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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 27th December 2022

  • IASbaba
  • December 27, 2022
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Dark patterns

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

Context: Some Internet-based firms have been tricking users into agreeing to certain conditions or clicking a few links. Such acceptances and clicks are flooding inboxes of the users with promotional emails they never wanted, making it hard to unsubscribe or request deletion. These are examples of “dark patterns,” also known as “deceptive patterns.”

About Dark patterns:

  • These patterns are unethical user interface designs that deliberately make users’ Internet experience harder or even exploit them.
  • In turn, they benefit the company or platform employing the designs.
  • By using dark patterns, digital platforms take away a user’s right to full information about the services they are using and their control over their browsing experience.
  • The term is credited to UI/UX (user interface/user experience) researcher and designer Harry Brignull, who has been working to catalogue such patterns and the companies using them since around 2010.

Use of Dark patterns:

  • Social media companies and Big Tech firms such as Apple, Amazon, Skype, Facebook, LinkedIn, Microsoft, and Google use dark or deceptive patterns to downgrade the user experience to their advantage.
  • In social media, LinkedIn users often receive unsolicited, sponsored messages from influencers.

Concerns about Dark patterns:

  • Dark patterns endanger the experience of Internet users and make them more vulnerable to financial and data exploitation by Big Tech firms.
  • Disabling this option is a difficult process with multiple steps that require users to be familiar with the platform controls.
  • Dark patterns confuse users, introduce online obstacles, make simple tasks time-consuming, and have users sign up for unwanted services/products.

Source:  The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following communication technologies:

  1. Closed-circuit Television
  2. Radio Frequency Identification
  3. Wireless Local Area Network

Which of the above are considered of the Short-Range devices/technologies? (2022)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to visible light communication (VLC) technology, which of the following statements are correct? (2020)

  1. VLC uses electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths 375 to 780nm
  2. VLC is known as long-range optical wireless communication
  3. VLC can transmit large amounts of data faster than Bluetooth
  4. VLC has no electromagnetic interference

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 only

Abetment of suicide

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Governance

Context: After a TV star allegedly killed herself on the set of a TV show, her co-actor has been booked for abetment to suicide.

About abetment of suicide:

  • If any person commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide shall be punished under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 with either a jail term of up to 10 years or a fine or both.
  • Abetment of suicide is a serious offence that is tried in a Sessions court and is cognizable, non-bailable and non-compoundable.
  • A cognizable offence is one in which a police officer can make an arrest without a warrant from a court.
  • A non-bailable offence means bail is granted to the accused at the discretion of the court and not as a matter of right.
  • A non-compoundable offence is one in which the case cannot be withdrawn by the complainant even when the complainant and the accused have reached a compromise.
  • Despite the intention of the accused to drive a person to commit suicide, abetment of suicide is not the same as murder.
  • In the case of a murder, the final ‘act’ of causing the death of a person is committed by the accused, which is not the case in abetment of suicide.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the writs issued by the Courts in India, consider the following statements:

  1. Mandamus will not lie against a private organization unless it is entrusted with a public duty.
  2. Mandamus will not lie against a Company even though it may be a Government Company.
  3. Any public minded person can be a petitioner to move the Court to obtain the writ of Quo Warranto.

Which of the statements given above are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements:

  1. Judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the concerned magistrate and such accused is locked up in police station, not in jail.
  2. During judicial custody, the police officer in charge of the case is not allowed to interrogate the suspect without the approval of the court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2021)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Tel Tsaf

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Art and Culture and places in news

Context: Recently, new archaeological findings from Tel Tsaf of Israel have shown the presence of cotton fibres originating from Indus Valley which is 5200 BCE, or 7,200 years ago.

About the findings:

  • Tel Tsaf, a Middle Chalcolithic site, is located in the central Jordan Valley.
  • Cotton fibres found at Tel Tsaf are younger than the cotton strings found at Mehrgarh copper beads.
  • Cotton fibres and other bast fibres discovered are dyed with multiple colours that indicates complex social activities in the region.
  • Excavations unearthed has four architectural complexes where each consists of a closed courtyard with round or rectangular rooms and numerous rounded silos.
  • Burials were found within or adjacent to silos.
  • Common findings include- flints, pottery, animal bones, 150 clay sealings (bullae) and imported items like artifacts of basalt and obsidian, beads, sea shells, Nilotic shell and pottery items of Ubaid culture of north Syria.

