DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 20th July 2023

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  • July 20, 2023
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National Co-Operative Consumers Federation of India Limited (NCCF)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recently, the Department of Consumer Affairs directed the National CO-Operative Consumers Federation of India Limited (NCCF) and National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED) to sell tomatoes at a retail price of 70 rupees per kg.


  • The tomatoes procured by NCCF and NAFED had been retailed at 90 rupees per kg initially and then reduced to 80 rupees per kg from 16th July.
  • The reduction to 70 rupees per kg will further benefit the consumers.

About National Co-Operative Consumers Federation of India Limited (NCCF)

  • Establishment: 1965.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution.
  • HQ: New Delhi.
  • NCCF is the apex body of consumer cooperatives in the country. (UPSC CSE: India’s Cooperative Sector)
  • It is registered under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002.
  • Shareholding: Government of India owns 42%.

Objectives of NCCF:-

  • Render technical guidance and assistance to improve and increase their operation and management efficiency.
  • Create and promote the formation of cadres of employees.
  • Hold seminars, conferences, and meetings and undertake publicity, propaganda and similar other activities.
  • Establish trade connections with manufacturers, their authorized distributors and suppliers/dealers including Government agencies and cooperative organizations.
  • Import and export of agricultural commodities.
  • Collect and disseminate necessary marketing intelligence for the benefit of its member institutions.
  • Establish testing laboratories for testing consumer goods.
  • To act as agents of Central/State Government or undertaking/corporation or cooperative institutions or any business enterprises for the purpose of sale, storage and distribution of consumer goods approved by the Board of Directors from time to time entrusted by Central/State Governments.

National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED)

  • Establishment: 1958. (UPSC CSE: NAFED)
  • Ministry: Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
  • HQ: New Delhi.
  • It is an apex organization of marketing cooperatives for agricultural produce in India.
  • It is registered under the Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act, 2002.
  • Objectives: to promote Cooperative marketing of agricultural produce to benefit the farmers.
  • Agricultural farmers are the main members of NAFED.
    • They have the authority to say in the form of members of the General Body in the working of NAFED.

MUST READ: Primary agricultural credit societies (PACS)



Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. India has more arable area than China.
  2. The proportion of irrigated area is more in India as compared to China.
  3. The average productivity per hectare in Indian agriculture is higher than that in China:

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture? (2020)

  1. Fixing Minimum Support Price for agricultural produce of all crops
  2. Computerization of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
  3. Social Capital Development
  4. Free electricity supply to farmers
  5. Waiver of agricultural loans by the banking system
  6. Setting up cold storage facilities by the governments.

In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture?

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, 4, and 5 only
  3. 2, 3, and 6 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Black Sea Grain initiative


  • Prelims –International Relations

Context: Recently, India has voiced support for the UN’s efforts in continuing the Black Sea Grain initiative.


  • India’s reaction came after Russia announced it was terminating the implementation of the UN-brokered deal that allowed the export of grain and related foodstuffs and fertilizers from Ukrainian ports.

About the Black Sea Grain initiative:-


  • Signed in 2022. (UPSC CSE: Black Sea Grain Initiative)
  • Signed at Istanbul.
  • The deal, brokered by the United Nations (UN) and Turkey.
  • Objective: to limit food price inflation emanating from supply chain disruptions because of Russian actions in the world’s ‘breadbasket’ by ensuring an adequate supply of grains.
  • Time Period: Initially it was stipulated for a period of 120 days.
  • It was to provide a safe maritime humanitarian corridor for the Ukrainian export of food grains.

Need for the deal:-

  • Ukraine is one of the world’s largest grain exporters.
  • However, since Russia invaded Ukraine, exports of grain, food and fertilizers from both countries have been significantly hit. (UPSC CSE: Russia-Ukraine War.)
  • The disruption in supplies resulted in rising prices.
  • This added to the burden of an already existing food crisis in some countries.
  • In a bid to address this crisis and ensure the smooth movement of supplies amidst the ongoing war, the United Nations and Turkey brokered the Black Sea Grain Initiative on 22 July 2022.
  • The central idea was to calm markets by ensuring an adequate supply of grains, thereby limiting food price inflation.

About the Black Sea:-

IMAGE SOURCE: Britannica

  • Location: between Eastern Europe and Western Asia in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Major rivers: Danube, Dnieper, and Don.
  • Bordering countries: Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine.

Important water bodies around the Black Sea:-

  • The Black Sea ultimately drains into the Mediterranean Sea via the Turkish Straits and the Aegean Sea.
  • Bosporus Strait: connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.
  • Strait of the Dardanelles: connects the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean Sea.
  • Kerch Strait: connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov.

