DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th April 2023

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  • April 11, 2023
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Earth4All Initiative


  • Prelims – Geography

Context: Recently published Earth4All Initiative predicted the world’s human population.

About Earth4All Initiative:-

  • Earth4All is a collective initiative of leading economic thinkers, scientists, and advocates.
  • It is convened by The Club of Rome, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, the Stockholm Resilience Centre and the Norwegian Business School.
  • It is guided by a Transformational Economics Commission, made up of economic thinkers from across the globe to explore new economic thinking and test the model outcomes.
  • Its global campaign aims to make the Earth4All vision a reality, advocating for governments to adopt policies that will enable resilient and healthy societies.

Findings of the Report:-

  • The researchers advance two scenarios:
    • Too Little, Too Late: predicts that if economic development continues as it has in the last five decades, the world’s population would peak at 8.6 billion in 2050, and decline to 7 billion by 2100.
    • The Giant Leap: the researchers conclude that the population will peak at 8.5 billion by 2040 but then rapidly decline to around 6 billion by 2100.
  • This will be due to our investments in poverty alleviation, gender equity, education and health, ameliorating inequality, and food and energy security.
  • The Earth4All report contradicted the U.N. ‘World Populations Prospects 2022’ report, which predicted that the global population would steadily rise to 10.4 billion in 2080 and then stabilise around that number in 2100.

Indian Scenario:-

  • As of 2022, more than half the world’s population lives in Asia.
    • China and India are the two most populous countries.
  • According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), while India’s population growth is stabilising, it is still growing at 0.7% Steps taken by India for Stabilising Population
  • Mission Parivar Vikas Compensation scheme for sterilization acceptors: Under the scheme, MoHFW provides compensation for loss of wages to the beneficiary.
  • Clinical Outreach Teams (COT) Scheme: for providing Family planning services through mobile teams
  • Scheme for Home delivery of contraceptives by ASHAs at t   doorstep of beneficiaries.
  • Family Planning Logistic Management and Information System (FP-LMIS): A dedicated software to ensure smooth forecasting, procurement and distribution of family planning National Family Planning Indemnity Scheme (NFPIS) under which clients are insured in the eventualities of death, complication and failure following sterilization.
  • Ensuring quality of care in Family Planning services by establishing Quality Assurance Committees in all states and districts.

MUST READ: World Population Prospects



Q.1) “Rule of Law Index” is released by which of the following? (2018)

  1. Amnesty International
  2. International Court of Justice
  3. The Office of UN Commissioner for Human Rights
  4. World Justice Project

Q.2) Consider the following pairs:

Community sometimes in the affairs mentioned in the news (2016)

  1. Kurd: Bangladesh
  2. Madhesi: Nepal
  3. Rohingya : Myanmar

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 3 only

Bharat Gaurav scheme


  • Prelims –Governance

Context: The Indian Railways announced recently, that it will operate a tourist train to Kashmir Valley under the Bharat Gaurav scheme.

About the Bharat Gaurav scheme:-

IMAGE SOURCE: India’s First Private Train Under Bharat Gaurav Scheme Heads To Shirdi From Coimbatore – DriveSparkGroup 3Group 3Group 3Group 3

  • Indian Railways(Ministry of Railways) launched the operation of the theme-based Bharat Gaurav train in 2021.
  • It was announced under the theme-based tourist circuit trains.
  • These trains will be run, by both private players and IRCTC.
  • Under the scheme, now trains have a third segment for tourism.
    • Till now, the Railways had passenger segments and goods segments.
  • These trains are not regular trains that will run as per a timetable.
  •  It will be more on the lines of the Ramayana Express being run by the IRCTC.
  • The train originates from Coimbatore.
  • Tourists can board it at Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Hosur, Yelahanka, Perambur, Vijayawada and Warangal.
  • Objective: to showcase India’s rich cultural heritage and magnificent historical places to the people of India and the world, through Bharat Gaurav Trains.
  • According to the Bharat Gaurav policy, any operator or service provider, or virtually anyone, can lease trains from Indian Railways to run on a theme-based circuit as a special tourism package.
  • The tenure: a minimum of two years and a maximum of the codal life of the coach.

