copyright Rules, 2013.
- The Copyright Rules, 2013 were last amended in the year 2016.
- Objective of the amendments: To bring the existing rules in parity with other relevant legislations.
- Publication of a copyrights journal has been incorporated eliminating the requirement of publication in the Official Gazette.
- The journal would be available at the website of the Copyright Office.
- In order to encourage accountability and transparency, new provisions have been introduced to deal with the undistributed royalty amounts and use of electronic and traceable payment methods while collection and distribution of royalties.
Do you know?
- The copyright societies will be required to draw up and make public an Annual Transparency Report for each financial year.
- The Copyright Board has been merged with Appellate Board.
- The compliance requirements for registration of software works have been reduced.
- The applicant has now the liberty to file the first 10 and last 10 pages of source code, or the entire source code if less than 20 pages, with no blocked out or redacted portions.
- The time limit for the Central Government to respond to an application for registration as a copyright society is extended to 180 days
Part of: GS Prelims and GS – III – Economy; Sci & tech
- Drone use permission granted to Central Mine Planning and Design Institute for coalfield survey.
- Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) and Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) have granted conditional exemption to Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI) for surveying in coalfield areas of Coal India Ltd.
- As per the permission, the drones will be deployed for acquisition of data for monitoring of Mapping and Surveying activity using UAV Based Optical, LiDAR and Thermal Payloads, volumetric measurement, and, inspections in coalfield areas of Coal India Limited.
- It is valid till 04 April 2022 from the date of issue of the letter or until the full operationalization of Digital Sky Platform (Phase-1), whichever is earlier.
- Exemption from Ministry of Civil Aviation must be obtained from UAS Rules, 2021 before operation.
Part of: GS Prelims and GS – III – Climate change
- The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) released the World Energy Transitions Outlook report.
Key highlights of the report:
- The report proposes energy transition solutions for the narrow pathway available to contain the rise of temperature to 1.5 degree Celsius.
- The COVID-19 crisis offers an unexpected opportunity for countries to decouple their economies from fossil fuels and accelerate the shift to renewable energy sources.
- It estimated that by 2050, 90% of total electricity needs would be supplied by renewables, followed by 6% from natural gas and the remaining from nuclear.
- The agency has identified 30 innovations for the integration of wind and solar PV in power systems.
Important value additions
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
- It is an intergovernmental Organisation.
- Mandate: To facilitate cooperation and promote the adoption and sustainable use of renewable energy.
- Founded in: 2009
- Its statute entered into force in 2010.
- Headquarter: Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.
- IRENA is an official United Nations observer.
- The “double mutant” virus that scientists had flagged last month as having a bearing on the spread of the pandemic in India, has a formal scientific classification: B.1.617.
- So far, only three global “Variants Of Concerns” have been identified: the U.K. variant, the South African and the Brazilian (P.1) lineage.
- GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
- GS-2: Rights and Freedoms
Context: The Tribunals Reforms (Rationalisation And Conditions Of Service) Ordinance, 2021, which came into effect on April 4, has abolished the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal (FCAT) by amending the Cinematograph Act, 1952
About the FCAT
- FCAT was a statutory body constituted set up by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting in 1983, under Section 5D of the Cinematograph Act, 1952.
- Its main job was to hear appeals filed under Section 5C of the Cinematograph Act, by applicants for certification aggrieved by the decision of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC).
- The tribunal was headed by a chairperson and had four other members, including a Secretary appointed by the Government of India to handle.
- The Tribunal was headquartered in New Delhi.
What it did
- In India, all films must have a CBFC certificate if they are to be released theatrically, telecast on television, or displayed publicly in any way.
- The CBFC consists of a Chairperson and 23 members, all appointed by the Government of India.
The CBFC certifies films under four categories:
- U: Unrestricted public exhibition (Suitable for all age groups)
- U/A: Parental guidance for children under age 12
- A: Restricted to adults(Suitable for 18 years and above
- S: Restricted to a specialised group of people, such as engineers, doctors or scientists.
The CBFC can also deny certification a film.
On several occasions when a filmmaker or producer has not been satisfied with the CBFC’s certification, or with a denial, they have appealed to the FCAT. And in many cases, the FCAT has overturned the CBFC decision.