Source: The times of Israel


Right to repair portal

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology

In News Food and Consumer Affairs Minister Piyush Goyal introduced a host of new initiatives, including a right to repair portal and an NTH mobile app and opened new premises of the National Consumer Helpline centre in the national capital.

  • Consumer empowerment was going to be a paramount feature of a developed India and called for keeping consumers at the centre of all the initiatives.

About the initiative:

  • On the ‘right to repair’ portal, manufacturers would share the manual of product details with customers so that they could either repair by self, by third parties, rather than depend on original manufacturers. Initially, mobile phones, electronics, consumer durables, automobile and farming equipment’s would be covered.
  • Under the Consumer Protection law, a complaint is required to be disposed of within 90 days of its filing and within 150 days wherever expert evidence is required to be taken.
  • This reveals that the consumer commissions have not been able to meet the expectations of the consumers and have in fact been under severe strain to fulfil the objectives for which they were enacted
  • The disposal rate of complaints in the consumer commissions had been on an average of 89%. Since inception of consumer commissions, there was still a backlog of 6.24 lakh cases.
  • There are 673 consumer commissions in the country.

Consumer protection act 2019

  • It replaced the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and came into force on 20th July 2020.
  • The Act includes establishment of the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers.
  • Consumer Rights include:
  • The right to be protected against the marketing of goods, products or services which are hazardous to life and property;
  • The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods, products or services, so as to protect consumers from unfair trade practices
  • The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods, products or services at competitive prices;
  • The right to be heard and to be assured that consumer’s interests will receive due consideration at appropriate fora
  • The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practice or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers;
  • The right to consumer awareness
  • The 1986 also had same rights but was limited to goods. But the 2019 act expanded the scope by inclusion of services.

MUST READ: CCPA

Source: The Hindu


Khanij Bidesh India Limited

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Economy

In News: Khanij Bidesh India Limited (KABIL), expressed interest to partner with CAMYEN, Argentina recently for prospecting two areas identified with the objective of establishing projects for extraction of lithium in due course of time.

  • KABIL has signed three MoUs with JEMSE, CAMYEN and YPF (Govt. Companies of Argentina) in July – Sep, 2020 to explore sourcing of lithium and other mineral assets in Argentina’s in la Aguada and El Indio in Catamarca.
  • It also signed MoUs with Australia and Chile

KABIL:

  • It is a Joint Venture Company set up with the participation of three Central Public Sector Enterprises namely, National Aluminium Company Ltd.(NALCO), Hindustan Copper Ltd.(HCL) and Mineral Exploration Company Ltd. (MECL).
  • It was formed in 2019 for sourcing strategic minerals like lithium and cobalt from overseas locations.
  • It is under the Ministry of Mines.
  • The equity participation between NALCO, HCL and MECL is in the ratio of 40:30:30

Aim:

  • KABIL has been created in a bid to ensure India’s mineral security and to attain self-reliance in the area of strategic and critical minerals. KABIL has been mandated to identify and acquire overseas mineral assets like Lithium, Cobalt etc.
  • KABIL ensure mineral security of the nation as well as help in realizing overall objective of import substitution.

Functions:

  • The KABIL would carry out identification, acquisition, exploration, development, mining and processing of strategic minerals overseas for commercial use and meeting country’s requirement of these minerals.
  • The sourcing of these minerals or metals is to done by creating trading opportunities, G2G collaborations with the producing countries or strategic acquisitions or investments in the exploration and mining assets of these minerals in the source countries.
  • The new company will help in building partnerships with other mineral rich countries like Australia and those in Africa and South America, where Indian expertise in exploration and mineral processing will be mutually beneficial bringing about new economic opportunities.

Source: PIB


Veer bal diwas

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current affairs

In News: PM participates in historic programme marking ‘Veer Bal Diwas’ at Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium in Delhi

  • During the programme, the Prime Minister attended a ‘Shabad Kirtan’ performed by about three hundred Baal Kirtanis.
  • The Prime Minister also flagged off a march-past by about three thousand children in Delhi on the first Veer Bal Diwas
  • Union Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs Shri Hardeep Puri; Chief Minister of Punjab Shri Bhagwant Mann; Chief Minister of Maharashtra Shri Eknath Shinde, Minister of State for Culture Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal and Ms. Meenakshi Lekhi  also graced the event.

Veer bal diwas:

  • Organised by Ministry of Culture
  • To mark the martyrdom of sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh – Sahibzadas Baba Zorawar Singh Ji and Baba Fateh Singh Ji
  • Veer Bal Diwas will remind us of the immense contribution of ten Sikh gurus and the sacrifice of the Sikh tradition for protecting the honour of the nation.