MUST READ: Bharat Gaurav express trains and PRASAD Project



Q.1) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit Amendment Act, 2017? (2019)

  1. Pregnant women are entitled to three months of pre-delivery and three months of post-delivery paid leave.
  2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother a minimum of six creche visits daily.
  3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) What is the aim of the programme ‘Unnat Bharat Abhiyan’?(2017)

  1. Achieving 100% literacy by promoting collaboration between voluntary organizations and the government’s education system and local communities.
  2. Connecting institutions of higher education with local communities to address development challenges through appropriate technologies.
  3. Strengthening India’s scientific research institutions in order to make India a scientific and technological power.
  4. Developing human capital by allocating special funds for health care and education of rural and urban poor, and organizing skill development programmes and vocational training for them.

Taiwan strait


  • Prelims –Geography and International Relations

Context: Recently, China conducted a military drill in the Taiwan Strait.

About Taiwan Strait:-

IMAGE SOURCE: cover-taiwan (cover man. be)

  • The Taiwan Strait is a 180 km wide strait separating Taiwan and mainland China.
  • It is also known as the Formosa Strait.
    • Strait: a narrow piece of the sea that joins two larger seas
  • The strait is currently part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north.
  • The entire strait is on Asia’s continental shelf.
  • Historically both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan espoused a One-China Policy.
    • One-China Policy: that considered the strait part of the exclusive economic zone of a single “China”.

MUST READ: China- Taiwan Tussle



Q.1) Consider the following statements (2019)

  1. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) has a ‘Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air’.
  2. The UNCAC is the ever-first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument.
  3. A highlight of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is the inclusion of a specific chapter aimed at returning assets to their rightful owners from whom they had been taken illicitly.
  4. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is mandated by its members States to assist in the implementation of both UNCAC and UNTOC.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2) Consider the following in respect of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS): (2017)

  1. Inaugural IONS was held in India in 2015 under the chairmanship of the Indian Navy.
  2. IONS is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime cooperation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Short-beaked echidnas


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recent studies show how short-beaked echidnas beat the heat in the summer.

About Short-beaked Echidnas:-

  • It is one of four living species of echidna.
  • It is covered in fur and spines and has a distinctive snout and a specialized tongue.
  • Distribution: They are found in Australia and New Guinea.
  • They are one of two extant monotremes (the other being the platypus).
    • Monotremes: mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.
  • Echidnas are covered in spines, which protect them from predators.
  • Female echidnas lay a single leathery egg, which hatches after about 10 days.
  • Echidnas are important to the ecosystem because they help to control insect populations.
  • Heat coping mechanism:-
    • They beat the heat by blowing mucus bubbles.
  • Conservation Status:-
    • IUCN: Least Concern

MUST READ: Asiatic Black Bear



Q.1) Certain species of which one of the following organisms are well known as cultivators of fungi? (2022)

  1. Ant
  2. Cockroach
  3. Crab
  4. Spider

Q.2) Consider the following animals (2021)

  1. Hedgehog
  2. Marmot
  3. Pangolin

To reduce the chance of being captured by predators, which of the above organisms rolls up/roll up and protects/protects its/their vulnerable parts?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

Major trade unions in India


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, the Central trade unions announced the plan to continue their boycott of the Labour 20 (L20) meetings taking place as part of India’s G20 presidency.

About Major trade unions in India:-

  • Trade union is an association of either employees or employers or of independent workers.
    •  It is formed to secure certain economic, and social benefits for the workers.
  • Trade Unions in India are registered and file annual returns under the Trade Union Act (1926).
  •  The statistics on Trade Unions are collected annually by the Labour Bureau of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India.
  • Congress associated, the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) is assumed as the biggest of the seven central trade unions, with a membership of 33.3 million.