MUST READ: Loss of the ‘Moskva’ & Black Sea



Q.1) Consider the following countries: (2023)

  1. Bulgaria
  2. Czech Republic
  3. Hungary
  4. Latvia
  5. Lithuania
  6. Romania

How many of the above-mentioned countries share a land border with Ukraine?

  1. Only two
  2. Only three
  3. Only four
  4. Only five

Q.2) The term “Levant” often heard in the news roughly corresponds to which of the following regions? (2022)

  1. Region along the eastern Mediterranean shores
  2. The region along North African shores stretches from Egypt to Morocco
  3. The region along the Persian Gulf and Horn of Africa
  4. The entire coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea

Index of Industrial Production (IIP)


  • Prelims –Economy

Context: Recent reports show that the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) grew by 5.2 per cent in May 2023 from 4.2 per cent in April this year.


  • As per the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation data, the manufacturing sector’s output grew 5 per cent and Mining output rose by 5.8 per cent for the reported period.
  • The index of manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemicals, and botanical products gained the most as it climbed 22.6 per cent.
  • In May 2022, IIP was at all time high-growth of 6 per cent.

About the Index of Industrial Production (IIP):-


  • Publication time: monthly. (UPSC CSE: IIP)
  • Published by: National Statistical Office (NSO).
  • Ministry: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
  • Base Year: 2011-2012.
  • IIP is an indicator that measures the changes in the volume of production of industrial products during a given period.
  • It is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under:
    • Broad sectors: Mining, Manufacturing, and Electricity.
    • The relative weights of these three sectors are 6% (manufacturing), 14.4% (mining) and 8% (electricity).
    • Eight core industries: Electricity, crude oil, coal, cement, steel, refinery products, natural gas, and fertilizers.
    • They comprise about 40 per cent of the weight of items included in the IIP.
    • The eight core sector industries in decreasing order of their weightage: Refinery Products> Electricity> Steel> Coal> Crude Oil> Natural Gas> Cement> Fertilizers.
    • Use-based sectors: Basic Goods, Capital Goods, and Intermediate Goods.

Significance of IIP:-

  • The index indicates the relative change over time in the volume of production in the industrial sector.
  • It is an effective tool to measure the trend of current industrial production.
  • It is used by government agencies including the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India, etc., for policy-making purposes. (UPSC CSE: Draft New Industrial Policy)

MUST READ: Industrial Revolution 4.0



Q.1) Consider the following statements with reference to India: (2023)

  1. According to the ‘Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006’, the ‘medium

enterprises are those with investments in plant and machinery between (15 crore and 25 crore).

  1. All bank loans to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises qualify under the priority sector.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) In the ‘Index of Eight Core Industries’, which one of the following is given the highest weight? (2015)

  1. Coal production
  2. Electricity generation
  3. Fertilizer production
  4. Steel production



  • Prelims –Environment and Ecology

Context: Recently, America’s largest reptile sanctuary wants to import gharials from India.


  • The Phoenix Herpetological Society has requested a permit to import gharials and crocodiles from Madras Crocodile Bank Trust.

About Gharials:-

  • Gharials are a type of Asian crocodilian distinguished by their long, thin snouts. (UPSC CSE: Gharials)
  • They are fish-eating crocodiles.
  • Habitat: Gharials reside exclusively in river habitats with deep, clear, fast-flowing waters and steep, sandy banks.
  • They are sweet water crocodiles.
  • Indicator Species: They are also a crucial indicator of clean river water.
    • Indicator species: living organisms that tell us that something has changed or is going to change in their environment.

Distribution of Gharials:-

  • Historical distribution: Gharials were once widely distributed in the large rivers that flow in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Current distribution: Today, their major population occur in three tributaries of the Ganga River: the Chambal and the Girwa Rivers in India and the Rapti-Naryani River in Nepal. (UPSC CSE: National Chambal Sanctuary)
  • The Gharial reserves of India are located in three States – Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Major Threats:

  • Alteration of habitat – Throughout the present range of the Gharial, the rivers have been dammed, and diverted for irrigation and other purposes leading to seasonal drying of once perennial rivers.
  • Depletion of prey base: increased use of gill nets is rapidly killing many adults as well as subadults.
  • Harvesting of eggs and poaching: the use of its body parts as medicines has been traditional and is reported from Nepal and, occasionally, in India.

