DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 4th July 2022

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  • July 4, 2022
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Alluri Sitarama Raju

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  • Prelims – History (Personalities in News)

In News: Prime Minister to launch year-long celebrations to remember contributions of Alluri Sitarama Raju.

  • Prime Minister will launch the year-long celebrations on the 125th birth anniversary of Alluri, enabling a new generation to be aware of the heroics of Alluri and the sacrifices he made for the tribal community.

Alluri Sitarama Raju

  • Alluri Sitarama Raju was an Indian revolutionary who waged an armed campaign against British colonial rule in India.
  • Born on July 4, 1897, into a humble middle-class family in a small village near the Coastal city of Visakhapatnam.

Freedom Struggle

  • Sitarama Raju, under the influence of Gandhi’s Non-cooperation movement, inspired the tribals to seek justice in the local panchayat courts and boycott the colonial courts.
  • He made Adivasi areas in the Eastern Ghats and started to work for the Adivasis, who were living in abject poverty and being fleeced by police, forest and revenue officials, in ‘Manyam’ (forest area).
  • He became involved in anti-British activities in response to the 1882 Madras Forest Act, which effectively restricted the free movement of Adivasis in their forest habitats and prevented them from practicing a traditional form of agriculture known as podu.
  • As a result, in August 1922, he launched the Rampa Rebellion against the British
  • Alluri Sitarama Raju, along with 500 tribals, attacked the police stations of Chintapalli, Krishnadevipeta, and Rajavommangi and walked away with 26 police carbine rifles and 2,500 rounds of ammunition.
  • Though his battle with the British lasted only for two years, he made an indelible mark in the history of the Indian Freedom Struggle and found a permanent place in the hearts of the countrymen.
  • In 1924, Raju was taken into police custody, tied to a tree, and shot by a public execution, effectively ending the armed rebellion.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) The Vital-Vidhvansak, the first monthly journal to have the untouchable people as its target audience was published by(2020)

  1. Gopal Baba Walangkar
  2. Jyotiba Phule
  3. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
  4. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

India’s largest floating solar plant

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  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: India’s largest floating solar plant is now fully operational at Ramagundam in Telangana’s Peddapalli district.

  • The 100-megawatt (MW) floating solar power photovoltaic project was commissioned by the National Thermal Power Corporation.
  • As of July 1, following the commissioning of the plant, the total commercial operation of floating solar capacity in the southern region has risen to 217 MW.

What are floating solar plants?

  • Solar plants or solar farms can be either ground-mounted or set up on the surface of waterbodies.
  • Floating farms are a bit more expensive than the traditional ones mounted on land surfaces, there are many advantages of floating farms
  • Floating farms do not require land to be acquired for the installation of photovoltaic panels.
  • They are more efficient as the presence of water underneath helps them keep cool.
  • They also reduce water evaporation, thereby saving more water for hydropower generation.

How are these panels kept floating?

  • The solar modules are placed on floaters manufactured with high-density polyethene material that keeps floating irrespective of water-level fluctuations.
  • The entire spread is divided into blocks, each of these blocks consists of a floating platform and an array of solar modules.
  • The floating platform consists of an inverter, transformer, and a high-tension circuit breaker.

Source: Indian Express

Eco-sensitive zones (ESZ)

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  • Prelims – Environment
  • Mains – GS 3 (Environment)

In News: Kerala farmers living along the Western Ghats have been protesting a June 3 directive of the Supreme Court for setting up buffer or eco-sensitive zones (ESZ) for all protected forests in the country.


The Supreme Court order

  • A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court, in its order on June 3, said national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and such protected forests must have an ESZ of minimum 1-km from their boundaries.
  • The court said the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MEF & CC) in 2011, which have either banned or regulated a bunch of activities within the ESZ, should be strictly adhered to.
  • The proceedings that led to the June 3 SC order originated from a 1995 PIL moved by T N Godavarman Thirumulpad, a native of Nilambur in Kerala’s Malappuram, seeking protection of forest lands in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Later, the court widened the scope of the petition in such a manner to protect natural resources throughout the country.