Top Nine Trade Unions of India:-

  • All India Trade Union  Congress (AITUC)
    • Year of establishment: 1920
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • It was founded in 1920 with Lala Lajpat Rai as its first president.
    • Key personalities: Motilal Nehru, M.A. Jinnah, Annie Besant, V.J. Patel, B.P. Wadia, Joseph Baptista, Lalubhai Samaldas, Jamnadas, Dwarka Das, B W Wadia, R R Karandikar, Col. J.C. Wedgwood, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, V. V. Giri, Sarojini Naidu, C.R. Das, S.A. Dange, R.A. Khedgikar and Sudhindra Pramanik.
  • Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)
    • Year of establishment: 1947
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • Acharya JB Kripalani, who was then President of the Indian National Congress inaugurated the Founding conference of INTUC
    • Key personalities: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Shankarrao Deo, Jagjivan Ram, B. G. Kher, OP Mehtab, Aruna Asaf Ali, Ram Manohar Lohia, Ashoka Mehta, Ramchandra Sakharam Ruikar, Maniben Patel, Gulzarilal Nanda, G. Sanjeeva Reddy Dr. Suresh Chandra Banerjee
  • Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)
    • Year of establishment: 1955
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • It was founded by Dattopant Thengadi
    • Key personalities: C. K. Sajinarayan,Virjesh Upadhyay Malla Jagadish Rao, Surendran, Durairaj, Hari Prasad
  • Centre for Indian Trade Unions (CITU)
    • Year of establishment: 1970
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • Key personalities: K. Hemalata & Tapan Sen (President & General Secretary, CITU), Ashok Dhawale & Vijoo Krishnan (President & General Secretary, AIKS), A. Vijayaraghavan & B. Venkat, Prabhat Patnaik. A.R. Sindhu.
  • Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS)
    • Year of establishment 1948
    • Headquarters: New Delhi
    • It was founded by Basawon Singh, Ashok Mehta, R.S. Ruikar, Maniben Kara, Shibnath Banerjee, R.A. Khedgikar, T.S. Ramanujam, V.S. Mathur, G.G. Mehta.
  • All India Trade Union Centre (AIUTUC)
    • Year of establishment: 1958
    • Headquarters: Kolkata
    • It was founded at a conference held in Kolkata 26–27 April 1958, following a split in the United Trade Union Congress.
  • Self-employed Women’s Association of India (SEWA)
    • Year of establishment: 1972
    • Headquarters: Ahmedabad
    • It was founded in 1972 by Indian lawyer and social activist Ela Bhatt and a small group of other women whose unique needs as indigent female informal textile workers were not being met by conventional labour unions.
  • Trade Union Coordination Centre
    • Year of establishment: 1970
    • Headquarters: West Bengal
    • Prasanta Das Gupta was the founding general secretary
  • All India Central Council of Trade Union
    • Year of establishment: 1989

About Labour20 (L20):-

IMAGE SOURCE: G-20 Revolt? France Gets “Positive Reception” To Challenge US Bank Fines – The Millennium Report

  • The first formal Labour20 (L20) Summit took place in 2011 during the French Presidency.
  • Objective: L20 brings together G20 trade union leaders to provide analysis and policy recommendations on labour-related issues.

MUST READ: G20 Presidency



Q.1) In which one of the following groups are all four countries members of G20? (2020)

  1. Argentina Mexico, South Africa and Turkey
  2. Australia Canada, Malaysia and New Zealand
  3. Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam
  4. Indonesia Japan Singapore and South Korea

Q.2) International Labour Organization’s Conventions 138 and 182 are related to (2018)

  1. Child labour
  2. Adaptation of agriculture practices to global climate change
  3. Regulation of food prices and food security
  4. Gender Parity at the Workplace

Ramakrishna Mission


  • Prelims –Modern Indian History

Context: Recently, the Prime Minister praised the Ramakrishna Mission for its philanthropic activities.

About Ramakrishna Mission:-

Swami Vivekananda:-

  • He was the chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
    • Ramakrishna Paramahamsa is regarded as one of the greatest spiritual leaders of India.
      • He was the devotee of Goddess Kali and lived and worshipped at the Dakshineswar temple.
  • His message of spiritualism contributed remarkably towards strengthening not only Hindu religion and society but also Indian nationalism.
  • He believed in the fundamental unity of all religions.
  • The first Math was established at Baranagar.
  • In 1899, another ‘math’ was started at Belur, which became the central ‘math’.
    • It looks after the organization and working of all ‘maths’ spread all over India and even outside it. It is also the educational centre of the saints of the Ramakrishna Mission.

Contributions of Ramakrishna Mission:-

  • The mission worked to help the poor, improve the conditions of women, fight against untouchability and superstition and overhaul the education system.
  • It stressed the supremacy of the Hindu religion and culture.
  • It believed in the unity and equality of all religions.
  • Economically, he was in favour of agro-based small-scale industries.
  • It contributed to Indian Nationalism and the awakening of the countrymen.
  •  It led to the development of moral and physical strength and Unity based on common spiritual ideas.
  • It awakened Indian youth to rise and work to eradicate hunger and ignorance among the masses.