Conservation status of Gharials:-

  • IUCN: Critically Endangered
  • IWPA: Schedule I
  • CITES: Appendix I

Crocodiles in India:-

 India has three species of Crocodiles, namely:-

  • Gharials
    • IUCN: Critically Endangered
  • Mugger crocodile
    • IUCN Status: Vulnerable
  • Saltwater crocodile
    • IUCN Status: Least Concern.

 MUST READ: Thalattosuchian



Q.1) Consider the following fauna: (2023)

  1. Lion-tailed Macaque
  2. Malabar Civet
  3. Sambar Deer

How many of the above are generally nocturnal or most active after sunset?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding the Indian squirrels: (2023)

  1. They build nests by making burrows in the ground.
  2. They store their food materials like nuts and seeds in the ground.
  3. They are omnivorous.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Rudragiri hillock


  • Prelims –Art and Culture

Context: Recently, a fascinating fusion of rock art was spotted at Rudragiri hillock.

Key findings at Rudragiri Hillock:-

  • A combination of prehistoric rock paintings from the Mesolithic period and exquisite artwork from the Kakatiya dynasty were spotted. (UPSC CSE: Ancient rock paintings)
    • Mesolithic period: This period is generally considered to have occurred between approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago
    • During this time human societies were predominantly hunter-gatherer communities.
  • The first cave presents a narrative mural portraying the intense battle between the Vanara brothers, Vali and Sugriva.
  • Both figures stand on the battlefield wielding maces, their faces displaying fierce determination.
  • Rama, positioned behind Sugriva, shoots arrows at Vali.
  • A Ramayana fresco depicting Hanuman lifting the Sanjeevani hill with his right hand painted a conch and fire altars can be seen to his right and another prehistoric painting to the left.
  • In the middle cave, a grand sketch of Hanuman, accompanied by sacred symbols of the conch (Sankha) and the fire altar (Yagna Vedi), are seen.
  • The third cave houses the prehistoric rock paintings from the Mesolithic era.
  • Interestingly, the Kakatiya artist chose the same rock shelter to superimpose the elegant figure of Hanuman, who is portrayed in a unique ‘Anjali’ posture, folding his hands in a divine offering.
  • Ganapati Deva Maharaja (1199-1262 AD) who was the built the Muppavaram temple and a prominent figure of the Kakatiya dynasty is likely to be the patron of the rich ancient mural heritage found at Rudragiri.

About Rudragiri hillock:-

  • Location: Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is nestled amidst the Eastern Ghats and features five naturally formed rock shelters at its foothills, facing westward.
  • These shelters served as living quarters for people during the Mesolithic age around 5000 B.C.
  • They bear witness to the luminous rock paintings of that era. (UPSC CSE: Weathering of oldest rock paintings due to climate change)
  • Two natural caves at the southern end of the hillock also exhibit exceptional murals from the renowned Kakatiya kingdom.
    • Kakatiya kingdom: It was a south Indian dynasty that ruled most of the eastern Deccan region comprising present-day Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, and parts of eastern Karnataka and southern Odisha.
    • Time Period: between 12th and 14th centuries.
    • Capital: Orugallu, now known as

MUST READ: Ratnagiri’s pre-historic rock art



Q.1) With reference to Indian History, Alexander Rea, A. H. Longhurst, Robert Sewell, James Burgess and Walter Elliot were associated with (2023)

  1. archaeological excavations
  2. establishment of the English Press in Colonial India
  3. establishment of Churches in Princely States
  4. construction of railways in Colonial India

Q.2) Consider the following pairs: (2022)

Site of Ashoka’s major rock edicts                 State

  1. Dhauli                                                                Odisha
  2. Erragudi                                                            Andhra Pradesh
  3. Jaugada                                                             Madhya Pradesh
  4. Kalsi                                                                   Karnataka

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs


BIMARU’ Tag: What does this term mean?


  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister said the State has risen from its BIMARU tag and is now contributing positively to the process of India’s development.

About BIMARU states:

Source:  bqprime.com

  • The ‘BIMARU’ acronym has been used to refer to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, to imply they have lagged in terms of economic growth, healthcare, and education.
  • BIMARU means “sickly” in Hindi. The term was used to highlight the backwardness, especially with regard to poor performance in demographic indicators and contribution to population explosion.
  • These states had exceptionally high levels of mortality, morbidity, illiteracy, fertility, undernutrition, and social inequality and lagged behind in per capita income.
  • It was coined by Ashish Bose in 1980 to pinpoint India’s demographic malady.
  • Bose mainly argued that from a family planning and population control perspective, these four states, with their high population growth rates were likely to offset the gains made elsewhere in the country.