Sri Guru Gobind Singh:

  • Born as Gobind Rai, he was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual leader, warrior, poet and philosopher.
  • He formally became the leader and protector of the Sikhs at the age of nine after his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru, was killed by Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam.
  • Guru Gobind Ji led the Sikh community through his teachings and philosophy and soon gained historical importance.
  • He was responsible for institutionalising the Khalsa, who played a significant role in protecting the Sikhs after his death.
  • His compositions were included in Adi Granth complied by Guru Arjan Dev.
  • He fought against the Mughals in the Battle of Muktsar in 1705.
  • He also wrote the Zafarnama which was a letter to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
  • The auspicious occasion of Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti is also known as the Prakash Parv is the birth anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh and falls every year in December or January.
  • Guru Gobind Singh Ji was known for his inclination towards poetry and the philosophies and writings he stood by.
  • Under his guidance, his followers adhered to a strict code.
  • To celebrate Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti, Sikhs around the world visit Gurudwaras, where prayer meetings take place in honour of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
  • People participate in processions organised by the Gurudwaras, hold kirtans and also do Seva, a significant part of the Sikh religion, for the community.

Source: PIB

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following Bhakti Saints: (2013)

  1. Dadu Dayal
  2. Guru Nanak
  3. Tyagaraja

Who among the above was/were preaching when the Lodi dynasty fell and Babur took over?

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Srimukhalingam temple

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Art and Culture

In News: Union government urged to include Srimukhalingam temple in UNESCO list

About temple:

                      

  • The Srimukhalingam temple was also known as Kalinganagaram.
  • It was the capital of the early Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
  • Located in Jalumuru mandal of Srikakulam district Andhra Pradesh, near Vamsadhara River.
  • Constructed in the 9th century CE , it is built in the Kalinga architectural style.
  • Dedicated to lord Srimukha Lingeswara (a form of Shiva).
  • Here, Shiva Lingams do not have facial carvings and hence the temple differs from other shiva temples.
  • It is also known as Dakshina Kaasi.
  • It is believed that visiting this temple and taking a dip in the river relieves one from the cycle of rebirth.

Source: Thehindu


Regenerative Farming

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Syllabus

  • Mains – Economy and Environment

Context: Recently, the experience of farmers in Madhya Pradesh who follow regenerative farming methods finds the reduced need for frequent irrigation which conserves water and energy.

About Regenerative Farming:

  • It is a farming and grazing practices that benefits by reversing climate change, by rebuilding soil organic matter and restoring degraded soil biodiversity.
  • It aims to improve soil and water for better agriculture in future by increasing soil organic matter.
  • It uses methods of chemical-less farming by using natural inputs, manures, mulching and cultivation practices such as crop rotation, diversification, multi-cropping, sowing of diverse and native varieties.
  • Natural inputs help improve soil structure and its organic carbon content.
  • Planting water-guzzling and water-efficient crops together or in alternating cycles reduces the frequency and intensity of irrigation.

Need of Regenerative agriculture in India:

  • Soil degradation: Agriculture today, including the use of heavy machinery, fertilizers and pesticides to maximize food production, is contributing to soil degradation and loss.
    • Within 50 years, there may not be enough soil left to feed the world, according to the regenerative farming organization Regeneration International.
  • Climate Change: Intensive farming also churns up CO2 naturally stored in soil and releases it into the atmosphere. This contributes to the global warming that is driving climate change.
    • Agriculture accounts for over a third of greenhouse gas emissions globally, according to the United Nations (UN).
  • Extreme events: Damaged soil and eroded land can make environments more vulnerable to extreme weather events like flooding, which are increasing in frequency and intensity as the Earth warms.

Potential Benefits of Regenerative Agriculture

  • Multiple benefits: Regenerative farming can improve:
    • Crop yields
    • Volume of crops produced
    • Health of soil
    • Soil’s ability to retain water
    • Reducing soil erosion.
  • Feeding people: Improved yields will help feed the world as the global population grows.
  • Environmental benefits: Regenerative farming can also reduce emissions from agriculture and turn the croplands and pastures, which cover up to 40% of Earth’s ice-free land area, into carbon sinks.
    • These are environments that naturally absorb CO2 from the atmosphere.