MUST READ: Dayanand Saraswati



Q.1) Consider the following freedom fighters: (2022)

  1. Barindra Kumar Ghosh
  2. Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee
  3. Rash Behari Bose

Who of the above was/were actively associated with the Ghadar Party?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Q.2) In the context of Colonial India, Shah Nawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sehgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon are remembered (2021)

  1. leaders of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement
  2. members of the Interim Government in 1946
  3. members of the Drafting Committee in the Constituent Assembly
  4. officers of the Indian National Army

Tiger Census 2022


  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: The tiger population in India grew by 200 from 2018 to 2022, according to the fifth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation (2022) released recently.

About Tiger Census 2022:-

  • The national tiger census is conducted once every four years.
  • The Nationwide tiger census was earlier held in 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA) conducts tiger censuses in partnership with state forest departments, conservation NGOs, and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII).
  • India hosts some 75% of the global tiger population living in forests.

Key findings of All India Tiger Estimation (2022):-

  • The tiger population in India grew by 200 from 2018 to 2022.
  • The tiger population has grown the most in the Shivalik hills and Gangetic flood plains, followed by central India, the northeastern hills, the Brahmaputra flood plains, and the Sundarbans.
  • Distribution of the tiger population
  • Shivalik: the number of tigers has increased to 804 from 646 in 2018.
  • Central Indian landscape: increased to 1,161 from 1,033 in 2018.
  • However, the local tiger population has become extinct in several areas including Sri Venkateswara National Park, Tiger Reserves like Kawal, Satkosia, and Sahyadri.
  • Northeastern landscape: increased to 219 from 194 in 2018.
  • Sunderbans: increased to 100 from 88 in 2018.
  • Western Ghat: it showed a significant decline in numbers, from 981 in 2018 to 824 in 2022.
  • Decline in tiger occupancy was also observed outside the protected areas of the Anamalai-Parambikulam complex.
  •  Although the tiger populations in the Periyar landscape remained stable, the tiger occupancy has declined outside Periyar.
  • Tiger occupancy in Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Telangana showed a decline.
  • Number of tigers in India: increased to 3,167, a rise of 6.74% from 2,967 in 2018.
  • However, most tiger reserves in India are like “tiny islands of conservation” and unsustainable land use outside the protected zones could lead to localised extinctions in some parts of central India.
  • 3,080 tigers were photographed in 2022, compared with 2,461 captured on camera in 2018.

MUST READ: Tiger Estimation



Q.1) Which one of the following protected areas is well-known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasingha) that thrives well on hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous? (2020)

  1. Kanha National Park
  2. Manas National Park
  3. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary

Q.2) Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat”?(2020)

  1. Corbett
  2. Ranthambore
  3. Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam
  4. Sunderbans

Emission of light and very low-frequency perturbations due to electromagnetic pulse sources( ELVE)


  • Prelims –Geography

Context: Recently, a shot of the luminous halo called emission of light and very low-frequency perturbations due to electromagnetic pulse sources, or ELVE was reported in Italy.

About the Emission of light and very low-frequency perturbations due to electromagnetic pulse sources( ELVE):-


  • ELVES (Emission of Light and Very Low-Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources) are indistinct types of TLE, producing large diffuse and expanding ring-shaped glows, up to 400 km in diameter.
  • They occur in the ionosphere 100 km above the ground over thunderstorms.
  •  Generation: The light is generated by the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from an underlying thunderstorm).
  • They are so quick (0.001 seconds), that it is impossible to see them with the naked eye.
  • Safety concerns:-
    • It is possible that sprites and jets could cause electromagnetic pulses in the flight electronics of aircraft flying directly overhead a storm but the evidence is limited

MUST READ: The Lightning ‘disaster



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. High clouds primarily reflect solar radiation and cool the surface of the Earth.
  2. Low clouds have a high absorption of infrared radiation emanating from the Earth’s surface and thus cause a warming effect.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2020)

  1. Jet streams occur in the Northern Hemisphere only.
  2. Only some cyclones develop an eye.
  3. The temperature inside the eye of a cyclone is nearly 10°C lesser than that of the surroundings.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

The obstacles against humane policing


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: Recently, concern was expressed about the degree of human rights violations in police stations in the country.

Issue of inhumane policing:

Global Issue:

  • Against the known instances of police brutality across the globe, we can safely assume that a large number of cases of torture have also gone unreported.
    • This largely constitutes assaults on women.
    • Only about 10% of complaints are believed to have been registered.
  • Also, only a small percentage of the offenders have been convicted.
  • The S. is one country which has had far too many instances of police torture.
  • In contrast, police handling of the public is more civilised in most of Europe, including the U.K.