Kerala forests, protected areas and the verdict implications for Kerala

  • Kerala has 23 protected forest areas, of which 12 are wildlife sanctuaries, 3 bird sanctuaries, five national parks and two tiger reserves.
  • Kerala’s forest cover, as per data available from 2019-20, is 11,521 square km, which forms 65 per cent of the state’s total geographical area.
  • This ratio of forest to total geographical areas is much higher than the national average of 6.09 per cent.
  • The state’s forest cover has also been going up with an increase of 823 square km from 2017.
  • Thus the verdict would affect one lakh families, 2.50 lakh acres of agricultural land and two dozen townships.
  • Farmers are concerned as inclusion of human settlements with ESZ would hit their life and economic activities.

What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)?

  • Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas are areas within 10 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
  • ESZs are notified by MoEFCC, Government of India under Environment Protection Act, 1986
  • Ecologically important patches, crucial for landscape linkage, even area beyond 10 km width can also be included in the eco-sensitive zone.
  • The basic aim is to regulate certain activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries so as to minimise the negative impacts of such activities on the fragile ecosystem encompassing the protected areas.

Activities Allowed in ESZs

  • Prohibited activities: Commercial mining, saw mills, industries causing pollution, establishment of major hydroelectric projects (HEP), commercial use of wood, Tourism activities like hot-air balloons over the National Park, discharge of effluents or any solid waste or production of hazardous substances.
  • Regulated activities: Felling of trees, establishment of hotels and resorts, commercial use of natural water, erection of electrical cables, drastic change of agriculture system, e.g. adoption of heavy technology, pesticides etc, widening of roads.
  • Permitted activities: Ongoing agricultural or horticultural practices, rainwater harvesting, organic farming, use of renewable energy sources, adoption of green technology for all activities.

Source: Indian Express

National Investigation Agency

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  • Prelims – Internal Security
  • Mains – GS 3 (Internal Security)

What is the NIA?

  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008.
  • It is a central agency mandated to investigate all the offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, and the offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations.
  • These include terror acts and their possible links with crimes like smuggling of arms, drugs and fake Indian currency and infiltration from across the borders.
  • The agency has the power to search, seize, arrest and prosecute those involved in such offences.
  • Headquartered in Delhi, the NIA has its branches in many cities of India.

When did the NIA come into being?

  • In the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, GoI decided to establish the NIA.
  • The agency came into existence on December 31, 2008, and started its functioning in 2009.
  • Government stated that the agency would deal with only eight laws mentioned in the schedule and that a balance had been struck between the right of the State and duties of the Central government to investigate the more important cases.

What are the scheduled offences?

The list includes the

  • Explosive Substances Act,
  • Atomic Energy Act,
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act,
  • Anti-Hijacking Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act,
  • SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act,
  • Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act,
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act and relevant offences under the Indian Penal Code,
  • Arms Act and the Information Technology Act.

In September 2020, the Centre empowered the NIA to also probe offences under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act that are connected to terror cases.

How wide is NIA’s jurisdiction?

The law under which the agency operates

  • extends to the whole of India and also applies to Indian citizens outside the country;
  • persons in the service of the government wherever they are posted;
  • persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be;
  • persons who commit a scheduled offence beyond India against the Indian citizen or affecting the interest of India.

How does the NIA take up a probe?

  • As provided under Section 6 of the Act, State governments can refer the cases pertaining to the scheduled offences to the Central government for NIA investigation.
  • Even when the Central government is of the opinion that a scheduled offence has been committed which is required to be investigated under the Act, it may, suo motu, direct the agency to take up/over the probe
  • Where the Central government finds that a scheduled offence has been committed at any place outside India to which this Act extends, it can also direct the NIA to register the case and take up investigation.

Source: The Hindu

Saharia tribe

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  • Prelims – Social Issues

In News: Tribal woman in Madhya Pradesh’s Guna district set ablaze over land dispute.