Major Challenges associated with Agriculture

  • According to the UN’s World Water Development Report, 2022, the country extracts 251 cubic km or more than a quarter of the world’s groundwater withdrawal each year.
    • 90 per cent of this water is used for agriculture.
  • No gain in production: A study by the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, shows that over 39 million hectares (ha) of area in the country under wheat, rice and maize have not shown improvement in the past decade.
  • Groundwater: The Green Revolution of the 1960s pulled India from the brink of starvation, transformed the country’s ability to feed itself and turned it into a big food exporter.
    • But the revolution also made India the world’s biggest extractor of groundwater.
  • Degrading soil health: A 2022 report by Delhi-based think tank Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), State of Bio Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizers in India, shows the severe and widespread deficiency of organic carbon and micronutrients in Indian soils.
  • Lack of scientific study: Civil society organizations and farmers do not have the capacity to conduct long-term studies.

Way Forward:

In India, the Union government is promoting regenerative agriculture with an aim to reduce application of chemical fertilisers and pesticides and to lower input costs. States like Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Sikkim and Gujarat too have introduced schemes to promote it.

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, healthy soil helps in better water storage, transmission, filtering and reduces agricultural run-off. Studies have established that one per cent increase in soil organic matter (an indicator of soil health) per 0.4 ha increases water storage potential by more than 75,000 litres.

Thus, the concerted research is required to understand the role of regenerative agriculture in saving water. The scientific findings will further help inform policy measures and future initiatives.

Source:  DownToEarth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Climate Group is an international non-profit organisation that drives climate action by building large networks and runs them.
  2. The International Energy Agency in partnership with the Climate Group launched a global initiative “EP100”.
  3. EP100 brings together leading companies committed to driving innovation in energy efficiency and increasing competitiveness while delivering on emission reduction goals.
  4. Some Indian companies are members of EP100.
  5. The International Energy Agency is the Secretariat to the “Under2 Coalition”.

Which of the statements given above are correct? (2022)

  1. 1,2, 4 and 5
  2. 1,3 and 4 only
  3. 2,3 and 5 only
  4. 1,2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2) Which one of the following best describes the term “greenwashing”? (2022)

  1. Conveying a false impression that a company’s products are eco-friendly and environmentally sound
  2. Non-inclusion of ecological/ environmental costs in the Annual Financial Statements of a country
  3. Ignoring the consequences disastrous ecological while infrastructure development undertaking
  4. Making mandatory provisions for environmental costs in a government project/programme

Sixth Mass Extinction

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 3 (Environment and Ecology)

Context: Recently a new study led by the University of Hawaii claimed that Earth is witnessing its sixth mass extinction event.

Highlights of the study:

  • Studies show that loss of species is taking place across all ecosystems — from land to oceans, from the sea surface to the yet-to-be-fully-explored seafloors, from forests to desert, and from swamps to rivers. This proves that a mass extinction event is taking place.
  • The Living Planet Report by WWF: According to the report, there has been a 69 per cent decline in the wildlife populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish, across the globe in the last 50 years.
  • Marine species: Scientists have also warned of an imminent mass annihilation of marine species similar to one 250 million years ago that wiped out most lives in oceans.
  • Migratory fish species: Habitat loss and barriers to migration routes were responsible for about half of the threats to monitored migratory fish species.
  • Human induced: Humans have annihilated 83 per cent of all wild mammals and half of all plants, according to a census of the biomass on Earth.

About Mass Extinction:

  • A mass extinction is a short period of geological time in which a high percentage of biodiversity, or distinct species—bacteria, fungi, plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, invertebrates—dies out.
  • In this definition, it’s important to note that, in geological time, a ‘short’ period can span thousands or even millions of years.
  • The planet has experienced five previous mass extinction events, the last one occurring 65.5 million years ago which wiped out the dinosaurs from existence.
  • Experts now believe we’re in the midst of a sixth mass extinction.

Causes of mass extinction:

  • The “Living Planet Report 2020” points out five major reasons behind the biodiversity loss across the planet:
    • Changes in land and sea use (habitat loss and degradation),
    • Overexploitation of species,
    • Invasive species and disease,
    • Pollution and
    • Climate change.
  • Pollution and Climate Change: In the Asia Pacific region, including India which is experiencing a loss of species higher than the global average, habitat degradation is the biggest trigger, followed by species overexploitation and invasive species and disease. The role of pollution and climate change was proportionately higher at 16 per cent.
  • Invasive alien species: Invasive alien species have spread across and populated faster.
    • They have been regarded as the most serious drivers of biodiversity loss across the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Overexploitation of species: In just the last three centuries, global forest areas have shrunk by 40 per cent.
    • Every year, to meet the timber needs from natural sources, the Earth is stripped of 100 million trees.
    • They store 50 per cent of the world’s terrestrial carbon and provide a buffer from extreme weather, such as hurricanes and tsunamis.
  • Human induced: The current rate and scale of extinction is unprecedented and is being caused majorly by humans.
    • From greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion to deforestation, plastic pile-up and the illegal animal trade, humans have actively stripped the world of some species and threatened many more.
  • Change in ocean circulation pattern and climate cooling: Cooling climate likely changed the ocean circulation pattern. This caused a disruption in the flow of oxygen-rich water from the shallow seas to deeper oceans, leading to a mass extinction of marine creatures.