India’s case:

  • National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data reveal that though the number of custodial deaths varies year to year, on average of about 100 custodial deaths have taken place every year between 2010 and 2019. Of them,
    • About 3.5 persons allegedly died due to injuries caused by policemen,
    • 6 while escaping from custody,
    • 1 due to suicide, and
  • The rest is due to various reasons like illness and injuries caused in road accidents.
  • A judicial inquiry, which is mandatory for every suspicious custodial death, was conducted in 26.4 cases.

Issues with the Police Forces:

Lack of Reporting:

  • Against the known instances of police brutality across the globe, we can safely assume that a large number of cases of torture have also gone unreported.
  • This largely constitutes assaults on women.
  • Only about 10% of complaints are believed to have been registered and only a small percentage of the offenders have been convicted.


  • Due to corruption among public servants which has burgeoned in recent times, such incidents of police brutality are increasing day by day.

Increased Stress level:

  • The pressure to produce results has been on the rise and at the same time, stress that an average policeman is subjected to from his higher-ups has not abated.
  • Additionally, our country has large police forces.
  • Therefore, disseminating the message of ethics to the bottom of such large outfits is a gargantuan task.

Tussle Between Centre and state:

The exchange of barbs by the two sides has been an unfortunate and avoidable development.

Permission to CBI:

  • There are frequent spats between States and the Centre over the use or alleged misuse of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • Insensitive action by a few States to withdraw consent to the CBI to function in a State smacks of politics and vindictiveness, which diminishes the fight against public servant graft.

Lack of Infrastructure:

  • According to the CAG report, state police departments’ weaponry is archaic, and the purchase process for firearms is lengthy, resulting in a scarcity of arms and ammunition.

Colonial Legacy:

  • The Police Act of 1861 was legislated by the British right after the revolt of 1857 to bring in efficient administration of police in the country and to prevent any future revolts.
  • Now the situations have changed so there is a need for the act as per current demands.

Role of Technology and Ethics in Policing

  • Both technology and ethics are necessary for effective policing: While technology can help solve crimes and improve policing efficiency, ethics and a commitment to human rights are necessary to ensure that police officers act within the law and respect the rights of all citizens.
  • Technology alone is not enough: The technology has played a significant role in improving policing in India, with many officers now trained in the use of modern tools and techniques to solve crimes.
    • However, technology alone is not enough, and that ethics must also be prioritized in policing.
  • Training in ethics must be prioritized at all levels of the police force: Many police officers in India lack sufficient training in ethics and human rights, which makes it easier for them to resort to violence and abuse of power.
    • Training in ethics must be prioritized at all levels of the police force, from the highest-ranking officers to those on the front lines.
  • Police leaders are crucial players: The police leaders, such as DGPs and IGPs, have a crucial role to play in indoctrinating young recruits on the value of sticking to the law and civilised behaviour.

Significance of Human Policing:

  • Humane policing refers to a style of law enforcement that places a greater emphasis on preserving the human rights and dignity of individuals.
  • Humane policing recognizes that police officers are entrusted with great power and authority and that they have a duty to exercise this power with respect, compassion, and professionalism.
  • It prioritizes building trust and positive relationships between law enforcement agencies and the communities they serve.
  • It seeks to avoid the use of excessive force, unnecessary aggression, or intimidation in policing activities.
  • It recognizes the importance of accountability and transparency in law enforcement.
  • It also recognizes the importance of training and education for police officers in areas such as cultural competence, mental health awareness, and conflict resolution.

Various recommendations:

Separating investigations from law and order:

  • The National Police Commission (1977-81), the Law Commission in its 154th report (1996) and the Malimath Committee Report (2003), among others, and the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh v. Union of India (2006), have recommended that the investigating police should be separated from the law-and-order police to ensure better expertise in the investigation.
  • It is believed that a separate wing will do a more professional investigation and will not use unwarranted methods to extract a confession from the accused.
  • Though efforts have been made by some states in this direction, more resources are required in policing to implement the Court’s directions.

Guidelines by the apex court:

  • In the judgment in K. Basu v. State of West Bengal (1996), the Supreme Court laid down guidelines to check custodial torture and increase the transparency and responsibility of the police officer effecting arrest.
  • Most of these guidelines such as providing information to a friend or relative about the arrest, medical examination, and permission to meet a lawyer have now been incorporated in the CrPC.
  • Investigating officers mostly comply with them.