  • Rampyari Bai belongs to the Saharia tribe that comes under the particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs).

Saharia tribe

  • The Sahar, Sehariya, or Sahariya is an ethnic group in the state of Madhya Pradesh and some districts of Rajasthan.
  • They are classified as particularly vulnerable tribal groups.
  • The Sahariya community considers every adult member part of a governing council which is headed by a patel.
  • The Sahariyas are expert woodsmen and forest product gatherers.
  • They are particularly skilled in making catechu from Khair trees.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

  • PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
  • In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.
  • In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as PVTGs.
  • PVTGs have some basic characteristics – they are mostly homogenous, with a small population, relatively physically isolated, absence of written language, relatively simple technology and a slower rate of change etc.
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements about Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India: (2019)

  1. PVTGs reside in 18 States and one Union Territory.
  2. A stagnant or declining population is one of the criteria for determining PVTG status.
  3. There are 95 PVTGs officially notified in the country so far.
  4. Irular and Konda Reddi tribes are included in the list of PVTGs.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1, 2 and 4
  4. 1, 3 and 4

Places in News

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  • Prelims – Geography (Places in News)


  • Ukraine
  • Russia claimed to have captured the strategic Ukrainian city of Lysychansk and the entire frontline Luhansk region.
  • The gains claimed by Russia would mark a decisive breakthrough for Moscow’s forces seeking control of eastern Ukraine.
  • Lysychansk had been the last major city in the Luhansk area of the Donbas still in Ukrainian hands and its capture would signal a deeper push into the eastern region


  • The heaviest Russian shelling was reported in the region


  • Russia accused Ukraine of firing three cluster missiles at the city of Belgorod, near the Ukrainian border.
  • Belgorod, city and administrative centre of Belgorod oblast (region), western Russia.
  • Located near the Russia-Ukraine border, Belgorod lies along the upper Donets River where it is crossed by the Moscow-Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Sumy–Donets Basin railways.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2022)

Regions in News             Country

  1. Anatolia – Turkey
  2. Amhara – Ethiopia
  3. Cabo Delgado – Spain
  4. Catalonia – Italy

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2018)

Regions sometimes mentioned in the news        Country

  1. Catalonia – Spain
  2. Crimea – Hungary
  3. Mindanao – Philippines
  4. Oromia – Nigeria

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 3 and 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 4 only

Custodial deaths and Technology

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  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: India has a grim record in police brutality and custodial violence.

  • Between 2001 and 2018, 1,727 persons died in police custody, but only 26 policemen were convicted for such deaths.
  • The recent spate of custodial deaths in Tamil Nadu has yet again highlighted the methods used by the police during interrogation.
  • Custodial deaths are common despite enormous time and money being spent on training police personnel to embrace scientific methods of investigation.

Use of technology

  • Given the problem of custodial deaths, technology has been proposed as a silver bullet by many.
  • Several technological solutions are available to help prevent custodial deaths.

Technologies used

  • This includes body cameras and automated external defibrillators. These technologies help avert police custodial deaths.
  • For example, body cameras could hold officers liable.
  • Deception detection tests (DDTs), which deploy technologies such as polygraph, narco-analysis and brain mapping, are valuable in learning information that is known only to a criminal regarding a crime.
  • Among the DDTs, the Brain Fingerprinting System (BFS) has proved helpful for solving crimes, identifying perpetrators, and exonerating innocent suspects.
  • There is increasing use of robots for surveillance and bomb detection.
  • Many departments want robotic interrogators for interrogating suspects
  • Robots equipped with AI and sensor technology can build a rapport with the suspects, utilise persuasive techniques like flattery, shame and coercion, and strategically
  • ML can in real-time alert superiors when police are meting out inhumane treatment to suspects.


  • There is a lot of concern about AI or robot interrogations, both legally and ethically.
  • There exists the risk of bias, the peril of automated interrogation tactics, the threat of ML algorithms targeting individuals and communities, and the hazard of its misuse for surveillance.
  • Therefore, while the technology available to the police and law-enforcement agencies is constantly improving, it is a restricted tool that can’t eradicate custodial deaths.
  • While it might provide comfort and transparency, it can never address the underlying issues that lead to these situations.