Some of key decision by FCAT are
- Lipstick Under My Burkha (2016): It had been denied certification in 2017, on the ground that it was “lady-oriented. Director Alankrita Shrivastava appealed to the FCAT, following whose ruling some scenes were cut and the film was released, with an ‘A’ certificate.
- Haraamkhor (2015): The film revolves around the relationship between a schoolteacher and a young female student. It had been denied certification by the CBFC for being “very provocative”. The FCAT cleared the film and said it was “furthering a social message and warning the girls to be aware of their rights”.
- There were other instances – like The Messenger of God (2015), Kaalakandi (2018) – where FCAT has overruled the decisions of CBFC thereby upholding creative freedoms of film makers
Impact of abolition of FCAT
- Approach High Court: The abolition means filmmakers will now have to approach the High Court whenever they want to challenge a CBFC certification, or lack of it.
- Increases burden of Courts as now the appeals against decisions of CBFC reaches the door of High courts
- Delay in grievance redressal of film makers as the court process for resolving the appeals will take much longer than it was before (in case of FCAT)
- Disproportionately impacts small film makers: film producers of small-budget movies may not have the means to approach the courts
- Arbitrary decision: The FCAT discontinuation feels arbitrary as the decision was taken without any consultation with the stakeholders involved.
- Restrictive: The move is seen as empowering the hands of CBFC, a government appointed body, which in turn increases state’s role in certifying films. This can be seen as limiting the creative freedoms of film makers impacting their freedom of speech & expression under Article 19(1)(a)
Connecting the dots :
- Analyse the role of Cinemas in societies
- New Social Media Code
- GS-2: Governance
- GS-2: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
Spurred by the exodus of 10 million migrants (as per government estimates) from big cities during the Covid-19 lockdown, NITI Aayog, along with a working subgroup of officials and members of civil society, has prepared a Draft National Migrant Labour policy.
Positives of Draft Policy
- Due Recognition: Intent to better recognise migrants’ contribution to the economy and support them in their endeavours.
- Radical Ideas: It puts forward several radical ideas, including the adoption of a rights-based approach and establishing an additional layer of institutions to create a more enabling policy environment for migrants.
- Dedicated Unit: It proposes a new National Migration Policy and the formation of a special unit within the Labour Ministry to work closely with other ministries.
- Helps bring Convergence across departments: The new structure would bring about much-needed convergence across line departments and would be a huge step towards a universal understanding of the causes and effects of migration as well as the interventions needed.
- Focus on implementation: The draft policy calls for improving the record on the implementation of the country’s many labour laws that have, by and large, failed to make a difference to the lives of labour migrants.
- Multiple laws considered: It discusses at length the provisions under the Equal Remuneration Act, The Bonded Labour Act, the Building and Other Construction Workers Act and the Interstate Migrant Workmen Act, among others.
- International Responsibilities addressed: It invokes the ILO’s Decent Work Agenda as well as the Sustainable Development Goals which aim to protect labour rights.
- Significance of data realized: It acknowledges the challenges of welfare provision to a highly fragmented migrant workforce due to recruitment patterns and the lack of data. It refers to the importance of collective action and unions and there are detailed plans for improving the data on short-term migration, especially seasonal and circular migration.
- The policy does not delve deeper into the causes underlying the poor implementation of labour laws that are linked to the political economy of recruitment and placement.
- It does not talk about gender differences in employment.
- Domestic workers are one of the most important occupations for migrant women. They have been ignored.
- Controlling tribal migration goes against the objective of recognising migrant agency to help tribal migrants to access the opportunities offered by migration.
(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)
Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)
- Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.
- Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.
Q.1 Where is the Headquarter of International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) situated?
- Abu Dhabi
Q.2 Seychelles is an archipelago of 115 islands located in which of the following Ocean?
- Indian Ocean
- Atlantic Ocean
- Pacific Ocean
- Arctic Ocean
Q.3 Consider the following statements regarding Muon:
- It is similar to the electron.
- It is less stable than an electron
Which of the above is or are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
ANSWERS FOR 8th April 2021 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)
On need for feminist foreign policy:
On rich countries and carbon emissions:
Explaining Pakistan’s flip-flop on trade with India: