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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 19th November 2022

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  • November 19, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Recently researchers from Hyderabad have rescued a nine year old boy from a rare progressive genetic disease identified as Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis or CTX at an early stage.

About Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX):

  • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset Diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures).
  • Patients with CTX are unable to break down different forms of cholesterol, which build up in certain areas of the body.
  • CTX is characterized by fatty yellow nodules (xanthomas) located in the connective tissues within the brain.
  • These deposits can cause progressive damage to the brain and other areas of the body.
  • Patients with CTX do not have elevated levels of cholesterol in their blood; however, they do have elevated levels in their tissues.

Symptoms:

  • For infants and children, symptoms may include: Chronic Diarrhea during infancy, Cataracts in late childhood, Frequent bone fractures due to brittle bones
  • When a patient with CTX enters into adulthood, they may begin to notice the following neurological symptoms: Dementia, Seizures, Hallucinations, Depression, Difficulty with coordination, Difficulty with speech
  • The fatty deposits can also result in cardiovascular disease or stroke if they limit or block the blood flow to the heart or brain.

Causes and Risk Factors:

  • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is caused by a change in the CYP27A1 gene, which is involved in the production of an enzyme that breaks down cholesterol.
  • The condition is inherited, and both parents need to pass on the genetic abnormality in order for their child to have the condition.
    • If the child only receives one copy of the abnormal gene, then they are a carrier for CTX but will not have any symptoms.
  • The condition is rare and occurs in an estimated 3 to 5 out of every 100,000 people.
    • The condition affects all genders and ethnicities; however, it is most common in the Moroccan Jewish population.

Treatment:

  • There is no cure for CTX, however, if the condition is treated early, its progression can be slowed or stopped.
  • The first treatment generally prescribed is chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) replacement therapy, which works to normalize the body’s ability to break down cholesterol.
  • Other medications, known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, may be prescribed to help lower cholesterol levels by blocking the enzyme responsible for the production of cholesterol.
  • In CTX patients, cataract surgery also is often required by the age of 50.
  • For patients who have experienced a stroke, the Stroke Program provides a multidisciplinary treatment approach through a personalized treatment plan tailored to each patient.
  • Patient care is generally broken down into three categories: stroke prevention, treatment immediately after a stroke, and post-stroke rehabilitation.

Source: Times of India

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following statements: DNA Barcoding can be a tool to:

  1. assess the age of a plant or animal.
  2. distinguish among species that look alike.
  3. identify undesirable animal or plant materials in processed foods.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 2 and 3

Bali Yatra and The Kalinga Empire

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – History and Art and Culture

Context: Recently during the G20 Summit, Prime Minister of India  mentioned Baliyatra, literally ‘voyage to Bali’, one of the country’s largest open-air fairs that commemorates the 2,000-year-old maritime and cultural links between ancient Kalinga and Southeast Asia.

About Bali Yatra and the Kalinga Empire:

  • Bali Yatra, a festival that commemorates the rich maritime history of Odisha is celebrated throughout the state.
  • In the historic city of Cuttack, a week-long event is organised starting from the day of Kartika Purnima(full moon day in the month of Kartik i.e October-November).
  • The Kalinga Empire (present-day Odisha) is known for its glorious maritime history. Due to the geographical location of Kalinga, this area saw the growth of ports as early as the 4th and the 5th century BC.
  • Some of the famous ports, Tamralipti, Manikpatna, Chelitalo, Palur, Pithunda allowed India to connect with other countries via the sea.
  • Bali formed a part of the four islands that were collectively called the Suvarnadvipa, today known as Indonesia as their major trade hub along with other islands in the region.
  • The Kalingas constructed large boats called the Boitas’and with the help of these, they traded with the Indonesian islands.
  • These ships had copper hulls and could carry up to seven hundred men and animals aboard. Interestingly, the Bay of Bengal was once known as the Kalinga Sea as it was thronged by these ships.
  • The dominance of the Kalingas over the sea routes can be understood from the fact that Kalidasa in his Raghuvamsareferred to the King of Kalinga as ‘The Lord of the Sea’.

  • The Kalingas frequently traded with the island of Bali. The trade-in commodities also led to the interchange of ideas and beliefs.
  • Odia merchants formed settlements in Bali and influenced its culture and ethics. This led to the growth of Hinduism in the region.
  • Interestingly, the ‘Masakapan ke Tukad’ festival celebrated in Bali is similar to the Bali Yatra festival in Odisha. Both festivals are celebrated in the memory of their maritime ancestors.
  • The term Bali Yatra literally means ‘Voyage to Bali’.
  • Every year Kartika Purnimamarks the day that the seafaring traders departed for the Indonesian islands.
  • Indian women perform Boita Bandana’, they make boats of paper or banana leaf (sholapith) with lighted lamps inside and float them down the Mahanadi as a part of the celebrations.

Source:  Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q,1) Consider the following pairs:

Site of Ashoka’s major rock edicts            Location in the State of

  1. Dhauli                                                          Odisha
  2. Erragudi                                               Andhra Pradesh
  3. Jaugada                                                Madhya Pradesh
  4. Kalsi                                                      Karnataka

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Governance

Context: The last date for submission of applications for NMMSS for the year 2022-23 is 30th November 2022.

About National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme:

  • It is the Central Sector Scheme which was launched in 2008, after getting approval from CCEA, with the objective to award scholarships to meritorious students of economically weaker sections to arrest their drop out at class VIII and encourage them to continue their education at secondary stage.
  • One lakh fresh scholarships are awarded to selected students of class IX every year and their continuation / renewal in classes X to XII for study in State Government, Government-aided and Local body schools under the scheme.
  • The amount of scholarship is Rs. 12000/- per annum from 1st April 2017 (earlier it was Rs. 6000/- per annum).
  • Eligibility : Students whose parental income from all sources is not more than Rs. 3,50,000/- per annum are eligible to avail the scholarships.
  • The students must have a minimum of 55% marks or equivalent grade in Class VII examination for appearing in the selection test for award of scholarship (relaxable by 5% for SC/ST students).
    • The students should be studying as regular student in a Government, Government-aided and local body school.
    • Students of NVS, KVS and residential schools are not entitled for the scholarship. There is reservation as per State Government norms.
  • Disbursal of Scholarship: The scheme is fully on board the National Scholarship Portal (NSP) from 2018-19.
  • NMMSS scholarships are disbursed directly into the bank accounts of selected students by electronic transfer through the Public Financial Management System (PFMS) following DBT mode.

Source: PIB


Battle of Rezang La

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Geography 

Context: November 18, 2022, marks the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Rezang La, one of the few bright spots in the War of 1962 with China.

About Rezang La:

  • It is also called Rechin La.
  • It is a mountain pass on the Line of Actual Control between Indian-administered Ladakh and the Chinese-administered Spanggur Lake basin that is also claimed by India.
  • The pass is located on the eastern watershed ridge of the Chushul Valley that China claims as its boundary.
  • It is at the head of the Rezang Lungpa valley, which houses a stream draining into the Spanggur Lake.

About the war memorial:

  • It is dedicated to those who laid down their lives in the Battle of Rezang La during the 1962 war.
  • It will now include the names of Army personnel who lost their lives in the violent clash at Galwan last year.
  • 18th November marks the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Rezang La in which Troops from the 13 Kumaon Regiment defeated several waves of the Chinese Army at a height of over 16,000 feet.

Post 120 Memorial:

  • In October 2020, the Army had built a memorial at Post 120 in Eastern Ladakh for the 20 personnel killed in the violent clash at Galwan Valley on June 15 that year.
  • Post 120 lies along the Darbuk Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO)

Source:  Indian Express


Melocanna Baccifera

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Melocanna Baccifera, a tropical bamboo species, has long intrigued researchers for its association with the occurrence of ‘bamboo death,’ ‘rat floods’ and famines in northeast India.

About Melocanna Baccifera:

  • Melocanna Baccifera is an evergreen bamboo with an elongated rhizome that produces single culms arising at a distance of about 60 cm apart and reaching a height of 10 – 20 metres.
  • The thin-walled culms have a diameter of 50 – 90mm, with internodes 30 – 60cm long. It is an aggressive bamboo, easily occupying large open areas, due to its vigorous long rhizomes and, when fruiting, due to its easily germinating fruits.
  • One of the most useful bamboos within its native range, especially in Bangladesh, it provides edible shoots, medicine and culms that have a wide range of uses.
  • The plant is also grown as an ornamental purposes.

Cultivation of Melocanna Baccifera:

  • A plant of the moist tropics. It grows best in areas where the mean annual temperature falls within the range 20 – 33°c, though it can tolerate 15 – 38°c.
  • It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,000 – 3,000mm, tolerating 600 – 4,400mm.
  • Succeeds in moist soils, preferring a fertile medium to heavy soil.
  • Young shoots are harvested in the rainy season. Culms are considered mature when 2 years old.
  • The average green culm yield is estimated at 12,000 culms/ha per 3 years, weighing about 84 tonnes.
  • Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves.
  • Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 – 3 years before usually dying.
  • The plant flowers gregariously, with a flowering cycle of 30 – 45 years. In the season before flowering no new shoots are produced. Flowering may continue for about 10 years over a tract that is sometimes called a flowering wave.

Uses of Melocanna Baccifera:

Edible Uses:

  • Young shoots – cooked
  • The shoots are also sliced and dried in the sun for preservation
  • The remarkable large fruits are fleshy and edible
  • They are used as a famine food
  • The leaves may be used in brewing liquor

Medicinal Uses:

  • Tabashir, which is a siliceous concretion found in the culms of the bamboo stem, can be collected from the culms.
  • It is used as a tonic in treating respiratory diseases.

Other Uses:

  • The culms are widely used in house building; to make woven wares such as baskets, mats, handicrafts, wall plates, screens and hats; and for domestic utensils
  • The culms are an important source of superior paper pulp

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1)  Among the following crops, which one is the most important anthropogenic source of both methane and nitrous oxide ?  (2022)

  1. Cotton
  2. Rice
  3. Sugarcane
  4. Wheat

Q.2) With reference to “Gucchi” sometimes mentioned in the news, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a fungus.
  2. It grows in some Himalayan Forest areas.
  3. It is commercially cultivated in the Himalayan foothills of north-eastern India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 2 and 3

Uda Devi

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – History and Art and Culture

Context: On November 16, events to commemorate the martyrdom of Uda Devi, a freedom fighter from the Pasi community, were held at various places in Uttar Pradesh, including Sikandar Bagh in Lucknow.

  • Uda Devi The Dalit Women Warrior from Lucknow Who Single-Handedly Killed Over 30 British Soldiers In 1857 Rebellion.

About Uda Devi:

Personal life:

  • Uda Devi was born in a small village in Awadh, Uttar Pradesh. Seeing the rising anger of the Indian people against the British administration, she reached out to Begum Hazrat Mahal to enlist for war.
  • In order to prepare for the battle that was headed their way, the Begum helped her form a women’s battalion under her command.
  • Uda Devi and her Dalit sisters were the warriors or Veeranginis (amazons/heroines) of the 1857 Indian Rebellion against the British East India Company.

Role in the Revolt of 1857:

  • In the centre of an intersection outside Sikandar Bagh in Lucknow, stands a statue of a patina-covered, sexually ambiguous figure carrying a rifle and walking forward with a determined glare.
  • The inscription on the base of the statue named the figure as Uda Devi Pasi, a heroine of the Mutiny of 1857.
  • In the fall of 1857, northern India was in a state of virtual anarchy. A general revolt against the growing hegemony of the British East India Company consumed the cities of Delhi, Jhansi and Kanpur.
  • During this ‘Second relief of Lucknow,’ Campbell’s 93rd Highland Regiment advanced along the Southern bank of the Gomti until they reached the Palace of Sikandarbag.
  • The British forces met desperate resistance from rebels who had fortified the position. In the battle that followed, over 2,000 rebels and many soldiers lost their lives in hand-to-hand combat.
  • After the British overran Sikandarbag, an officer noted that many of the British casualties had bullet wounds indicating a steep, downward trajectory. Suspecting that a sniper remained hidden in a nearby pipal tree, British officers fired at the tree and dislodged a rebel who fell to the ground with a thud, dead.
  • Further investigation revealed that the rebel was in fact, a non-dominant caste woman named Uda Devi Pasi, who had donned men’s clothing to participate in the uprising.

Contemporary Influence:

  • Today Uda Devi is an inspiration to women from non-dominant castes. Each year, on November 16, members of the Pasi caste gather at the sight of her final plunge and celebrate her as an anti-imperialist rebel who defied convention and struck a blow for the embryonic cause of Indian Independence.
  • For Pasis, traditionally a caste of pig-herders and toddy-tappers, Uda Devi Martyrdom Day is the day to revel in the bravery and martial spirit of their ancestors and to chant the rousing slogans, Uda Devi amar rahe! (Uda Devi is immortal!) and Uda Devi Zindabad! (Long live Uda Devi!).

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q.1) In the context of Indian history, the Rakhmabai case of 1884 revolved around

  1. Women’s right to gain education
  2. Age of consent
  3. Restitution of conjugal rights

Select the correct answer using the code given below :  (2020)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Global Anti-Terror Conference

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 (Security)

Context:  Recently during his address at third ‘No Money for Terror’ (NMFT) Ministerial Conference on Counter-Terrorism Financing, The Prime Minister of India has strongly asked for avoiding any ambiguity in dealing with terrorism and also warned against nations that use terrorism as a tool of foreign policy.

About No Money for Terror (NMFT) conference:

  • It is a collaborative initiative of the international community that was held for the first time in Paris in 2018.
  • Subsequently the 2nd edition of the conference was held in Melbourne in 2019.
  • It aims to progress the discussions on combating terrorist financing.
  • It also intends to include discussions on technical, legal, regulatory and cooperation aspects of all facets of terrorism financing. It focuses on-
    • Global trends in terrorism and terrorist financing.
    • Use of formal and informal channels of funds for terrorism.
    • Emerging technologies and terrorist financing.
    • Requisite international co-operation to address related challenges.
  • This international “No Money for Terror” conference along with special UNSC briefing (which will be held in December) is part of a series of measures that the Government appears to be making to keep up the momentum from the recently held Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) meet.

Agenda of the conference:

  • The conference agenda does not include country-specific discussions rather the participants will discuss issues ranging from sources of terror to the threat or its funding.
  • India is expected to draw global attention towards issues such as-
  • Lack of universal consensus on laws regarding cybercrimes.
  • Weak control of social media platforms and their misuse by terrorist and extremist groups.
  • Dark web and crypto-currency related issues.
  • Crowdfunding along with anonymous, decentralized and untraceable nature of terror financing.
  • It will also focus on effective multilateral and multi-stakeholder approaches in identification and mitigation of threats of emerging terror-financing mechanisms.
  • Deliberation on misuse of non-profit and non-government organizations as front structures for financing terror activities.

Channels and sources of funds to terrorists:

  • Direct smuggling of cash through international borders along with movement of goods through the trade system.
  • Use of hawala networks with the support of local criminals, fugitives etc. They also use charities and alternative remittance systems.
  • Formal Banking networks including SWIFT and other international channels.
  • Block chain or cryptocurrencies which transcend national boundaries and international currency systems.
  • Derive funding from a variety of criminal activities: ranging in scale and sophistication from low-level crime to organized fraud or narcotics smuggling or illegal activities in failed states and other safe havens.

Crowdfunding terror is a new age challenge:

  • The exponential growth and reach of social media platforms have posed a challenge to the governments and security forces across the globe.
  • These social media platforms are being used to raise financing, funding as crowdfunding platforms.
  • These new ways of crowdfunding that are developing are critical issues that warrant close global scrutiny.

Efforts to tackle terror financing:

At National level

  • The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA) to prevent money-laundering and to provide for confiscation of property in money-laundering and related matters including the terrorist activities.
  • The National Investigation Agency, a specialized agency to deal with terrorist offences was set up and has been functioning since January 2009.
  • The National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) has been constituted to create an appropriate database of security-related information.

At Global level:

  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) which is a global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog aims to prevent illegal activities and the harm they cause to society.
  • UNSCR resolution 1267 in 1999 and UNSCR resolution 1373 in 2001: They formed the bedrock of the financial sanctions regime for terrorist organizations.

Way Forward:

  • The adaptability and opportunism shown by terrorist organizations are highly sophisticated; only accurate and well linked financial intelligence can reveal the structure of terrorist groups and also the activities of individual terrorists.
  • There needs to be a global consensus on to curb terror financing and needs concerted efforts of all the International and national stakeholders.

In India’s hosting of the “No money for terror” conference there is an opportunity for the world leaders which should go a long way in focusing on the issue of state sponsored terror financing.

Additional Information:

About Crowdfunding:

  • Crowdfunding is a method of raising capital/resources through the collective effort of a large number of individual investors/contributors.
  • Crowdfunding taps into the collective efforts of a large pool of individuals, primarily online via social media and crowdfunding platforms and leverages their networks for greater reach and exposure.

Types of Crowdfunding:

  • Rewards-Based Crowdfunding: It involves individuals contributing to a business in exchange for a “reward,” typically a form of the product or service which the company/ organization offers.
  • Donation-Based Crowdfunding: a way to source money for a project by asking a large number of contributors to individually donate a small amount to it.
  • Equity-Based Crowdfunding: equity-based crowdfunding allows contributors to become part-owners of the company by trading capital for equity shares.

Source: The Hindu


Water Credit – Innovative way solution Climate Change

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 3 (Environment)

Context: During recently concluded COP 27 of UNFCCC which was held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, climate finance was a critical issue discussed comprehensively.

  • According to the World Bank, India bears losses worth $9.8 billion each year as a result of extreme events, with floods alone accounting for 50 per cent of the damages.
  • In 2020, floods led to damages equivalent to 0.15 percent of the country’s GDP in addition to thousands of lives being lost or impacted.

About Water Credit:

  • Water credits are one of the financing mechanisms to drive collective action toward common climate adaptation goals.
  • Water credits represent a fixed quantum of water that is conserved or generated and can be transacted between water deficit and water surplus entities within a sub-basin.
  • The concept of water credits is similar to carbon credits; however, unlike the atmosphere, the spatial limit for the transaction should remain within the same hydrological unit — that is, a river basin or watershed.
    • g., multiple industries can offset their impact by buying water credits from municipalities that are fund-crunched to finance large-scale floodwater harvesting or wastewater treatment projects that conserve freshwater resources at a city level and promote wastewater reuse.

Usage of Water Credit:

  • The UN GEMS/ Water Program uses a similar concept called the ‘Green Water Credits’. It is implementing this in countries like China, Kenya and Morocco.
  • This project incentivizes upstream farmers to undertake green water management practices to reduce runoffs, boost groundwater recharge and curb sedimentation in reservoirs.
  • Downstream, the public and private beneficiaries have created an investment fund to address the gap between the farmers’ initial investment and the realization of benefits by the end-users downstream.
  • The UN is expected to expand this model to other countries as well, with the aid of IFAD/ International Fund for Agricultural Development and other institutions.

Benefits of Water Credit:

  • The concept could help boost the ‘value’ of water in the public eyes. By attaching a monetary value to the resource, people could be encouraged to use it in a more economical manner.
  • It is considered as an effective way to discourage water pollution on one hand and encourage maximum sustainable utilization of water on the other hand.
  • Such a model could expand the existing recycling system. The discarded metals, plastics, phosphates and other materials would be diverted into recycling units instead of water bodies.