Consequences of mass extinction:

  • Interdependent ecology: Losing species at a such an alarming rate has a far-reaching consequence on the landmass.
    • Each and every being is part of the complex ecosystem of Earth, where every existence has a reason and is rational.
  • Each has an ecosystem service for the other that has evolved with them over billions of years, as they carved out their own society or ecological niche. If one fails, the other stutters.
  • Moving towards poles: The IPCC report cites that half of all species are moving towards the poles or to a higher elevation to adapt to the new planetary climate.
    • At the sea, due to the warming, species have travelled pole-ward at the rate of 59 km per decade on average.
  • Missing SDG targets: The world may miss the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets by a wide margin if human civilisation does not pull up its socks and promptly acts to protect the natural order.

Suggestions measures:

  • Regulating wildlife markets: In the wake of the current pandemic, wildlife markets have been thrust into the spotlight as not only being environmentally irresponsible, but potentially dangerous to human health through zoonotic diseases that jump from animals to humans such as COVID-19.
    • These markets, trading live exotic animals or products derived from them, are found worldwide.
  • Treating them as one: Biodiversity loss and climate crisis should be dealt with as one instead of two different issues as they are intertwined.
  • Monitoring species population: One of the best ways to help prevent species from becoming extinct is to monitor their populations and identify any problems before it’s too late to help.
    • Currently camera traps and surveys conducted on foot or from aircraft are the main method of data collection.
  • 30X30: Our leaders can support the America the Beautiful initiative to conserve 30% of US lands and waters by 2030.
  • UN Biodiversity Summit: US leadership can play a critical role beside 195 other countries and agree to new ambitious global goals on biodiversity and how they can be financed and implemented.
  • Institutional efforts: From tackling global pollution emissions in the 2016 Paris Agreement to the U.K.’s Global Resource Initiative that combats deforestation, legislation will always be at the forefront of the fight against mass extinction.

Source: DownToEarth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) The term “sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction” is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of   (2018)

  1. Widespread monoculture Practices agriculture and large-scale commercial farming with indiscriminate use of chemicals in many parts of the world that may result in the loss of good native ecosystems.
  2. Fears of a possible collision of a meteorite with the Earth in the near future in the manner it happened 65million years ago that caused the mass extinction of many species including those of dinosaurs.
  3. Large scale cultivation of genetically modified crops in many parts of the world and promoting their cultivation in other Parts of the world which may cause the disappearance of good native crop plants and the loss of food biodiversity.
  4. Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss, natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

Good Governance Day

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 2 Governance, GS 4 Ethics

Context:

  • “Good Governance Day” is celebrated on December 25 marking the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister and Bharatiya Janata Party doyen Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
  • Firstly, the day is meant to pay homage to the visionary and reformer who fast-tracked all-round development.
  • Secondly, it was to use the day as a way to increase awareness of government services and accountability among people and inculcate “good governance” as a habit for civil servants.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee: a foundational figure for the BJP

  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee was born on December 25, 1924 in Gwalior, present-day Madhya Pradesh.
  • A poet-politician, he joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1939, becoming a pracharak (full-time worker) in 1947.
  • He held his first major national position as the External Affairs Minister in Morarji’s post Emergency government in 1975.
  • While that government soon fell (in 1977), Vajpayee had earned major plaudits for his tenure, with his UN General Assembly speech in Hindi drawing praise from all quarters.
  • Books written includes – National Integration – 1961, Dynamics of an Open Society – 1977, Kucha Lekha, Kucha Bhashana – 1996,  Rajaniti ki Rapatili Rahem – 1997, etc.