Way Forward:

Solid training in ethics at the time of induction is not enough. The pressures in the field are so enormous that the impact of ethical education will evaporate quickly. DGPs and IGPs have a crucial role in indoctrinating young recruits on the value of sticking to the law and civilised behaviour.

Strengthened Criminal Justice System and our grassroots level policing institutions with humane and civilized conduct, are necessary to prepare our police to deal with the present and emerging challenges.

Source:  The Hindu

Building a Blue Economy: India’s prospects and challenges


  • Mains – GS 3 (Economy)

Context: China owns the world’s largest deep-water fishing fleet, which also serves as a maritime militia assisting the Chinese navy and coast guard. India too must raise its own fleet and build modern harbours to further its economic and security goals.

About Blue Economy:

  • According to the World Bank, the blue economy is the “Sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem.”

Significance of India’s Blue Economy

  • India’s blue economy:
    • It is a subset of the national economy comprising the entire ocean resources system and human-made economic infrastructure in marine, maritime, and onshore coastal zones within the country’s legal jurisdiction.
  • Coastal states and islands:
    • With some 7,500 kilometres, India has a unique maritime position. Nine of its 29 states are coastal, and it’s geography includes 1,382 islands.
  • Ports and Exclusive Economic Zone:
    • There are nearly 199 ports, including 12 major ports that handle approximately 1,400 million tons of cargo each year.
    • Besides, India’s Exclusive Economic Zone of over 2 million square kilometres has a bounty of living and non-living resources with significant recoverable resources such as crude oil and natural gas.
  • Coastal settlements:
    • The coastal economy sustains over 4 million fisherfolk and coastal communities.

Concerns regarding the blue economy:

  • Human-induced Oceanic pollution: Marine activities have brought in pollution, ocean warming, eutrophication, acidification and fishery collapse as consequences on the marine ecosystems.
  • Oceans are rarely financial institutions: The ocean is uncharted territory, and rarely understood by financial institutions.
    • Hence preparedness of these institutions in making available affordable long-term financing at scale is nearly zero.
  • Developing nations pay a heavy price: In this journey of achieving blue economy goals, it is developing nations that pay a heavy economic price.
  • Lack of capacity is a critical hindrance: Many developing nations have high levels of external debt.
    • Lack of capacity and technology for transition between the Agri economy and marine economy is also a critical hindrance.
  • Not having an elaborative guiding principle is a major concern: There is concern that without the elaboration of specific principles or guidance, national blue economies, or sustainable ocean economies, economic growth will be pursued with little attention paid to environmental sustainability and social equity.

Government of India Initiatives

Matsya Sampada Yojana:

  • It is a flagship scheme for focused and sustainable development of the fisheries sector in the country.
  • It will bring about the Blue Revolution by harnessing fisheries’ potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner.

Sagarmala Project:

  • Vision of the Sagarmala Programme is to reduce logistics cost for export-import and domestic trade with minimal infrastructure investment.

Coastal Economic Zones:

  • The government identifies CEZs in the National Perspective Plan for Sagarmala Programme.
  • CEZs aims to promote exports by providing infrastructure and facilities to entrepreneurs to set up businesses and industries near Ports.

Way Forward:

The blue economy occupies a vital potential position in India’s economic growth. Countries like Australia, Brazil, the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia, and Norway have developed dedicated national ocean policies with measurable outcomes and budgetary provisions.

Source:  Indian Express

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding Ramakrishna Mission:

  1. The Ramakrishna Mission was established in 1897 by Swami Vivekananda.
  2. The mission worked to help the poor, improve the conditions of women, fight against untouchability and superstition and overhaul the education system.
  3. It believed in the unity and equality of all religions.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following pairs:

Trade unions and associated persons

  1. All India Trade Union Congress  – Acharya JB Kripalani
  2. Indian National Trade Union Congress – Lala Lajpat Rai
  3. Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh – Dattopant Thengadi

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. None
  2. One pair only
  3. Two pairs only
  4. All three pairs

Q.3) Taiwan strait connects which of the following water bodies?

  1. South China Sea and North China Sea
  2. South China Sea and Philippines Sea
  3. Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea
  4. South China Sea and East China Sea

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 11th April 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 10th April – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – b

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – a

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