Way forward

  • There is a need for multi-pronged strategy by the decision-makers encompassing legal enactments, technology, accountability, training and community relations.
  • The Law Commission of India’s proposition in 2003 to change the Evidence Act to place the onus of proof on the police for not having tortured suspects should be considered.
  • Stringent action must be taken against personnel who breach the commandments issued by the apex court in K. Basu v. State of West Bengal (1997) – a landmark judgment given by the apex court in the case of an increasing number of custodial deaths in India.
  • The draft bill on the Prevention of Torture, 2017 needs to be revived.

Technology may make policing more convenient, but it can never be an alternative for compassionate policing established on trust between the police and the citizens.

Source: The Hindu

The new energy disorder

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  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy – Infrastructure – Energy)

Context: The Ukrainian crisis has altered the contours of the global energy landscape and created a tangle of relationships and issues for India.

  • Few months before there was a deepening sense that fossil fuels and the industry built around them were in terminal decline and that the era of oil, gas and coal was, if not at its end, certainly at the beginning of its end
  • But today, The petroleum market is tight and prices are ratcheting up.
  • Oil prices are close to $120/bbl and gas prices have jumped 500 per cent year on year in Europe.
  • The share prices of the oil majors are trading at multi-year highs.
  • India is caught in the vortex of this turmoil.

Three issues are of particular significance.

  • First, India is now a major purchaser of Russian crude.
  • Russia is now our largest provider of crude oil surpassing Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
  • The reason for this ramp-up is the price discount offered by Russia.
  • The decision is driven by good economics and energy security.
  • This has created some apprehensions with western countries
  • Second, recently, Russia and China has signed a “no limits” partnership.
  • Russia is also now the largest supplier of petroleum to China.
  • This tightened economic and energy embrace has implications for India like will Russia be a reliable providers of crude oil, military equipment, minerals, and metals essential for India?
  • Third the changed stance of Western relations with Gulf recently, will have implications on India’s energy security.

Thus Our long-standing “friend“ (Russia) is now in the bad books of our other friends (the US and Europe) and in a deepening relationship with our adversary (China).

How do we navigate this consequential cross currents?

  • The need is to create a mechanism for the development and execution of an integrated energy policy.
  • And also there is a need for energy authority this is because currently there is no executive authority responsible for energy.
  • There are ministries responsible for components of energy policy but no formal mechanism for aligning their separate approaches.

The new energy (dis) order has created fissures that impact our national security, economic growth, trade, clean energy supply lines, transfer of technology and international relations. Thus carefully planned approach is the need of the hour.

Source: Indian Express

Baba’s Explainer – Turkey’s peace with Sweden and Finland joining NATO 

Turkey’s peace with Sweden and Finland joining NATO


  • GS-2: Policies and politics of developed and developing countries.
  • GS-2: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Context: On June 28,2022 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Secretary-General announced the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Turkey, Finland and Sweden in a trilateral meeting held in Madrid, Spain.

  • The MoU was signed once the Finland and Sweden agreed to address the national security concerns of Turkey.

Read Complete Details on Turkey’s peace with Sweden and Finland joining NATO


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements National Investing Agency

  1. The agency came into existence in 2008 afternath of Mumbai terror attack
  2. The agency deals with only those laws mentioned in its schedule
  3. NIA’s jurisdiction also applies to Indian citizens outside the country

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Q.2) Which of the below given pairs is/are correctly matched?

Places in News Country
Akwaya Cameroon
Oromia Ethiopia
Kaliningrad Russia

Choose the correct code:

  1. 2 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements

  1. Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) are notified India under Environment Protection Act, 1986
  2. ESZs are areas within 10 kms around Protected Areas and are declared by respective state governments

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’4th JULY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.

ANSWERS FOR 2nd JULY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – b

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