BIMARU States and Population Growth:

  • Population Growth: A report by the Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare revealed that BIMARU States (excluding the three newly carved out States) will contribute to 49.1% of the population increase in India between 2011 and 2036.
  • Implication: Population in Indian States also dictates the delimitation process or the number of seats allotted to them in Parliament.
    • Currently, the seats are proportional to the Indian population as of the 1971 census. It was frozen until 2001 (and has now further been extended to 2026) to give States time to meet family planning goals.
  • The Problem: The Southern States of India have repeatedly stressed that the division of seats and devolution of funds to States based on population are unfair to them, as they have better performed in family planning.

Reasons behind backwardness of BIMARU states:

  • Low per capita income: These have traditionally had low per capita income levels compared to other states in India, with Bihar having the lowest per capita income among Indian states.
  • High poverty rates: They have a high percentage of people living in poverty, with Bihar and Uttar Pradesh having some of the highest poverty rates in the country.
  • Low literacy rates: They have lower literacy rates than the national average, with Bihar having the lowest literacy rate among Indian states.
  • Poor healthcare indicators: They have traditionally had poor healthcare indicators, with high infant and maternal mortality rates.
  • Agriculture-based economy: These states are primarily agricultural states, with a significant percentage of the population engaged in agriculture and related activities.
  • Significant population: They are among the most populous states in India, with Uttar Pradesh being the most populous state in the country.

Overall, the BIMARU states have traditionally lagged behind other states in India in terms of economic and social development, although in recent years, there has been progress in improving development indicators.

Positive developments:

  • In recent years, some of these states, such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, have shown significant improvement.
  • In terms of economic growth, several of these states have experienced high growth rates in recent years, with Madhya Pradesh and Bihar recording growth rates of over 10% in 2019-20.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan have also recorded growth rates of over 7% in recent years.
  • There has also been progress in improving social indicators such as literacy rates and healthcare infrastructure.
  • For example, Bihar has seen a significant increase in literacy rates, with the state’s literacy rate increasing from 47% in 2001 to 63% in 2011.
  • Madhya Pradesh (MP): Madhya Pradesh ranks first in distributing Ayushman cards and other States are now adapting MP’s Janbhagidari model.
    • MP was the first to start a Public Service Guarantee Act (Lok Sewa Guarantee) to ensure that citizens get the benefit of better facilities.
  • Uttar Pradesh (UP): UP has revised its position in view of GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) estimates that indicate UP is now the third largest economy after Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Rajasthan: The Rajasthan Government recently signed 4192 Memoranda of Understanding involving investment commitment worth Rs 10.44 lakh crore ahead of the Investment Rajasthan Summit 2022.
  • Bihar: Improvement in road connectivity, better maintenance of law and order and efforts to raise the literacy levels have boosted the Bihar’s economy.

Suggestive measures: way forward

  • Human Resource Development: The two states share poor literacy levels and health status of its residents. Governments at center and state must work in close cooperation with local governments and administration to implement schemes in spheres of education, health and skill development.
  • Tourism: Bihar has a lot of potential for spiritual tourism whereas UP can be developed as a site of eco-tourism.
    • Tourism brings in employment for the local people and additionally forex for nation.
  • Investment: As has the case been in Gujarat, Tripura, and Andhra Pradesh, investment summits on similar lines to encourage private investment in these areas can help generate income, employment and infrastructure.
  • Infrastructure: Public investment is much needed for infrastructural development.
    • There is a lot of untapped potential for roadways, railways and inland waterways. NW-1 on Ganga River has not been used to the optimum.

Overall, while the BIMARU states have made progress in recent years, there is still a long way to go in terms of achieving more equitable development across the country.

Source:   Indian Express

Indus Waters Treaty 1960 (IWT)


  • Mains – GS 1 (Geography) and GS 2 (International Relations)

Context: India announced that it wants to modify the 62-year-old IWT with Pakistan, citing what it called Pakistan’s “intransigence” in resolving disputes over the Kishenganga and Ratle hydropower projects, both in Jammu and Kashmir.

About Indus Water Treaty:

  • In 1960, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty with the World Bank as a signatory of the pact.
  • Under the treaty, India got control over the three eastern rivers Beas, Ravi, and Sutlej while Pakistan got control of the western rivers Indus, Jhelum, and the Chenab.
  • According to the treaty, India has the right to generate hydroelectricity through the run-of-the-river (RoR) projects on the western rivers, which, are subject to specific criteria for design and operation.