Challenges of Water Credit:

  • Commodification of water is a controversial issue. If water is turned into a tradable commodity, dilemma would arise about pricing in relation to quality.
  • Richer entities would simply buy the water credits and continue to pollute, while claiming to be environmentally responsible. This preference for the status quo to maintain productivity, rather than go for sustainability, is a phenomenon being seen in the carbon credit system too.
  • Any credit system faces the risk of oligopolye., the market falls under the control of a few institutions, leading to limited competition. If such a situation arises, the rich players could buy up the credits from the economically weaker entities and start to control the market.

About 27th Conference of Parties (COP27):

  • The 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference, also known as COP27, is the 27th United Nations Climate Change conference.
  • It is being held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt from November 6 to November 18, 2022.
  • COP27 will bring governments together to accelerate global efforts to confront the climate crisis.
  • It is an important meeting because the latest science shows that climate change is moving much faster than we are, pushing ecosystems and communities to their limits.
  • The Conference of Parties comes under the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention (UNFCCC) which was formed in 1994.
  • The UNFCCC was established to work towards the “stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.”

Issues of Finance for Climate Adaptation:

Lack of Support

  • International support for climate adaptation is skewed towards mitigation projects.
  • The modalities of financing mechanisms have seen a shift from grants to loans.

Local Nature of CSR Initiatives.

  • Often actions under CSR are directed by context-based targets that represent the most critical challenges of the environment where businesses are embedded.
  • Therefore, the nature of the initiatives mostly remains local.

Suggestive measures:

  • It is necessary to find alternative means of leveraging local financing opportunities to build resilience.
  • From the private sector, CSR allocations can be reimagined as adaptation finance.
    • Channelling CSR funds more effectively towards climate adaptation may provide a new source of climate finance.
    • CSR funds potentially represent the third largest pool of climate finance after government spending and multilateral financing.
  • There is a potential to address climate adaptation but it will require industries to pool finances. The industrial sector is the second highest user of freshwater in the country.
  • For developing countries to enhance their ambition, developed countries must provide enhanced support.
  • Need for nature-based solutions to link actions on mitigation and adaptation in terms of planning, financing, and implementation, which would provide co-benefits.
  • It is required urgent efforts to increase the financing and implementation of actions designed to adapt to the growing impacts of climate change,
  • There should be collective effort around making adaptation projects investible.

The world needs innovation in adaptation finance to realize a more sustainable future. Water credits may prove to be one among the many effective mechanisms to achieve water resilience. However, its adoption must be informed by thorough understanding of the ground conditions and international experience with the model.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Climate Group is an international non-profit organisation that drives climate action by building large networks and runs them.
  2. The International Energy Agency in partnership with the Climate Group launched a global initiative “EP100”.
  3. EP100 brings together leading companies committed to driving innovation in energy efficiency and increasing competitiveness while delivering on emission reduction goals.
  4. Some Indian companies are members of EP100.
  5. The International Energy Agency is the Secretariat to the “Under2 Coalition”.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1,2, 4 and 5
  2. 1,3 and 4 only
  3. 2,3 and 5 only
  4. 1,2, 3, 4 and 5

GREEN MARITIME SECTOR

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Syllabus

  • Mains – International Relations

Context: Recently, the 8th Norway-India Joint Working Group Maritime meeting was held in Mumbai.

About Indo-Norway joint effort for GREEN MARITIME Sector:

Background:

  • Maritime trade with Norway dates back to 1600.
  • Norway has the technical expertise in Maritime sector and India has huge potential for development of Maritime sector and large pool of trained seafarers, which make both countries natural complementary partners.
  • The 7th JWG on Maritime was held in Oslo in 2019 and issues regarding cooperation in Shipbuilding, enhancing skills of seafarers and environment friendly ships were discussed.

Recent Developments in green maritime sector:

  • During the 8th Meeting Discussion was held on use of alternative fuels like green ammonia and hydrogen for futuristic shipping.
  • Norway stated that it is committed to India for zero emission solutions.
  • The Indian side has requested Norway to extend Ship Board training and Ship Board training in the area of Polar Water Navigation.
  • The Norwegian delegation will take part in INMARCO, the Green Shipping Conclave, and the Maritime ShEO conference.
  • The Maritime ShEO conference is supported by Norway and focused on maritime diversity and sustainability, including gender equality in the maritime industry.
  • Green Voyage 2050 Project: India Norway is part of Green Voyage 2050 project, both parties agreed on willingness, devotion, partnership and capacity building for achieving common goals.
  • Hong Kong Convention: India is a signatory to Hong Kong Convention for Recycling of Ships.
    • In the 8th meeting, India requested that EU regulation should not hinder recycling to non-European countries which are compliant as per International Convention.