An able administrator

  • While he first became Prime Minister in 1996 (for 16 days) it was his 1998-1999 and 1999-2004 terms that left a lasting impact on the nation.
  • Under his tenure, India formally became a nuclear power despite significant criticism from the West and ably faced war and peace with Pakistan.
  • India undertook massive public welfare projects including Sarva Shikshya Abhiyaan and PM Gramin Sadak Yojana, and ushered in a new era of foreign investment and international relations, especially with the US.

Good governance

  • Governance refers to all processes of governing, the institutions, processes and practices through which issues of common concern are decided upon and regulated.
  • Good governance refers primarily to  the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realisation of human rights.
  • This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them
  • Six Indicators for Promotion of Good Governance
  • Transparency & Accountability
  • Non-violence and constancy in Political system
  • Effectiveness of Government long and short Policy
  • Eradication of Corruption
  • Quality of Governance
  • Rule of law

Benefits of good governance:

  • Efficient Processes – To start, good governance ensures consistency and repeatability in a corporation. In turn, the overall productivity and efficiency of the organization are boosted.
  • Visibility of Errors – when the organization adopts the principles of good governance, transparency and accountability become the watchword.
  • Public trust and Goodwill –  The overall output of good governance is the right products and services.
  • Accountability and responsibility can be ascertained and right course of action can be taken easily.
  • Financial Sustainability – Good governance significantly reduces unnecessary expenses and spend more on progressive needs.

Good Governance through e-Governance

  • Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) with their emergence have led to development, growth and opportunities throughout the world.
  • The main objective of e-governance is to simplify and improve governance and enable people’s participation in governance through internet.
  • E- governance is applied in following ways:
  • Putting government laws and legislations online.
  • Putting information relating to government plans, budgets, expenditures and performances online.
  • Putting online key judicial decisions like environment decisions etc. which are important to citizens and create precedence for future actions.
  • Making available contact addresses of local, regional, national and international officials online
  • Making available the reports of enquiry committees or commissions online.
  • According to the Good Governance Day Report published in 2014 by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology – Highlights the key achievements and activities of the ministry that have played an instrumental role in furthering the cause of Good Governance.

Challenges of good governance:

  • Capacity Building – Access to information, participation, innovation and accountability are needed to build an environment for capacity building.
  • Administrative Responses – people seeking access to healthcare or livelihood facilities are required to pay several visits to multiple government offices located in different parts of the district headquarters.
  • Karnataka, for example, has made available land records for some 20 million farmers by placing them online under its Bhoomi Initiative.
  • Corruption at various levels such as arising due to centralization of power and authority
  • Criminalization of politics and consequent violations of human rights.
  • Weak legislators with criminal records, poor knowledge about development issues and low level of education
  • Poor people’s participation in development processes and less active civil society
  • Poorly empowered grassroots democratic institutions, poor coordination among the political, administrative and community level organizations and institutions.
  • Delay in delivery of judicial decisions and poor participation of disadvantaged in decision making process.

Way forward

  • Public sector modernisation and good governance is no longer an option, but a necessity.
  • It will help governments respond to changing societal needs and maintain competitiveness in an uncertain international environment.
  • This can be achieved through initiatives such as Good Governance Index 2019; which is a scientifically prepared tool based on various parameters of good governance which assess the level of any state at a given point of time and help in shaping future development.

Source: Indianexpress


Baba’s Explainer – Revisiting Corporate Social Responsibility

Revisiting Corporate Social Responsibility

Syllabus

  • GS-3: Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment. 

Context: In developing economies like India, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is seen as part of corporate philanthropy in which corporations augment the social development to support the initiatives of the government.

  • India became the first country to legislate the need to undertake CSR activities and mandatorily report CSR initiatives under Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • However, the current CSR frameworks have some flaws, such as transparency, lack of community participation in CSR activities, and lack of timely audits.
  • In order to achieve sustainable development, India should streamline its CSR framework and focus on collective betterment through shared responsibility.

Read Complete Details on Revisiting Corporate Social Responsibility


Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) With reference to ‘Dakshin Kaasi’, refers to which of the following temples of India:

  1. Srimukhalingam temple
  2. Brihadeshwar temple
  3. Guruvayur Temple
  4. Hampi temple

Q.2) With reference to Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA), consider the following statements:

  1. It comes under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  2. It is established under the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements regarding Khanij Bidesh India Limited (KBIL):

  1. It was formed in 2019 for sourcing strategic minerals like lithium and cobalt from overseas locations
  2. It is under the Ministry of Earth Sciences
  3. It is a Joint Venture Company set up with the participation of three Central Public Sector Enterprises

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 2 and 3

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’ 27th December 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st


ANSWERS FOR 26th December – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – a

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