Background of the Indus Water Dispute:

  • In 1947, the line of partition also cut the Indus river system into two parts.
  • Both the sides were dependent on water from the Indus river basin to keep their irrigation infrastructure functional.
  • In May 1948, initially the Inter-dominion accord was adopted.
  • This accord decided that India would supply water to Pakistan in exchange for an annual payment made by Pakistan.
    • This agreement however, soon disintegrated, as both the countries could not agree upon its common interpretations.
  • Due to the water-sharing dispute in 1951, both the countries applied to the World Bank for funding of their respective irrigation projects on the Indus and its tributaries.
    • At this point of time, the World Bank offered to mediate the conflict.
  • Finally, in 1960, after nearly a decade of fact-finding, negotiation, proposals by the World Bank and amendments to them, an agreement was reached between the two countries.
  • The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed by former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan.

Key Provisions:

Water Sharing:

  • The treaty prescribed how water from the six rivers of the Indus River System would be shared between India and Pakistan.
  • It allocated the three western rivers—Indus, Chenab and Jhelum—to Pakistan for unrestricted use, barring certain non-consumptive, agricultural and domestic uses by India and the three Eastern rivers—Ravi, Beas and Sutlej—were allocated to India for unrestricted usage.
  • This means that 80% of the share of water went to Pakistan, while leaving the rest 20% of water for use by India.

Permanent Indus Commission:

  • It also required both the countries to establish a Permanent Indus Commission constituted by permanent commissioners on both sides.
  • According to the provisions of the IWT, the Permanent Indus Commission is required to meet at least once a year.

Rights over Rivers:

  • While Pakistan has rights over the waters of Jhelum, Chenab and Indus, Annexure C of the IWT allows India certain agricultural uses, while Annexure D allows it to build ‘run of the river’ hydropower projects, meaning projects not requiring live storage of water.

Dispute Resolution Mechanism:

  • The IWT provides a three-step dispute resolution mechanism under Article IX of the Indus Waters Treaty, under which “questions” on both sides can be resolved at the Permanent Commission, or can also be taken up at the inter-government level.
  • In case of unresolved questions or “differences” between the countries on water sharing, such as technical differences, either side can approach the World Bank to appoint a Neutral Expert (NE) to come to a decision.
  • In addition, eventually, if either party is not satisfied with the NE’s decision or in case of “disputes” in the interpretation and extent of the treaty, matters can be referred to a Court of Arbitration.

Problem with Hydroelectric Projects:

  • Pakistan has objected to the two hydroelectric power projects (HEPs):
    • The 330 MW Kishenganga HEP on the Kishenganga River, a tributary of the river Jhelum.
    • The 850 MW Ratle HEP on the Chenab River.
  • Both India and Pakistan differed on whether the technical details of the hydel projects conformed with the treaty, given that the Jhelum and Chenab were part of the “western tributaries”.

Significance of the treaty

  • Testimonial to peaceful coexistence: It is a treaty that is often cited as an example of the possibilities of peaceful coexistence that exist despite the troubled relationship.
  • The IWT is the only agreement between India and Pakistan that has stood the test of time, through wars and terrorism.
  • Survived many hostilities: It has survived three crucial wars.
  • Most successful bilateral treaty: It is internationally regarded as an example of successful conflict resolution between two countries otherwise locked in a hostile relationship.

Way forward

In the last six decades, the Indus Waters Treaty has been successful in keeping the water sharing disputes at bay, which signifies its importance. However, in the present times of climate crisis coupled with natural disasters the demands of water sharing of both the countries have changed.

Therefore, there is a need to renegotiate the treaty terms, update certain technical specifications and expand the scope of the agreement to address demands of the two countries amid the rising climate crisis.

Source:   The Hindu

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1) Consider the following statements


The Koh-i-Noor Diamond, which is now among the jewels set in the British Crown, was mined and first owned by the Kakatiya Dynasty.


Hanamakonda was the first capital of the Kakatiyas.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q2) Consider the following statements


The Strait of the Dardanelles connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea.


Kerch Strait connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

  1. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
  2. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
  3. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
  4. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Q3) Consider the following pairs:

              Species                                         IUCN Status

  1. Saltwater crocodile:                          Vulnerable
  2. Mugger crocodile:                             Critically Endangered
  3. Gharials:                                           Least Concern

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. None

Mains Practice Questions

Q.1) Can Government’s “Aspirational Districts Programme” manage to uplift the so-called BIMARU states. Discuss (250 words)

Q.2) There is a need to renegotiate the Indus Water Treaty of 1960 with Pakistan in the light of present-day challenges including the climate change and global warming, Critically examine.(250 words).

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 20th July 2023 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR 19th July – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – a

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – b

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