Maritime Industry in India:

  • India has 12 major and 200 non-major/intermediate ports (under state government administration).
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the largest major port in India, while Mudra is the largest private port.
  • India is one of the world’s top 5 ship recycling countries and holds 30% share in the global ship recycling market.
  • Approximately 95% of the country’s trade by volume and 68% by value is moved through Maritime Transport.
  • The overall installed capacity of the major ports in India has increased over 76% to reach 1,561 MTPA in Mar 2021, vis-a-vis 872 MTPA in March 2014.

Challenges of Maritime Industry:

  • Unsustainable extraction from marine resources, such as unsustainable fishing, exploited by illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing.
  • Physical alterations and destruction of marine and coastal habitats and landscapes due largely to coastal development, deforestation, and mining.
  • Unplanned and unregulated development in the narrow coastal interface and nearshore areas has led to the marginalization of poor communities, and loss or degradation of critical habitats.
  • Marine pollution, for example, in the form of excess nutrients from untreated sewage, agricultural runoff, and marine debris such as plastics.
  • Impacts of climate change, for example, in the form of both slow-onset events like sea-level rise and more intense and frequent weather events.
  • Ineffective governance institutions, inadequate economic incentives, technological advances, lack of or inadequate capacities, lack of full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other legal instruments, and insufficient application of management tools have often led to poorly regulated activities.

Government of India Initiatives:

  • MoPSW (Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways) is working diligently to develop the Maritime Sector as a goal of Maritime India Vision (MIV) 2030.
  • Sagarmala Project: Vision of the Sagarmala Programme is to reduce logistics cost for export-import and domestic trade with minimal infrastructure investment.
  • Coastal Economic Zones (CEZ):
    • The government identifies 14 CEZs in the National Perspective Plan for Sagarmala Programme.
    • CEZs aims to promote exports by providing infrastructure and facilities to entrepreneurs to set up businesses and industries near Ports.
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association: India has been taking active participation in the IORA for promotion of the blue economy in Indian Ocean littoral states.
  • Matsya Sampada Yojana:
    • It is a flagship scheme for focused and sustainable development of the fisheries sector in the country.
    • It will bring about the Blue Revolution by harnessing fisheries potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner.
  • Polymetallic Nodules (PMN): India has received the sanction from International Seabed Authority for deep-sea mining in the Central Indian Ocean.

Way Ahead:

India needs to develop maritime trade among BIMSTEC nations and tie-ups / MoUs with other maritime countries.  There is clear potential to further improve the Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) in the shipping ecosystem by a more comprehensive integration of technology. Modernizing Major Ports infrastructure through PPP model.

Source: PIB


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements and identify the freedom fighter:

  1. She was one among the warriors or Veeranginis (amazons/heroines) of the 1857 Indian Rebellion against the British East India Company.
  2. She was a freedom fighter from the Pasi community, hailed from Uttar Pradesh.
  3. In order to prepare for the battle that was headed their way, the Begum Hazrat Mahal helped her form a women’s battalion under her command.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. Durga Bhabhi
  2. Uda Devi
  3. Velu Nachiyar
  4. Rani Lakshmibai

Q.2) The species called “Melocanna Baccifera” often mentioned in news is related to

  1. Sugarcane
  2. Banana
  3. Bamboo
  4. Coconut

Q.3) With reference to ancient India, the terms “Manikpatna, Chelitalo, Palur and Pithunda” are related to

  1. Major tourist centres
  2. Temple towns
  3. Water reservoirs
  4. Port cities

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’19th November 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st


ANSWERS FOR 18th November – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – b

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